Cervical Cancer is an Infectious Disease

Discussion in 'Health and medical' started by Yelxol, Feb 10, 2004.

  1. Yelxol

    Yelxol Guest

    This is a repost of an item originally posted to sci.med on 02/06/04
    which has disappeared from the radar:




    True Fact: Cervical cancer is an infectious disease, which is transmitted via the human
    Papillomavirus (HPV), and one can be cross-infected with this virus via a fomite [1], i.e. a non-
    sterile medical device.

    Unproven, Self-Serving Claim:

    infected years before. HPV can live in the body for years, even a lifetime, without any indication."
    A Large Medical Provider

    . [Author's Note: Please forgive the repetitiveness
    . of some of this information. I am particularly
    . outraged with regard to this subject, and have
    . sacrificed good penmanship in an effort to bring
    . your attention to this matter.]

    It is remarkable that the above-quoted canard concerning the lifetime dormancy of HPV - which has
    little to no bases of proof - has been broadcast to and blindly accepted by ninety-nine percent
    (99%) of the U.S. medical community – in lock step, Machiavellian construct. Their purpose for
    expending such extensive efforts is completely self-serving, utterly beguiling and certainly not in
    the best interest of the good health of women.

    Beginning with medical school, many physicians are taught to never tell a patient they do not know
    the answer to a patient's question, and one way they avoid the appearance of not knowing is to
    parrot what they have heard from another physician, who is, by default, a medical expert.

    Another method is for a physician to simply repeat something he has read in some drug
    distributor's medical summary or data he has skimmed over in a medical journal – which was written
    by… a medical expert.

    This "medical hearsay" quickly becomes known as "common knowledge" in the medical community because
    it is passed from the second physician to three or four other colleagues, each of whom pass it on to
    four or five associates… and so on. (As referred to in the Introduction)

    When the disinformation reaches this level, we refer to it as Medspeak.

    To repeat something we hear from another person is not necessarily a bad thing; however, when the
    information repeated is directly related to a serious health matter, we should always be sure the
    information is accurate.

    This is definitely true if we have reason to believe the person to whom we are giving the
    information will trust – categorically – what we are telling them, and will make life changing
    decisions based on the information given them. Such is the role of the physician, and to knowingly
    breach that trust is grossly irresponsible and clearly unforgivable.

    The HPV Dormancy Misrepresentation is such a breach, but in most cases, it may be given unknowingly
    through ignorance, mixed with a strong dose of Medspeak, which the physician considers to be "common

    A typical patient diagnosed with HPV will have questions, such as where, when and how. Here is a
    shortened version of the misleading message that such a patient will be given:

    "Once contracted, the human Papillomavirus may (can or will [2]) remain dormant and undetectable in
    the human body for decades, then, with no explainable reason, no triggering mechanism, may (can or
    will) suddenly become very active."

    However, let us be perfectly clear on this… There is credible evidence that shows the medical
    profession manufactured this myth and set in place a methodical plan of action as a scheme to cover
    up the very real probability that large numbers of women have become, and continue to become,
    infected with cancer-causing HPV in their medical providers' office environments. In fact:

    No study exists that demonstrates HPV remains dormant in the human body for decades!

    The fundamental mechanics necessary for such a study extend the imagination beyond the limits of
    credulity, with the major dilemma in managing such a project being the re-infection component, a
    completely unmanageable control factor for human subjects.

    In addition, it would be necessary to closely track the control group for fifteen to twenty years or
    more, unless an extrapolation technique were implemented based on the results of fewer years.
    However, such assumptions would not render reliable, peer-review data.

    Nevertheless, regardless of the fact that there is no basis for the dormancy theory, the surge of
    "medical hearsay" that parrots this beguiling Medspeak dominates the Internet landscape.
    Approximately 1,500 web sites – most associated with the medical community – claim, affirm and
    reaffirm this misconception, which is now repeated by most physicians and nurses.

    In the most favorable light, this scheme underlines the fact that the practice of medicine is not a
    science. In the worst light, it points to a devious, self-aggrandizing, self-serving, well-thought-
    out strategy to protect its ‘good name' and, more importantly, its assets.

    Although physicians and other medical providers assert long-term HPV dormancy as though it is a
    proven fact, it is important that the public knows the truth:

    There is much credible evidence to support the converse, that: HPV does not remain dormant in the
    human body for several years, and certainly not for decades or for a person's lifetime. There are
    thousands of individuals who are witness to this fact.

