Grapefruit Diet: Fact, Not Fiction

Discussion in 'Food and nutrition' started by Tcomeau, Feb 10, 2004.

  1. Tcomeau

    Tcomeau Guest

    Some interesting slight of hand here:

    http://www.scrippsclinic.com/news/Article_Fulltext.cfm?ID=211&nc0.04389574

    ------------------------
    Grapefruit Diet: Fact, Not Fiction

    Scripps Clinic Research Verifies Link between Grapefruit and Weight Loss

    SAN DIEGO, CA – January 21, 2004 – The grapefruit diet is not a myth. That's what a new study by the
    Nutrition and Metabolic Research Center at Scripps Clinic confirmed. Researchers there found that
    the simple act of adding grapefruit and grapefruit juice to one's diet can result in weight loss.

    The 12-week pilot study, led by Dr. Ken Fujioka, monitored weight and metabolic factors, such as
    insulin secretion, of the 100 men and women who participated in the Scripps Clinic "Grapefruit Diet"
    study. On average, participants who ate half a grapefruit with each meal lost
    3.6 pounds, while those who drank a serving of grapefruit juice three times a day lost 3.3 pounds.
    However, many patients in the study lost more than 10 pounds.

    "For years people have talked about the grapefruit diet, and some even swear by it, but now, we have
    data that grapefruit helps weight loss," said Dr. Fujioka, principal researcher at the Nutrition and
    Metabolic Research Center at Scripps Clinic. "Our study participants maintained their daily eating
    habits and slightly enhanced their exercise routine; the only dietary change was the intake of
    Florida grapefruit and grapefruit juice."

    Additionally, the research indicates a physiological link between grapefruit and insulin, as it
    relates to weight management. The researchers speculate that the chemical properties of grapefruit
    reduce insulin levels and encourage weight loss.

    The importance of this link lies with the hormone's weight management function. While not its
    primary function, insulin assists with the regulation of fat metabolism. Therefore, the smaller the
    insulin spike after a meal, the more efficiently the body processes food for use as energy and the
    less it's stored as fat in the body. Grapefruit may possess unique chemical properties that reduce
    insulin levels which promotes weight loss.

    Obesity continues to plague the American public and the health system. According to the National
    Center for Health Statistics, 64 percent of U.S. adults are considered overweight or obese.
    Overweight or obese people stand a greater likelihood of developing life-altering and/or life-
    threatening illnesses such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, high
    cholesterol, sleep apnea, arthritis, liver problems, and many others.

    "Our study shows grapefruit can play a vital role in overall health and wellness, and in battling
    America's ever-growing obesity epidemic," stated Dr. Fujioka. "Whether it's the properties of
    grapefruit or its ability to satiate appetites, grapefruit appeared to help with weight loss and
    decreased insulin levels leading to better health. It's good the "Grapefruit Diet" never lost its
    popularity among the public."

    The study linking grapefruit and grapefruit juice consumption to weight loss continues to broaden
    the health benefits associated with this citrus product.

    Based in Lakeland, Fla., FDOC is a state agency devoted to promoting Florida citrus products.
    Florida is one of the world's leading producers of oranges, grapefruits and specialty citrus fruits,
    with more than 90 percent of Florida oranges being made into orange juice. The economic impact of
    the citrus industry on Florida's economy is $ 9 billion, and the industry employs about 90,000
    Floridians.

    Founded in 1924, Scripps Clinic is a multi-specialty, outpatient care facility caring for patients
    at multiple locations throughout San Diego County, California including Torrey Pines, Del Mar,
    Encinitas, La Jolla, Rancho Bernardo, Rancho San Diego, San Diego, and Santee. Scripps Clinic and
    its physicians are world-renown for research-driven care and medical specialty expertise and is an
    operating unit of Scripps Health, a not-for-profit, community-based health care delivery network
    that includes more than 2,600 affiliated physicians, five acute-care hospitals, home health care and
    associated support services. Scripps Health is one of the largest health care organizations in San
    Diego County, drawing from the expertise of more than 10,000 health care professionals.
    ---------------------

    I can't find where this "study" was published. Hmmmmm.

    Look at this quote:

    " ....the only dietary change was the intake of Florida grapefruit and grapefruit juice."

    Are we to assume that non-Florida grapefruit do not have the same benefit? And why did he
    specifically mention Florida?

