Fairing - A DRAG - Aerodynamically Speaking?

Discussion in 'Recumbent bicycles' started by Ez Biker :-\), Jun 15, 2003.

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  1. Yesterday, (Saturday June 14) I got the IMMENSE pleasure to try a good friends (From West Palm
    Beach) Strada. He had it tricked out via Aero components, including the M5 seat, HED Front 3 spoke,
    rear solid Disc and he 's about my height, (Inseam etc.) so the bike was adjusted for me perfectly.
    We hit the road at about 5:30 AM (Wanted to beat the early morning showers) and proceeded down A1A.
    One of the immediate things I noticed was how the Strada EASILY knifed through the 15+ MPH Headwind,
    with the greatest of ease. (I had witnessed a similar action, with Rich Pinto and John Schlitter at
    the Bacchetta Rally, earlier this year, with me being WAY behind them) We did a short hour ride and
    my overall average was about (An easy to maintain)
    19.5 mph. My friend departed back to West Palm. (With his Strada. DARN!) Today I was back on my GRR
    Ti (With Zzipper fairing) and I clearly felt the difference in the almost identical on coming
    headwind. (WHAT a DRAG. OK, pun intended) The fairing seemed to be buffeting against the wind and
    I clearly had to work much harder to keep the bike up to a decent speed. (Unlike on the Strada,
    which cruised EASILY along, wind or no wind) Needless to say, some of my long time beliefs about
    fairings, being THE AERODYNAMICALLY HOT SETUP, seem to be outdated. (Not that I'm planning on
    trying my GRR Ti without the fairing; did that and the bike worked better with the fairing)
    Still, this experience adds to my anticipation, to when I do get my Aero and that will be, no
    need for any (Or will even be missed) fairing.

    EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta Aero Pilot)
     
    Tags:


  2. Shwackman

    Shwackman Guest

    >Today I was back on my GRR Ti (With >Zzipper fairing) and I clearly felt the difference in the
    >almost identical on >coming headwind. (WHAT a DRAG. OK, >pun intended) The fairing seemed to be
    >>buffeting against the wind and I clearly had to work much harder to keep the bike >up to a
    >decent speed.
    Hi Ken. There's little doubt that it's a bit less efficient to plow air with a sheet of Lexan than
    it is to slice thru it with your feet, too bad you have to lay down on a piece of pipe to do it. I
    am surprised by the average speeds I come home with on my high racer, but still WAY prefer the
    mighty Easy Racer for eveything but short (less than 25 mile) drag-race types of rides. Enjoy the
    new bike but don't sell the GRR just yet!...Mark C.
     
  3. Unfortunely, the Strada wasn't mine. My Aero is about to go back on order and NO, I have no plans to
    ever part with my GRR Ti. Still it's refreshing to ride a bike, without the BIG BUBBLE in front and
    still go decently fast. EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta Aero Pilot)

    "Shwackman" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...> Hi Ken. There's little doubt that it's a bit
    less efficient to plow air with a
    > sheet of Lexan than it is to slice thru it with your feet, too bad you
    have to
    > lay down on a piece of pipe to do it.
     
  4. Good Morning EZ, I didn't think you were selling your TiR. If you were, it would sell fast and
    you could have bought the AERO already. Keeping it is the way to go. Hope to ride with you in
    the future.
    --
    Jude....///Bacchetta AERO St. Michaels and Tilghman Island.. Maryland Wheel Doctor Cycle and Sports,
    Inc 1-800-586-6645 "EZ Biker :)" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > Unfortunely, the Strada wasn't mine. My Aero is about to go back on order and NO, I have no plans
    > to ever part with my GRR Ti. Still it's refreshing to ride a bike, without the BIG BUBBLE in front
    > and still go decently
    fast.
    > EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta Aero Pilot)
    >
    >
    > "Shwackman" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    > news:[email protected]...> Hi Ken. There's
    little
    > doubt that it's a bit less efficient to plow air with a
    > > sheet of Lexan than it is to slice thru it with your feet, too bad you
    > have to
    > > lay down on a piece of pipe to do it.
     