    Several studies have been conducted for the purpose of determining whether HPV remains dormant.
    Although they are doomed from the outset – based on the above reasoning – all of them concluded on
    the side of the fact that HPV does not remain dormant.

    Here is a summary of a report by "Infectious Disease News" concerning the latest study: ..."It has
    long been suggested that all HPV infections result in lifelong carriage of the organism and that the
    virus may remain "clinically silent," but a 1993 study, and the recently completed follow-up study,
    produced contrasting results, according to lead author Anna-Barbara Moscicki, MD, Univ of California
    at San Francisco. ...The first study suggested that some women infected with HPV appear to eliminate
    the infection over a short time and are at low risk — or no risk — of developing disease. The newest
    study yielded even more promising results. ...Approximately 300 age-eligible women were screened…
    ...Based on the original 1993 study, the women were followed for a mean of 27.6 months with an
    average of six visits… ...Moscicki said (the study) suggests that the cervices of patients with
    repeatedly negative PCR results are free of the HPV types tested and that the women had neither
    latent nor active HPV cervical infection." ...Variability of (HPV) DNA testing in a longitudinal
    cohort of young women; Moscicki AB, et.al.; Obstet Gynecol 1993 Oct;82(4 Pt 1):578-85

    With the advent of the Internet, "medical common knowledge" that has developed from years of
    "medical hearsay" has been propagated to a completely different plane. Patients now surf the
    Internet, researching their personal health issues. Doctors refer patients to various websites,
    neglecting their professional duty to counsel patients or to provide printed, explanatory materials.
    When patients find pertinent information from a noted health or medical entity's Internet site, the
    validity of that information is seemingly verified. Nevertheless, that certainly does not guarantee
    the information is accurate, true, or benign in its message!

    Listed at the back of this book at reference [3] are a few examples of the Medspeak that relate
    directly to the subject, "The HPV Dormancy Misrepresentation". If you visit the referenced web sites
    you will see that most of them simply parrot the same data. Notice the chronological progression
    from may… to can… to usually… and from dormant, to dormant for years, to many years, to forever.

    "HPV may remain dormant," www.womenshealthinthenews.net "HPV can remain dormant," www.umass.edu "HPV
    can remain dormant for months," www.3m.com "HPV can remain dormant for years," www.hscbklyn.edu "HPV
    can remain dormant for many years," www.forums.obgyn.net "HPV usually remains dormant,"
    www.uhs.berkeley.edu "HPV usually remains dormant forever," www.navymedicine.med.navy.mil "HPV can
    remain dormant in your system for the rest of your life," www.healthboards.com

    As with the term *Standard-of-Care*, if you say it enough, everyone will believe it… well,
    most everyone.

    Unless you were specifically watching for it, you would not have noticed the subtle, shrewd and
    broadening move by the entire medical profession toward the promotion of the dormancy theory, which
    they created and have defended for over a decade.

    Why is the dormancy theory an irreducible constituent of the medical community? Why have they gone
    to the extraordinary effort of constructing and promulgating such a broad based misrepresentation?

    Asked another way… Why did those who frame and institute the strategy and ‘presumptions' of medical
    providers opt in on the side of a baseless dormancy theory, as opposed to non-dormancy? Was there
    some sort of meeting in which a presentation was given, then a vote taken? Believe it or not, this
    is not a tongue-in-cheek question. The answer is - yes, such meetings do take place, and risk
    management committees are assigned to the task of "stopping the news" or, if the problem leaks out –
    minimizing the damage.

    There is only one logical answer as to why the medical profession hawks the HPV dormancy scheme with
    such intensity:

    The profession's Risk Management contingent (those charged with the duty of overseeing matters
    concerning broad based liability issues), are aware of the very high probability that a significant
    percentage of women have contracted the HPV virus during visits to the offices of their medical

    For many women diagnosed with HPV, an explanation of the mode of infection can be relatively simple
    – though often not conclusive. Although there is rarely any clear cut, definitive evidence that
    might prove where the patient contracted the disease, there is usually a list of ‘probable
    suspects'… a one-night stand with some guy, a boyfriend who may have had a recent relationship with
    another girl, etc. There is often at least a suspect.

