Use During Pregnancy and Lactation The Commission E reports no known restrictions on the use of ginseng during pregnancy and lactation. Although the British Herbal Compendium contraindicates ginseng during pregnancy, this is not substantiated by use in Asia or by the Commission E (McGuffin et al., 1997). However, controlled, long-term safety studies have not been conducted. WHO has also reiterated that the safety of ginseng use during pregnancy has not been established, although it noted that ginseng is not teratogenic (WHO, 1999). Interactions with Other Drugs The British Herbal Compendium contraindicates the use of ginseng with stimulants, including excessive use of caffeine (Bradley, 1992). The WHO monograph cites two cases of ginseng interaction with phenelzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, although the clinical significance of this interaction was yet to be determined (WHO, 1999).