  5. Thanks Jude. I previously learned a BIG Lesson, when I dumped my GRR (Polished Alum) only to start
    missing it a few months later. I know I'll be happy with the Aero, BUT I know I'll enjoy getting
    back to my Lemo style of EASY riding too. EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON,
    Bacchetta Aero Pilot)

    "Jude T. McGloin" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > Good Morning EZ, I didn't think you were selling your TiR. If you were, it would sell fast and you
    > could have bought the AERO already. Keeping it is the
    way
    > to go. Hope to ride with you in the future.
    > --
    > Jude....///Bacchetta AERO
     
  6. In article <[email protected]>, "EZ says...
    >
    >Yesterday, (Saturday June 14) I got the IMMENSE pleasure to try a good friends (From West Palm
    >Beach) Strada. He had it tricked out via Aero components, including the M5 seat, HED Front 3 spoke,
    >rear solid Disc and he 's about my height, (Inseam etc.) so the bike was adjusted for me perfectly.
    >We hit the road at about 5:30 AM (Wanted to beat the early morning showers) and proceeded down A1A.
    >One of the immediate things I noticed was how the Strada EASILY knifed through the 15+ MPH
    >Headwind, with the greatest of ease. (I had witnessed a similar action, with Rich Pinto and John
    >Schlitter at the Bacchetta Rally, earlier this year, with me being WAY behind them) We did a short
    >hour ride and my overall average was about (An easy to maintain)
    >19.5 mph. My friend departed back to West Palm. (With his Strada. DARN!) Today I was back on my GRR
    > Ti (With Zzipper fairing) and I clearly felt the difference in the almost identical on coming
    > headwind. (WHAT a DRAG. OK, pun intended) The fairing seemed to be buffeting against the wind
    > and I clearly had to work much harder to keep the bike up to a decent speed. (Unlike on the
    > Strada, which cruised EASILY along, wind or no wind) Needless to say, some of my long time
    > beliefs about fairings, being THE AERODYNAMICALLY HOT SETUP, seem to be outdated. (Not that I'm
    > planning on trying my GRR Ti without the fairing; did that and the bike worked better with the
    > fairing) Still, this experience adds to my anticipation, to when I do get my Aero and that will
    > be, no need for any (Or will even be missed) fairing.

    Interesting. I can well imagine that a very aero bike like the Strada w/o fairing might be more aero
    than a GRR with fairing. And that for some bikes there might be little benefit to adding a fairing.

    But I'm curious, has anyone ever found a fairing to make things worse?

    Steve Christensne Midland, MI
     
  7. Mike S

    Mike S Guest

    "EZ Biker :-\)" <[email protected]> wrote in message news:<[email protected]>...
    > Unfortunely, the Strada wasn't mine. My Aero is about to go back on order and NO, I have no plans
    > to ever part with my GRR Ti. Still it's refreshing to ride a bike, without the BIG BUBBLE in
    > front and still go decently fast. EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta
    > Aero Pilot)
    >
    >
    > "Shwackman" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    > news:[email protected]...> Hi Ken. There's little doubt that it's a bit
    > less efficient to plow air with a
    > > sheet of Lexan than it is to slice thru it with your feet, too bad you
    > have to
    > > lay down on a piece of pipe to do it.

    I am not a big GRR fan. My wife is. She prefers the lower bottom bracket and the stability of the
    LWB. I prefer the laid back SWB design of my Barcroft Virginia. I am a stronger rider and am faster
    unfaired than she is faired. Then she puts the body sock on and it is a different story. This is not
    to criticize the Bacchetta, the Volae or the Sabre, as they all have their supporters, only to say
    that bodysocked the GRR I believe to be every bit as fast as the high racers (IMHO). And for many,
    even this non-fan, I think they are much more comfortable to ride, which is why so many of us ride
    recumbents in the first place.

    Mike S. St. Louis, Mo.
     