    However, this is not always the case. It turns out that there is little or no explanation for the
    infection of over 80% of women diagnosed with cervical-cancer-causing HPV, or cHPV.

    These include: Women over the age of sixty-five, confirmed virgins, nuns and women in monogamous

    In all of these cases the health care provider, as a last resort, and in an attempt to explain away
    the unexplainable infection, drags out the dormancy theory.

    Not much explanation is needed concerning confirmed virgins, nuns and women in long-term
    monogamous marriages; however, let us take a look at the group of women who are affected the most
    by this disease.

    Women Over The Age Of Sixty-Five (Our mothers and grandmothers.)

    "We did expect to find a peak of infection in the younger groups, and we did expect to find a
    decrease in the infection rate in the older groups. We were surprised that there was an indication
    that older women again began to develop a higher prevalence of HPV." Study co-author Dr. Alice
    Lytwyn, Canadian Medical Association Journal

    Although cervical cancer is caused by HPV, which is classified by the

    constitute 80% of cervical cancer deaths in the U.S. Even more dismal is the fact that women
    over the age of 65 comprise only 24.1% of the women who are prone to cervical cancer (over the
    age of 29).

    The widespread dissemination of the dormancy theory is crucial for medical providers. It is
    essential that that they establish the "medical common knowledge" that HPV can be contracted at a
    very early age, never present symptoms, lay dormant for forty years (or more), then suddenly
    cause cancer.

    As a cause for the disproportionately high cancer rate of older women, the medical profession points
    out that only 8% of women over the age of 65 have regular Pap smears as the important integral.


    Fact #1: Women between the age of 50 and 64 receive 35% of the Pap smears. Fact #2: Women between
    the age of 30 and 39 receive only 14% of the Pap smears. Fact #3: It takes 10 to 15 years to develop
    cervical cancer from the first appearance of abnormal cellular activity.

    Therefore, the possibility that a woman over the age of 65 has received a Pap smear within the
    previous 10 to 15 years is *250%* greater than the possibility that a woman between the ages of 40
    and 55 has received a Pap smear within the previous 10 to 15 years.

    Nonetheless, the woman over 65 is 200% more likely to die of cervical cancer.

    The medical profession must identify a different important integral.

    Even more noteworthy: The CDC reports that in 1995 and 1996, persons 75 years and older visited the
    doctor more often than any other group,
    6.1 visits per person, and females made 59.4 percent of the visits.


    community's only blameless answer to the disproportionate numbers of elder victims is the ever-
    convenient dormancy theory. The obvious (and more rational) explanation is the cross contamination
    of patients, particularly when they fall within the 50-64 age grouping that receives 35% of given
    Pap smears.

    Medical providers would have us believe that, once contracted, the human Papillomavirus can remain
    dormant and undetectable in the human body for decades, then, suddenly, inexplicably, with no known
    or explainable triggering mechanism, may ‘decide' to become very active.

    However, there is no proof of this self-serving assertion. None!

    If there is no proof, on what is the claim based, and is the propagation of the claim self-serving?

    It is actually based on pure assumptions, "medical hearsay" and what is referred to as "medical
    common knowledge"… but not facts, and certainly not scientific studies.

    One particularly habitual, and cunning method used by many medical providers is to reference a study
    (only by name and year) that supposedly supports their contention that HPV has been proven to lay
    dormant forever. Yet, when one goes to the effort of searching out those references, one finds the
    author has simply made the statement that HPV is dormant. This method is used widely in an effort to
    "prove" this self-serving postulation.

    On the other hand, actual studies have shown those infected with HPV clear the virus from their
    system within six to ten months, with some indications that it may take as long as two years to be
    completely free of it. [5]

    Considering the fact that a great majority of those infected with the

    or promiscuous behavior, it is interesting that research-based PhD pathologists do not conclude that
    reinfection is the primary reason why some patients find themselves reinfected at a later date.

    Additionally, though the medical profession is quick to assign HPV

    claim that this is the only mode of infection, a patient who becomes reinfected with the virus after
    an extended time is always told the

    transmission… quite an interesting juxtaposition.

    Although the logic of reinfection is easily understood and certainly explains why many of the cases
    that are infected with the virus, "clear" the virus from their system for several years, then,
    suddenly, find themselves reinfected, this obvious answer is not a part of the reasoning given by
    medical providers. Why?