    Check out the second last paragraph about the FDOC. Why is this relevant? Did the florida citrus
    growers or a florida government citrus support agency pay for this study? Why are they not clear on
    this? Who paid for tis study?

    Sounds awfully fishy to me. Is this science? It was presented as science and it sure got a lot of
    headlines.

    TC
     
    Tags:


  2. Tintinet

    Tintinet Guest

    And yet, among fruit, grapefruit appears to have a very low glycemic index.

    Grapefruit 25 with glucose at 100 from the AJCN
     
  3. Tim Tyler

    Tim Tyler Guest

  4. Mike V

    Mike V Guest

    "tcomeau" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > Some interesting slight of hand here:
    >
    > http://www.scrippsclinic.com/news/Article_Fulltext.cfm?ID=211&nc0.04389574
    >
    > ------------------------
    > Grapefruit Diet: Fact, Not Fiction
    >
    > Scripps Clinic Research Verifies Link between Grapefruit and Weight Loss

    SNIP
    >
    > I can't find where this "study" was published. Hmmmmm.
    >
    > Look at this quote:
    >
    > " ....the only dietary change was the intake of Florida grapefruit and grapefruit juice."
    >
    > Are we to assume that non-Florida grapefruit do not have the same benefit? And why did he
    > specifically mention Florida?
    >
    > Check out the second last paragraph about the FDOC. Why is this relevant? Did the florida citrus
    > growers or a florida government citrus support agency pay for this study? Why are they not clear
    > on this? Who paid for tis study?
    >
    > Sounds awfully fishy to me. Is this science? It was presented as science and it sure got a lot of
    > headlines.
    >
    > TC

    Draw your own conclusions. MikeV

    My email to Scripps clinic:

    Sent on: 2/9/04 at 8:32 PM Comments: Re: grapefruit diet. very interesting report. What do the the
    initials FDOC stand for. Can we assume that FDOC funded the study? Will it be reported in a peer
    reviewed journal? Thank you. MikeV

    Reply:

    Dear Mike,

    Florida Department of Citrus, and yes they funded it and it is submitted and awaiting acceptance or
    rejection, per Dr. Fujioka.

    Sincerely,

    Monique Inglese

    Website Communications Coordinator Scripps Clinic Marketing and Communications Department 4275
    Campus Point Court, CP10 San Diego, CA 92037 Phone (858)678-6838 Fax (858)678-6900 e-mail
    ([email protected])
     
  5. Tcomeau

    Tcomeau Guest

    "Mike V" <[email protected]> wrote in message news:<vgiWb.1943[email protected]>...
    > "tcomeau" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    > news:[email protected]...
    > > Some interesting slight of hand here:
    > >
    > > http://www.scrippsclinic.com/news/Article_Fulltext.cfm?ID=211&nc0.04389574
    > >
    > > ------------------------
    > > Grapefruit Diet: Fact, Not Fiction
    > >
    > > Scripps Clinic Research Verifies Link between Grapefruit and Weight Loss
    >
    > SNIP
    > >
    > > I can't find where this "study" was published. Hmmmmm.
    > >
    > > Look at this quote:
    > >
    > > " ....the only dietary change was the intake of Florida grapefruit and grapefruit juice."
    > >
    > > Are we to assume that non-Florida grapefruit do not have the same benefit? And why did he
    > > specifically mention Florida?
    > >
    > > Check out the second last paragraph about the FDOC. Why is this relevant? Did the florida citrus
    > > growers or a florida government citrus support agency pay for this study? Why are they not clear
    > > on this? Who paid for tis study?
    > >
    > > Sounds awfully fishy to me. Is this science? It was presented as science and it sure got a lot
    > > of headlines.
    > >
    > > TC
    >
    > Draw your own conclusions. MikeV
    >
    > My email to Scripps clinic:
    >
    > Sent on: 2/9/04 at 8:32 PM Comments: Re: grapefruit diet. very interesting report. What do the the
    > initials FDOC stand for. Can we assume that FDOC funded the study? Will it be reported in a peer
    > reviewed journal? Thank you. MikeV
    >
    >
    > Reply:
    >
    > Dear Mike,
    >
    > Florida Department of Citrus, and yes they funded it and it is submitted and awaiting acceptance
    > or rejection, per Dr. Fujioka.
    >
    > Sincerely,
    >
    > Monique Inglese
    >
    > Website Communications Coordinator Scripps Clinic Marketing and Communications Department 4275
    > Campus Point Court, CP10 San Diego, CA 92037 Phone (858)678-6838 Fax (858)678-6900 e-mail
    > ([email protected])

    Why was the funding not clearly stated in the press release?