  8. Steve, I actually had that sensation, when I was riding with the Bacchetta guys, earlier this year.
    They (As I have previously posted) were slicing through the 15+ MPH head wind, while me and my
    faired GRR Ti was being buffeted and basically bogged down in the headwind. The fairing just seem to
    add to the resistance factor and made it difficult to move forward with any decent speed. Meanwhile
    the Bacchetta's were just cruising along, with only the guys heads being the immediate sticking up
    resistance. EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta Aero Pilot)

    "Steve Christensen" <[email protected]> wrote in message news:[email protected]...
    > In article <[email protected]>, " But I'm curious, has anyone ever found a fairing
    > to make things worse?
    >
    > Steve Christensne Midland, MI
     
  9. Steve To answer the question "can a fairing make things worse" Yes although rare it can happen. A
    fairing mounted with a large gap between it and the rider is one way to slow the bike down. Some
    bikes don't handle well with a fairing so the rider ends up going slower because he/she is not
    confident with the "feel" of the machine. Something to consider is; that whenever air moves over any
    object there will be a "center of pressure" on that object. On a typical bicycle that "center of
    pressure" is directly on the human so they can feel what the wind movement is doing and make the
    necessary adjustments as they ride along. When fairings are installed the "center of pressure" can
    move to a different location, possibly to an unfavorable position on the bike/rider and change the
    handling. Several times in this news group riders have commented that they like their bike better
    without a fairing on it. Most often the comments come from a short wheelbase style bike. When
    designing a streamlined bicycle there are 3 things that should all be in the same spot: (1) center
    of mass (2) center of balance ( amount of weight on each wheel )
    (3) center of aero pressure If one of these 3 happens in the wrong spot, an evil handling bike can
    result. That is not to say, that a person, so impressed with the speed will put up with a bad
    handling machine. That is a personal call. To test one bike against anouther, a heart rate
    moniter is a good tool. Trick is to compare average heart rate against average speed. Steve
    "Speedy" Delaire

    Steve Christensen wrote:

    > In article <[email protected]>, "EZ says...
    > >
    > >Yesterday, (Saturday June 14) I got the IMMENSE pleasure to try a good friends (From West Palm
    > >Beach) Strada. He had it tricked out via Aero components, including the M5 seat, HED Front 3
    > >spoke, rear solid Disc and he 's about my height, (Inseam etc.) so the bike was adjusted for me
    > >perfectly. We hit the road at about 5:30 AM (Wanted to beat the early morning showers) and
    > >proceeded down A1A. One of the immediate things I noticed was how the Strada EASILY knifed
    > >through the 15+ MPH Headwind, with the greatest of ease. (I had witnessed a similar action, with
    > >Rich Pinto and John Schlitter at the Bacchetta Rally, earlier this year, with me being WAY behind
    > >them) We did a short hour ride and my overall average was about (An easy to maintain)
    > >19.5 mph. My friend departed back to West Palm. (With his Strada. DARN!) Today I was back on my
    > > GRR Ti (With Zzipper fairing) and I clearly felt the difference in the almost identical on
    > > coming headwind. (WHAT a DRAG. OK, pun intended) The fairing seemed to be buffeting against
    > > the wind and I clearly had to work much harder to keep the bike up to a decent speed. (Unlike
    > > on the Strada, which cruised EASILY along, wind or no wind) Needless to say, some of my long
    > > time beliefs about fairings, being THE AERODYNAMICALLY HOT SETUP, seem to be outdated. (Not
    > > that I'm planning on trying my GRR Ti without the fairing; did that and the bike worked better
    > > with the fairing) Still, this experience adds to my anticipation, to when I do get my Aero and
    > > that will be, no need for any (Or will even be missed) fairing.
    >
    > Interesting. I can well imagine that a very aero bike like the Strada w/o fairing might be more
    > aero than a GRR with fairing. And that for some bikes there might be little benefit to adding a
    > fairing.
    >
    > But I'm curious, has anyone ever found a fairing to make things worse?
    >
    > Steve Christensne Midland, MI