    The answer is simple. The easiest, less stressful, "guiltless" doctors' explanation is that the
    virus just lays dormant for 10, 20, 30 years… or forever.

    The patient is always – in every case – an easy ‘patsy' for this fabrication. The ‘guiltless' factor
    alone naturally makes the patient a willing and anxious advocate – and a future big-time promoter –
    of this false notion. No woman wants to consider the possibility that she's been reinfected with an
    STD. The embarrassment involved in

    is a natural inhibitor, and human nature will be to accept the less painful, less awkward option of
    dormancy – particularly when offered to her by her own, trusted doctor.

    More importantly, it removes or circumvents any thoughts the patient may have as to the possibility
    that she may have contracted the virus from the medical provider.

    The entities that decide such things categorized genital HPVs as a

    and always causes severe problems for those who are celibate, virgins or in long-term, faithful

    There are many cases involving a husband or wife who had been married faithfully for 10, 20 years or
    longer, where the wife suddenly and mysteriously contracted HPV.

    Here is a typical scenario:

    disease – but never informs her the disease is also spread in other ways, because *one* of those
    paths is by way of non-sterile medical instruments, and the physician is certainly not going to open
    that door. [6, 7, 8, 9]

    The wife knows she hasn't ‘messed around', so the only possible explanation is that she contracted
    the virus from her husband.

    The moment she is given the devastating information she begins to think of the times her husband
    came home late, with the excuse of a late appointment… or no excuse… because she trusted him. There
    had never been any reason not to trust him… until now.

    Even before she pulls out of the doctor's parking lot, she sits in her car, unable to drive safely.
    She is terrified, angry, panic-stricken, horrified, frightened, petrified and very confused… all at
    the same time.

    By the time her husband arrives home that evening, she has cried for hours, until she is almost
    beside herself… [You get the picture].

    argument begins. She has been told that, unequivocally, she has a

    been infected with an STD) and the only possible way she could have

    (or doctor) told her that if she had not "messed around", then the disease had to have come from
    her husband.

    The wife files for divorce, files ‘testimony' from her doctor that states the wife has an STD and
    the four children begin living without a father in the home and…

    There are obviously different versions of this scenario, but the basics remain the same.

    If, during the consultation or chat concerning how, where and when she became infected, the patient
    insists that she has never ‘messed around' and she is positive her husband has been faithful, then
    the physician may "drag out" the old dormancy theory, which is presented as fact.

    was only briefly touched by a guy when she was fifteen, the doctor will tell her that was more than
    likely when she became infected, but that the virus had simply lain dormant for the last 26 years.

    The patient has an answer that she can live with, and the non-billable minutes spent chatting about
    where the patient contracted the virus are cut short… and the physician is off the hook.

    Here are two typical scenarios on which the claim of lifetime HPV dormancy is based. Both are rather
    detailed and lengthy, but necessary in order to explain the reason medical providers are compelled
    to convince the public of the dormancy theory. Each is based on a true-life case, but the names have
    been changed.

    Scenario One:

    It is 1998, and Katie and Paul Walton had just celebrated their thirtieth wedding anniversary. Katie
    was a virgin when they married and Paul had only been intimate with one other girl before he met
    Katie. They have always been faithful to each other and Katie's yearly visits to Dr. Metzger, her
    gynecologist, included a Pap smear, which was always negative.

    This year was different. Abnormal cells were found and Katie was eventually found to be infected
    with gHPV (genital human

    disease' (STD), the cause of cervical cancer and could only be

    By the time Paul arrived home from the office that afternoon, she had read through forty-eight
    Internet web sites. All of them confirmed the

    It was not a good night at the Walton house.

    Katie's absolute trust in Paul had met head on with the information given her by her trusted
    gynecologist of thirty years and absolute confirmation from forty-eight medical providers that the
    disease with which she was now infected – which she now knows is the cause of

    Yes, divorce even crossed her mind. Her entire life had suddenly become distorted and grotesque.

    Two days later, during another visit with Dr. Metzger, she came unglued, sobbing uncontrollably. She
    simply could not deal with the fact that after thirty years of marriage she was suddenly and

    Metzger could see she was not going to be able to deal with this, so he offered the elixir.

    Katie was told that many people who are infected with HPV never develop any symptoms, but the virus
    remains dormant in their bodies for ten, twenty, thirty years or longer… sometimes for life.