    How much did the study cost?

    What other researchers signed the study?

    What interests does the Scripps Clinic, any of its related organisations, researchers, directors and
    staff have in the citus industry, the food industry or the pharmaceutical industry?

    How much money have they recieved from these industries?

    Who funds the Scripps organisations?

    TC
     
  6. This post not CC'd by email
    On 9 Feb 2004 12:54:43 -0800, [email protected] (tcomeau) wrote:

    >Some interesting slight of hand here:
    >
    >http://www.scrippsclinic.com/news/Article_Fulltext.cfm?ID=211&nc0.04389574
    >
    >------------------------
    >Grapefruit Diet: Fact, Not Fiction
    >
    > Scripps Clinic Research Verifies Link between Grapefruit and Weight Loss
    >
    >SAN DIEGO, CA – January 21, 2004 – The grapefruit diet is not a myth.

    ROTFL

    Of course it is not a myth. It exists in women's magazines along with eating only bread every
    other day.

    >That's what a new study by the Nutrition and Metabolic Research Center at Scripps Clinic confirmed.
    >Researchers there found that the simple act of adding grapefruit and grapefruit juice to one's diet
    >can result in weight loss.
    >
    >The 12-week pilot study, led by Dr. Ken Fujioka, monitored weight and metabolic factors, such as
    >insulin secretion, of the 100 men and women who participated in the Scripps Clinic "Grapefruit
    >Diet" study. On average, participants who ate half a grapefruit with each meal lost
    >3.6 pounds, while those who drank a serving of grapefruit juice three times a day lost 3.3 pounds.
    > However, many patients in the study lost more than 10 pounds.
    >
    >"For years people have talked about the grapefruit diet, and some even swear by it, but now, we
    >have data that grapefruit helps weight loss," said Dr. Fujioka, principal researcher at the
    >Nutrition and Metabolic Research Center at Scripps Clinic. "Our study participants maintained their
    >daily eating habits and slightly enhanced their exercise routine; the only dietary change was the
    >intake of Florida grapefruit and grapefruit juice."

    Notice they didn't have a control group. They didn't do a cross over etc, etc.

    >"Our study participants maintained their daily eating habits

    So they ate their the same amounts of foods PLUS the grapefruit!? Or did they eat the same foods
    with grapefruit ie eat the same volume of food with grapefruit displacing some of their usual foods.
    Imagine for a moment a diet in which one had to eat raspberries without sugar and cream or a
    vegetable like cucumber with EVERY meal. Chance are high one would lose weight. Berries and cucumber
    are low in calories.

    > and slightly enhanced their exercise routine;

    Now isn't this strange. Haven't we been there before just recently with the high carb diet that beat
    the SAD control diet. According to the seven researchers, there wasn't supposed to be a significant
    difference in calories between the intervention diet and the control diet ... but there was and that
    was the significant factor.

    Notice in this experiment there was NO CONTROL ARM and ALL the participants increased their exercise
    routine and ALL the participants lost weight.

    >the only dietary change was the intake of Florida grapefruit and grapefruit juice."

    >Additionally, the research indicates a physiological link between grapefruit and insulin, as it
    >relates to weight management.

    Now isn't this an interesting statement. What exactly does it mean? Remember there was no control
    arm to the experiment. The 100 men and women increased their exercise "slightly" Exercise is one way
    to lower insulin resistance.

    > The researchers speculate that the chemical properties of grapefruit reduce insulin levels and
    > encourage weight loss.

    Speculate seems more appropriate before the experiment than after.

    Surely if the experiment is all that it is cracked up to be then a statement such as "this pilot
    study supports the hypothesis that regular grapefruit consumption lower insulin levels" would give
    the folks who paid for the research better value for money.

    >The importance of this link lies with the hormone's weight management function. While not its
    >primary function, insulin assists with the regulation of fat metabolism. Therefore, the smaller the
    >insulin spike after a meal, the more efficiently the body processes food for use as energy and the
    >less it's stored as fat in the body.