    -----= Posted via Newsfeeds.Com, Uncensored Usenet News =----- http://www.newsfeeds.com - The #1
    Newsgroup Service in the World! -----== Over 80,000 Newsgroups - 16 Different Servers! =-----
     
  10. Mike I've had the same thoughts about a full body sock, might make a difference. If the air is
    streamlined with a solid mass on either side, than the fairing is probably a good thing. However
    here in Fl. the crosswinds tend to be strong and thus a body sock use (For me) is not favorable. (I
    know this statement will wake up Thomas Sherman) Still, it would seem that a body sock would
    enhance the front fairing use. Of course on the Bacchettas, your body is already reclined (Instead
    of the more upright position on the GRR) to a point where the wind tends to flow smoothly over you
    and less drag seems to be experienced. EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta
    Aero Pilot)

    "mike s" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > "EZ Biker :-\)" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:<[email protected]>...Then she puts the body sock on and it is > a
    different story.
     
  11. Jeff Wills

    Jeff Wills Guest

    "EZ Biker :-\)" <[email protected]> wrote in message news:<[email protected]>...
    <snip> Needless to say,
    > some of my long time beliefs about fairings, being THE AERODYNAMICALLY HOT SETUP, seem to be
    > outdated. (Not that I'm planning on trying my GRR Ti without the fairing; did that and the bike
    > worked better with the fairing) Still, this experience adds to my anticipation, to when I do get
    > my Aero and that will be, no need for any (Or will even be missed) fairing.
    >
    > EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta Aero Pilot)

    Apples and oranges. You should have compared the Ti-Rush to the Strada when both bikes *had*
    fairings or with both bikes *lacking* fairing. That would have told you the difference that the
    bike's design made.

    IMO, the Easy Racer design is good, but the handlebar-mounted fairing makes a lot of difference. A
    SWB design like the Strada won't benefit from a fairing as much as an Easy Racer... but there will
    still be a benefit.

    Recently, I've been doing time trials on my faired Easy Racer where I used to do them on my unfaired
    P-38 Lightning. My times are just about equal, although it's tough to compare one year to another.
    My times on my P-38 with a 3/4 fairing were about 10% faster.

    Jeff
     
  12. Stratrider

    Stratrider Guest

    Mark, I have been riding a faired Stratus since 99. I agree with both you and EZ that I slice
    through the wind with much less effort on my new Strada. And while I loved it, I am not sure that I
    will ever be as comfortable on the Strada as I am on the Stratus. There remains something very
    natural about the riding position on a Easy Racer/Stratus style lwb low bb bike. I am guessing that
    feeling will not change.

    Jim Reilly Reading, PA
     
  13. Pj

    Pj Guest

    [email protected] (mike s) wrote in message
    news:<[email protected]>...
    > "EZ Biker :-\)" <[email protected]> wrote in message news:<[email protected]>...
    > > Unfortunely, the Strada wasn't mine. My Aero is about to go back on order and NO, I have no
    > > plans to ever part with my GRR Ti. Still it's refreshing to ride a bike, without the BIG BUBBLE
    > > in front and still go decently fast. EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta
    > > Aero Pilot)
    > >
    > >
    > > "Shwackman" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    > > news:[email protected]...> Hi Ken. There's little doubt that it's a
    > > bit less efficient to plow air with a
    > > > sheet of Lexan than it is to slice thru it with your feet, too bad you
    > have to
    > > > lay down on a piece of pipe to do it.
    >
    >
    > I am not a big GRR fan. My wife is. She prefers the lower bottom bracket and the stability of the
    > LWB. I prefer the laid back SWB design of my Barcroft Virginia. I am a stronger rider and am
    > faster unfaired than she is faired. Then she puts the body sock on and it is a different story.
    > This is not to criticize the Bacchetta, the Volae or the Sabre, as they all have their supporters,
    > only to say that bodysocked the GRR I believe to be every bit as fast as the high racers (IMHO).
    > And for many, even this non-fan, I think they are much more comfortable to ride, which is why so
    > many of us ride recumbents in the first place.
    >
    > Mike S. St. Louis, Mo.