    The elixir was working; it grabbed her attention and she asked how this applied to her.

    "Katie, you've stated that you and Paul have been faithful to each other during your entire thirty
    years of marriage, but were you in a relationship with anyone before you met Paul?"

    "No. I was a virgin when I married."


    "Yes, with one girl."

    "Then there's your answer, Katie (the elixir). Paul obviously – but unknowingly – contracted the
    virus from her thirty years ago, spread the virus to you, and it has laid dormant somewhere in your
    system for the last thirty years."

    Katie bought the bait, the hook, the line, the sinker, the rod and the reel… because she trusted her
    doctor and because she needed an answer, even if it did sound a bit contrived.

    But there was no other explanation and it gave her some peace of mind.

    During the previous year Dr. Metzger had offered the same ‘peace of mind' to eighteen other
    happily married, monogamous couples. During this same period he also diagnosed and treated forty-
    nine cases of genital HPV… in the same room, on the same examining table, with the same non-
    sterile examining devices.

    Scenario Two:

    It is 1999 and 67-year-old Sister Marianne has been a Dominican nun in Greater Boston for almost 50
    years. God blessed her with almost perfect health, but because of two articles she read back in the
    early 80s that claimed cervical cancer could be caused by "bad genetics," and the fact that her
    mother had died 15 years ago of cervical cancer, she paid yearly visits to Dr. Woodward, the local
    gynecologist, for the last several years.

    The tests for the first 15 years were normal, but the 16th one was not.

    The sister informed several others of her unfortunate news and asked for their prayers. One of them
    did a bit of research and was shocked to learn that 99.8% of all cases of cervical cancer were
    caused by a

    the remaining .2% was well within the standard error rate of plus or minus 1%, which confirmed that
    there was no doubt that all cervical

    This totally devastating revelation was confirmed by Dr. Woodward, and after Sister Marianne
    insisted on a determination as to whether she was infected with HPV, he did his own research and
    found there was a simple, low-cost HPV test made by the Digene Corporation.

    Sister Marianne, a devout Catholic and a confirmed virgin, tested

    But Dr. Woodward had also read somewhere that the virus may remain dormant forever, which made sense
    to him. He asked Sister Marianne if she had ever – in her entire life – even been touched in her
    genital area by another person.

    "Ever? In my entire life?"

    "Yes, sister."

    "Well, other than you, doctor, I suppose I would have to say my mother probably did when I was
    an infant."

    "And didn't your mother die of cervical cancer?"


    "Well, I think we have solved the problem, sister. As I told you, the virus doesn't always produce
    symptoms, and it remains dormant in the body forever. Your mother obviously inadvertently infected
    you with the virus when you were an infant."

    Dr. Woodward wasn't quite so tense when he gave the explanation to two

    had taken her vows.

    During the previous year, Dr. Woodward also treated sixty-two other women who had presented with
    genital HPV. Three of them were scheduled just prior to Sister Marianne's 1998 exam and were
    examined on the same table, with the same speculum… and the doorknobs [10] and cabinet tops were not
    sterilized afterward.

    One of Dr. Woodward's nurses is infected with HPV, but has not informed anyone in the office. Even
    if she had told of her infection, nothing would have changed. The infected nurse is also the one
    assigned to the cleaning of the instruments, which she detests because of the damage done to her
    beautiful, well manicured, paste-on fingernails. [See Endnote at [11]: "… nurse had an infection
    under the fingernail which made its way to surgical sites even though the nurse wore latex gloves.]

    See Chapter VI: Entire Medical Profession Quietly Ignores Their Own Theory of HPV Dormancy


    [1] A fomite is an inanimate object.
    [2] Some physicians use the word "may", others use the word "can", and others use the word "will".
    See list of web site posts at the back of this book.
    [3] Internet sites that promote (as of this printing) the misleading claim that HPV remains
    dormant in the body forever:

    Womens Health in the News (HPV) may remain dormant www.womenshealthinthenews.net/

    HPV Information for Women (HPV) may remain dormant ... www.npclinics.com/

    iVillage.com: The Women's Network (HPV) may remain dormant www.ivillagehealth.com/