    >Grapefruit may possess unique chemical properties that reduce insulin levels which promotes
    >weight loss.

    It might just be a good source of citric acid which could be more cheaply obtained from other
    sources. Of course grapefruit does possess high quantities of the bioflavonoid naringin. It would
    have been no big deal to run a control arm using low naringin citrus. Of course since the same folks
    who are sponsoring the grapefruit study might well also be selling oranges and lemons you can see
    why they might not want to do that.

    >Obesity continues to plague the American public and the health system. According to the National
    >Center for Health Statistics, 64 percent of U.S. adults are considered overweight or obese.
    >Overweight or obese people stand a greater likelihood of developing life-altering and/or life-
    >threatening illnesses such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, high
    >cholesterol, sleep apnea, arthritis, liver problems, and many others.

    BLAH BLAH BLAH. When short of an experiment result or two juice up the report on the pilot study.
    Hey it is win win. The sponsors gains some juice for promoting their product. The researchers gets
    invited back to do more research. I mean who could accept the guilt of not curing American obesity
    when they had the answer. <yeah, right>

    My guess is grapefruit sales will not change obesity figures in the USA one iota.

    >"Our study shows grapefruit can play a vital role in overall health and wellness, and in battling
    >America's ever-growing obesity epidemic," stated Dr. Fujioka. "Whether it's the properties of
    >grapefruit or its ability to satiate appetites,

    Now here the story unfolds. Mandarins have a high satiety index. Grapefruit a probably similar. Dr.
    Fujioka who did the research isn't sure whether "its ability to satiate appetites" Ask yourself what
    that implies. If the research can't dismiss that option then it means the participants may well have
    changed the quantity of foods they were eating. The "magic" may well be "if you eat grapefruit with
    every meal you eat less"

    >grapefruit appeared to help with weight loss and decreased insulin levels leading to better health.
    >It's good the "Grapefruit Diet" never lost its popularity among the public."

    [snip]

    Does all this mean I am for or against the grapefruit diet?

    No.

    I'd just like to know what can and what can't be reliably believed in.

    Personally I'm delighted vested interests sponsor the research. No one else is likely to.
    Hopefully there will be more of it with better controls and more definite conclusions. (I only
    wish the tamarillo growers of NZ had the financial clout to afford research.) We need to know what
    is and isn't so.

    Best wishes,

    --
    Quentin Grady ^ ^ / New Zealand, >#,#< [ / \ /\ "... and the blind dog was leading."

    http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/quentin
     
  7. This post not CC'd by email
    On Fri, 13 Feb 2004 08:03:48 +1300, Quentin Grady
    <[email protected]> wrote:

    >We need to know what is and isn't so.

    G'day G'day Folks,

    One short coming of industry sponsored news reports is that some of the less responsible ones fail
    to mention contraindications.

    Grapefruit is notorious for its unfavourable interactions with very prescription drugs. The problem
    is likely to be diminished liver clearance.

    Best wishes,

    --
    Quentin Grady ^ ^ / New Zealand, >#,#< [ / \ /\ "... and the blind dog was leading."