    As is usual, I agree with Mike and would concur that both formats (socked GRR and the so called high
    racers) are fast platforms under the right rider and that for the most part it really comes down to
    rider preference as to which is the "better" design. However I think when you start to talk about
    hilly riding, the Aeros/Corsas/Stradas/Volae's do have an advantage over the heavier long wheel base
    bikes, at least until the Stilletto comes out.

    Pat Mc
     
  14. Tom Sherman

    Tom Sherman Guest

    "EZ Biker :)" wrote:
    >
    > Mike I've had the same thoughts about a full body sock, might make a difference. If the air is
    > streamlined with a solid mass on either side, than the fairing is probably a good thing. However
    > here in Fl. the crosswinds tend to be strong and thus a body sock use (For me) is not favorable.
    > (I know this statement will wake up Thomas Sherman) Still, it would seem that a body sock would
    > enhance the front fairing use....

    I have ridden a LWB bike with a bodysock in strong crosswinds without problems, but I see no point
    in trying to convince EZ Biker of this.

    I can also state from experience that there is a much better draft behind an Easy Racer with just
    the front fairing than one with a bodysock. This would indicate that the bodysock improves
    aerodynamic efficiency greatly.

    The best way to deal with headwinds is a lowracer, since wind speed decreases closer to the ground
    due to viscous drag. While riding my Sunset on windy days, I have passed a lot of upright riders who
    are in better condition than I am.

    Tom Sherman - Various HPV's Quad Cities USA (Illinois side)
     
  15. Tom Tom Tom, good to hear from you. Was surprised my post didn't catch your eye earlier. YES, I'm
    beginning to see your point on the full socked fairing. (Are you still sitting in your chair?) BUT,
    I have an Aero that's coming soon, so I really won't need to worry about a body sock for the GRR Ti.
    (I'm keeping the GRR Ti though) I'm incline to believe, if your body is aerodynamically set properly
    on a bike frame, then the fairing isn't really a needed item; aka SWB bikes. NOW about those
    Crosswinds and a HED (Full rear disc) and a HED 3 spoke front......... ;-) <Grin> EZ Biker :)
    Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta Aero Pilot)

    "Tom Sherman" <[email protected]> wrote in message news:[email protected]... > I
    have ridden a LWB bike with a bodysock in strong crosswinds without
    > problems, but I see no point in trying to convince EZ Biker of this.
     
  16. EZ Man, Where is your AERO. Corsa Al and I went for a 90 miler today. It was pretty windy. Are you
    going to fit your AERO with HED Disk/HED3? I like mine for the flats, but the disk is a bit heavy
    for hills. The Disk Lite is a bit lighter and $100 bucks more.

    --
    Jude....///Bacchetta AERO St. Michaels and Tilghman Island.. Maryland Wheel Doctor Cycle and Sports,
    Inc 1-800-586-6645 "EZ Biker :)" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > Tom Tom Tom, good to hear from you. Was surprised my post didn't catch
    your
    > eye earlier. YES, I'm beginning to see your point on the full socked fairing. (Are you still
    > sitting in your chair?) BUT, I have an Aero that's coming soon, so I really won't need to worry
    > about a body sock for the GRR Ti. (I'm keeping the GRR Ti though) I'm incline to believe, if your
    > body is aerodynamically set properly on a bike frame, then the fairing isn't really a needed item;
    > aka SWB bikes. NOW about those Crosswinds and a HED (Full rear disc) and a HED 3 spoke
    > front......... ;-) <Grin> EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta Aero Pilot)
    >
    >
    >
    > "Tom Sherman" <[email protected]> wrote in message news:[email protected]... > I
    > have ridden a LWB bike with a bodysock in strong crosswinds without
    > > problems, but I see no point in trying to convince EZ Biker of this.
     
