The first study is either doctored or flawed. I've contacted researchers who have written up such nonsense, and they won't even supply a fellow scholar such as myself the survey forms they use. There is no way to know exactly what happened here, if anything of note. We don't know if they were all eating the same amount of calories. We don't know if the researchers are classifying lard as "saturated fat" when in fact it is 39% or less saturated. We do know that polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid peroxidation, which directly causes oxidation of cholesterol, and that in turn causes the inflammatory process that leads to "heart disease." The biochemical mechanism is known, and has been known for a decade or so, at the very least. If someone eats a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, but also eats plenty of antioxidants, and does not eat too many calories, this is not nearly as dangerous as the typical American diet, which is high in polyunsaturates, low in antioxidants, and very high in calories. But the first study really is not science, unless or until the raw data is available. And if that is done, it is likely that the key cofactors were not documents, such as the caloric loads, the exact foods consumed, the antioxidant contents of the foods consumed by the two groups, etc. Ask yourself this question, if people should be eating large amounts of polyunsaturates, why are governments such as the US no longer recommeding them after a couple of decades of doing so? Now all we hear about is the how great monounsaturates are, but that was what they used to say about polyunsaturates in the 1970s and 80s. What changed? They realized how dangerous polyunsaturates are but they couldn't come out and say it because they'd be making themselves look really stupid. Now they're telling people to eat fish, which isn't as bad because most people won't eat too much fish (due to taste), whereas a primary fat source is needed and would be dangerous if it was high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Notice that they say not to fry it, and that's because doing so makes it more susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Isn't it interesting, though, that they don't tell you that the Eskimos, who ate plenty of fish but didn't fry it, rarely lived beyond their mid 40s. Why? Because omega 3 PUFAs and omeg 6 PUFAs are like two sides of a coin bearing a contagious disease. Omega 3s are vasodilative, and over time your arteries basically disintegrate, whereas the omega 6s do the opposite, and you get plaques and clots. The two counteract each other, so that's why there seems to be a "health benefit" to people on a high omega 6 diet who eat some omega 3s (as opposed to those who eat nearly none), but both can be highly susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Unless you keep calories down and eat plenty of antioxidants, you are setting yourself up for disaster, though you might get the extra few months or so of life the epidemiological studies predict. However, if the omega 6s get stored up in your body as arachidonic acid, you're in for big trouble. Do a pubmed.com search for arachidonic and you'll see what I mean. Better to avoid unsaturated fatty acids, except for tiny amounts, such as in organic olives and high-quality tahini sauce (I use .5 teaspoon of tahini to flavor a Sweet & Sour Asian dish). Butter, coconut oil, raw cheeses, dark chocolate, shellfish, and eggs are okay fat/protein sources, but don't cook while exposed to air. I warm up these foods in a saucepan on a low setting. Using tomato sauce or red wine (and other antioxidant rich liquids) in the saucepan further helps to prevent lipid peroxidation during this mild cooking process. This seems to be the reason for the so-called French Paradox, so plenty of full-fat, organic, non-homogenized dairy or shellfish (make sure it doesn't have carrageenan in it) is fine at low temperature cooking, but avoid meat and scrambled eggs (boiling eggs is okay). Good quality meat is supposedly okay in small amounts if you boil it or eat it raw (after more than 2 weeks in the freezer, but I don't really care for the taste anyway).