    http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/quentin
     
  8. Mike V

    Mike V Guest

    "Quentin Grady" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > This post not CC'd by email On 9 Feb 2004 12:54:43 -0800, [email protected] (tcomeau) wrote:
    >
    > >Some interesting slight of hand here:
    > >
    >
    >http://www.scrippsclinic.com/news/Article_Fulltext.cfm?ID=211&nc0.04389574
    > >
    > >------------------------
    > >Grapefruit Diet: Fact, Not Fiction
    > >
    > > Scripps Clinic Research Verifies Link between Grapefruit and Weight Loss
    > >
    > >SAN DIEGO, CA - January 21, 2004 - The grapefruit diet is not a myth.
    >
    > ROTFL
    >
    > Of course it is not a myth. It exists in women's magazines along with eating only bread every
    > other day.
    >
    > >That's what a new study by the Nutrition and Metabolic Research Center at Scripps Clinic
    > >confirmed. Researchers there found that the simple act of adding grapefruit and grapefruit juice
    > >to one's diet can result in weight loss.
    > >
    > >The 12-week pilot study, led by Dr. Ken Fujioka, monitored weight and metabolic factors, such as
    > >insulin secretion, of the 100 men and women who participated in the Scripps Clinic "Grapefruit
    > >Diet" study. On average, participants who ate half a grapefruit with each meal lost
    > >3.6 pounds, while those who drank a serving of grapefruit juice three times a day lost 3.3
    > > pounds. However, many patients in the study lost more than 10 pounds.
    > >
    > >"For years people have talked about the grapefruit diet, and some even swear by it, but now, we
    > >have data that grapefruit helps weight loss," said Dr. Fujioka, principal researcher at the
    > >Nutrition and Metabolic Research Center at Scripps Clinic. "Our study participants maintained
    > >their daily eating habits and slightly enhanced their exercise routine; the only dietary change
    > >was the intake of Florida grapefruit and grapefruit juice."
    >
    > Notice they didn't have a control group. They didn't do a cross over etc, etc.
    >
    > >"Our study participants maintained their daily eating habits
    >
    > So they ate their the same amounts of foods PLUS the grapefruit!? Or did they eat the same foods
    > with grapefruit ie eat the same volume of food with grapefruit displacing some of their usual
    > foods. Imagine for a moment a diet in which one had to eat raspberries without sugar and cream or
    > a vegetable like cucumber with EVERY meal. Chance are high one would lose weight. Berries and
    > cucumber are low in calories.
    >
    > > and slightly enhanced their exercise routine;
    >
    > Now isn't this strange. Haven't we been there before just recently with the high carb diet that
    > beat the SAD control diet. According to the seven researchers, there wasn't supposed to be a
    > significant difference in calories between the intervention diet and the control diet ... but
    > there was and that was the significant factor.
    >
    > Notice in this experiment there was NO CONTROL ARM and ALL the participants increased their
    > exercise routine and ALL the participants lost weight.
    >
    > >the only dietary change was the intake of Florida grapefruit and grapefruit juice."
    >
    > >Additionally, the research indicates a physiological link between grapefruit and insulin, as it
    > >relates to weight management.
    >
    > Now isn't this an interesting statement. What exactly does it mean? Remember there was no control
    > arm to the experiment. The 100 men and women increased their exercise "slightly" Exercise is one
    > way to lower insulin resistance.
    >
    > > The researchers speculate that the chemical properties of grapefruit reduce insulin levels and
    > > encourage weight loss.
    >
    > Speculate seems more appropriate before the experiment than after.
    >
    > Surely if the experiment is all that it is cracked up to be then a statement such as "this pilot
    > study supports the hypothesis that regular grapefruit consumption lower insulin levels" would give
    > the folks who paid for the research better value for money.
    >
    > >The importance of this link lies with the hormone's weight management function. While not its
    > >primary function, insulin assists with the regulation of fat metabolism. Therefore, the smaller
    > >the insulin spike after a meal, the more efficiently the body processes food for use as energy
    > >and the less it's stored as fat in the body.
    >
    > >Grapefruit may possess unique chemical properties that reduce insulin levels which promotes
    > >weight loss.
    >
    > It might just be a good source of citric acid which could be more cheaply obtained from other
    > sources. Of course grapefruit does possess high quantities of the bioflavonoid naringin. It would
    > have been no big deal to run a control arm using low naringin citrus. Of course since the same
    > folks who are sponsoring the grapefruit study might well also be selling oranges and lemons you
    > can see why they might not want to do that.
    >
    > >Obesity continues to plague the American public and the health system. According to the National
    > >Center for Health Statistics, 64 percent of U.S. adults are considered overweight or obese.
    > >Overweight or obese people stand a greater likelihood of developing life-altering and/or life-
    > >threatening illnesses such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, high
    > >cholesterol, sleep apnea, arthritis, liver problems, and many others.
    >
    > BLAH BLAH BLAH. When short of an experiment result or two juice up the report on the pilot study.
    > Hey it is win win. The sponsors gains some juice for promoting their product. The researchers gets
    > invited back to do more research. I mean who could accept the guilt of not curing American obesity
    > when they had the answer. <yeah, right>
    >
    > My guess is grapefruit sales will not change obesity figures in the USA one iota.
    >
    >
    > >"Our study shows grapefruit can play a vital role in overall health and wellness, and in battling
    > >America's ever-growing obesity epidemic," stated Dr. Fujioka. "Whether it's the properties of
    > >grapefruit or its ability to satiate appetites,
    >
    > Now here the story unfolds. Mandarins have a high satiety index. Grapefruit a probably similar.
    > Dr. Fujioka who did the research isn't sure whether "its ability to satiate appetites" Ask
    > yourself what that implies. If the research can't dismiss that option then it means the
    > participants may well have changed the quantity of foods they were eating. The "magic" may well be
    > "if you eat grapefruit with every meal you eat less"
    >
    > >grapefruit appeared to help with weight loss and decreased insulin levels leading to better
    > >health. It's good the "Grapefruit Diet" never lost its popularity among the public."
    >
    > [snip]
    >
    > Does all this mean I am for or against the grapefruit diet?
    >
    > No.
    >
    > I'd just like to know what can and what can't be reliably believed in.
    >
    > Personally I'm delighted vested interests sponsor the research. No one else is likely to.
    > Hopefully there will be more of it with better controls and more definite conclusions. (I only
    > wish the tamarillo growers of NZ had the financial clout to afford research.) We need to know what
    > is and isn't so.
    >
    > Best wishes,
    >
    >
    >
    > --
    > Quentin Grady ^ ^ / New Zealand, >#,#< [ / \ /\ "... and the blind dog was leading."
    >
    > http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/quentin