  17. Mr. Jude, I'm hoping by mid July for my status to be "Upgraded " to Killer
    N. I think for the short while, I'll use the wheels / rims that come with it and then add the HED
    wheels, once I get more acclimated to the bike. We don't really have any Hills here in South
    Florida, just some small pimples of bridges; so I'm thinking the HED stuff will be the best
    setup. (I still remember the Bacchetta Guys SPANKING me, earlier this year) SO, there's a Disk
    Lite eh? Yep, that could be the ticket. EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON,
    Bacchetta Aero Pilot)

    "Jude T. McGloin" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > EZ Man, Where is your AERO. Corsa Al and I went for a 90 miler
    today.
    > It was pretty windy. Are you going to fit your AERO with HED Disk/HED3? I like mine for the flats,
    > but the disk is a bit heavy for hills.
    The
    > Disk Lite is a bit lighter and $100 bucks more.
     
  18. Don

    Don Guest

    Steve, How does any manufacturer pretend to accomplish keeping all three centers at the same
    location if the bike has a sliding seat
    (e.g. Tiger, Bacchetta, Barcroft)? I would think an adjustable boom
    (e.h. Haluzak, Lightning) would have less influence by moving less mass, namely the crank and riders
    feet, compared to moving the rider's entire mass.

    "S. Delaire \"Rotatorrecumbent\"" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:<[email protected]>...
    > Steve To answer the question "can a fairing make things worse" Yes although rare it can happen. A
    > fairing mounted with a large gap between it and the rider is one way to slow the bike down. Some
    > bikes don't handle well with a fairing so the rider ends up going slower because he/she is not
    > confident with the "feel" of the machine. Something to consider is; that whenever air moves over
    > any object there will be a "center of pressure" on that object. On a typical bicycle that "center
    > of pressure" is directly on the human so they can feel what the wind movement is doing and make
    > the necessary adjustments as they ride along. When fairings are installed the "center of pressure"
    > can move to a different location, possibly to an unfavorable position on the bike/rider and change
    > the handling. Several times in this news group riders have commented that they like their bike
    > better without a fairing on it. Most often the comments come from a short wheelbase style bike.
    > When designing a streamlined bicycle there are 3 things that should all be in the same spot: (1)
    > center of mass (2) center of balance ( amount of weight on each wheel )
    > (3) center of aero pressure If one of these 3 happens in the wrong spot, an evil handling bike can
    > result. That is not to say, that a person, so impressed with the speed will put up with a bad
    > handling machine. That is a personal call. To test one bike against anouther, a heart rate
    > moniter is a good tool. Trick is to compare average heart rate against average speed. Steve
    > "Speedy" Delaire
     
  19. "EZ Biker :-\)" <[email protected]> wrote in message news:<[email protected]>...
    > Steve, I actually had that sensation, when I was riding with the Bacchetta guys, earlier this
    > year. They (As I have previously posted) were slicing through the 15+ MPH head wind, while me and
    > my faired GRR Ti was being buffeted and basically bogged down in the headwind. The fairing just
    > seem to add to the resistance factor and made it difficult to move forward with any decent speed.
    > Meanwhile the Bacchetta's were just cruising along, with only the guys heads being the immediate
    > sticking up resistance. EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta Aero Pilot

    EZBiker, I'm wondering about your riding position on the Ti Rush. Perhaps you have your seat to
    reclined. I recall a past post of yours and I think you stated that you like it way back. Anyway,
    to over come the crosswind effects on an unsocked Gold Rush you must lean forward and get your body
    as close to the fairing as possible. When you close that gap you'll no longer be buffeted around as
    much and i'm sure your speed will increase.
     
  20. Thanks <[email protected]> for the suggestion. I have actually tried what you suggested and it does
    seem to help, EXCEPT when trying to stay in that position for a long period of time. Admittedly, I
    am leaned back some and have experimented with decreasing my recline somewhat, only to start
    experiencing recumbo Butt again. Still, I'm very Happy with My Grr Ti and won't be parting with it,
    even when my Aero arrives. EZ Biker :) Pompano Beach, Fl. (GRR Ti and SOON, Bacchetta Aero Pilot

    <[email protected]> wrote in message news:[email protected]...
    > "EZ Biker :-\)" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:<[email protected]>... > EZBiker, I'm wondering about your riding position on
    the Ti Rush.
     
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