    Genital warts: XtraMSN Health (HPV) may remain dormant xtramsn.co.nz/

    Genital Warts Transfer Factor Immune Syst (HPV)may remain dormant for years

    Genital Warts and HPV (HPV) can remain dormant www.umass.edu/uhs/warts.html

    [PDF]HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) (HPV) can remain dormant www.stressgen.com/

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat (HPV) can remain dormant www.rwhmelb.org/

    Aldara (imiquimod) Cream, 5% - (HPV) can remain dormant for months www.3m.com/us/

    October 7,1994 (HPV) can remain dormant for months wildcat.arizona.edu/

    [PDF]Pap Smear Patient Information (HPV) can remain dormant for years www.labcorp.com/

    WOMENS-HEALTH Messages (HPV) can remain dormant for years forums.obgyn.net/

    The Abnormal PAP Smear (HPV) can remain dormant for years.

    template (HPV) can remain dormant for years www.wvdhhr.org/

    Birth Control Basics Guide (HPV) can remain dormant for years guide.fateback.com/4.html

    American Indian Youth Challenge (HPV) can remain dormant for years

    Re: HPV (human papilloma virus) (HPV) can remain dormant for years seniors-

    Brooklyns Women's Health... Q & A (HPV) can remain dormant for years www.hscbklyn.edu/

    aarogya.com " The Wellness Site " (HPV) can remain dormant for years www.aarogya.com/

    WOMENS-HEALTH Messages (HPV)can remain dormant for many years forums.obgyn.net/forums/

    A Friend Indeed (HPV can remain dormant for many years www.cancercare.mb.ca/

    Re: Condylomata & HPV (HPV)can remain dormant in your system for the rest of your life

    Health Information (HPV) usually remains dormant uhs.berkeley.edu/

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) (HPV)usually remains dormant forever navymedicine.med.navy.mil/

    Virtual Naval Hospital: (HPV)usually remains dormant forever. www.vnh.org/OBGYN/

    [4] Annual number and percent of office visits by selected diagnostic and therapeutic procedures,
    averaged over a 2-year period, United States, 1995–96: Persons 75 years and older had the
    highest visit rate, 6.1 visits per person. Females made 59.4 percent of the visits …

    [5] Study Results Indicate HPV Can Disappear From System, Anna-Barbara Moscicki, MD,
    1997,University of California at San Francisco.

    contamination may occur with use of the contaminated speculum and forceps. Use of laser may release
    viruses during treatment for viral diseases. Candidiasis, trichomoniasis and genitalis

    diseases are considered."

    [6] Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1990 Aug;30(3):240-2; Tay SK, Ho TH, Lim-Tan SK; Dept of Ob & Gyn,
    Singapore Gen Hosp. "The high prevalence of (HPV) infection among the virginal women
    indicated that

    [7] Gynecol Oncol 1995 Dec;59(3):423-6; Craigo J, Hopkins M, DeLucia
    A.; Dept of Microbiology/Immunology, Northeastern Ohio Univ, College of Medicine, "The results show
    that genital oncogenic human

    the virus may work in concert with p53 mutations to help the infected tissue progress toward
    invasive cancer."

    [9] J Am Acad Dermatol 1990 Aug;23(2 Pt 1):205-13; Obalek S, Misiewicz J, Jablonska S, Favre M,
    Orth G.; Dept of Dermatology, Warsaw School

    transmission of genital papillomaviruses in children…"

    [10] Doorknobs: a source of nosocomial infection, Diagnostic Medicine, Nov/Dec, 1983, Phyllis J.
    Kuhn, Ph.D, "..stainless steel produced a heavy growth of all microbes" "Culturing a stainless
    steel knob on a door between a burn unit and an intensive-care unit, I found a multiply
    resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis with a susceptibility pattern identical to that found in
    the blood of a septic patient in the intensive-care unit. Cultures of wounds of several other
    patients yielded similar organisms."

    [11] Alicia J. Mangram, MD, Univ. of Texas, Houston Dept of Surg., Herman Hosp. "Many studies have
    linked OR workers with active infections to surgical site infections. An outbreak of Serratia
    marcesans in cardiovascular patients was traced back to a contaminated jar of exfoliant cream
    in a nurse's home. Although Serratia does not normally colonize the human skin, it can colonize
    artificial nails, which this nurse was wearing. Another nurse had an infection under the
    fingernail which made its way to surgical sites even though the nurse wore latex gloves."