    Hi Quentin and TC:

    Keep in mind that this was a news release. The following article does not hide the promotional
    character of the research. It also answers a couple of the questions raised by you and TC:

    1 $150,000. 2 Quote: "They plan to enroll 100 people in the study and include a control group who
    will take fake grapefruit pills. The participants won't change their diet in any other way."

    By JULIE HAUSERMAN, Times Staff Writer © St. Petersburg Times published March 4, 2003

    TALLAHASSEE -- The Florida Citrus Department is paying $150,000 to find out whether one of the
    oldest fad diets in America, the Grapefruit Diet, actually works.

    The contract for the study went to researchers in California -- Florida's rival in citrus sales.

    The researchers will give overweight people grapefruits, grapefruit pills and grapefruit juice to
    see if it makes them lose weight, even if they continue to chow down on bacon and eggs and
    cheeseburgers.

    If grapefruit is proven to be a flab fighter, citrus officials say, it might help boost
    sales. Florida produces 80 percent of the world's grapefruit, but sales have been down the
    past three years.

    Older people have been the biggest grapefruit fans, and promoters are trying to position grapefruit
    juice as a health drink for young mothers. One marketing plan shows that the Citrus Department went
    to beauty magazines and promoted grapefruit juice as a way to fight bloating "so you look and feel
    great in your little black dress."

    For bridal magazines, the Citrus Department promoted grapefruit juice as "the hottest trend in
    entertaining" and recommended it as part of a "pre-wedding beauty regime."

    As for the Grapefruit Diet, it's been around since the 1930s. It had one incarnation as the
    Hollywood Diet. Dieters are supposed to eat a lot of grapefruit, a little protein and not much else.

    "Every single time there's been a promotion of grapefruit as a weight loss product, there's been an
    increase in grapefruit sales," said Dr. Joseph Ahrens, director of research for Florida's Department
    of Citrus. "We cannot make any claim unless it's based on a scientific study."

    The Department of Citrus implies on its Web site that grapefruit is a diet aid. It features the
    "Heart Healthy Florida Grapefruit Diet," recommended by television fitness diva Denise Austin.

    "We do promote a diet, but we never say that grapefruit causes weight loss," Ahrens said. "We've
    always couched it in those terms -- that you can enjoy grapefruit as part of a heart-healthy diet."

    The diet is a regular low-calorie eating plan that features lots of fruits and vegetables, including
    grapefruit. One suggested dinner: shrimp scampi sauteed in Florida grapefruit juice.

    The Web site says that "a prestigious East Coast University has released the results of their study
    incorporating the new heart Healthy Florida Grapefruit Diet."

    That study, done for the Citrus Department by Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, wasn't
    particularly valuable in proving whether grapefruit works as a weight-loss aid, said Ahrens. There
    was no control group of people who didn't eat any grapefruit, he said. The study participants went
    on a low-calorie diet and ate grapefruit, so it wasn't clear whether they lost weight because of the
    low-calorie diet or because of the grapefruit.

    In 1975, an administrative law judge ruled that the makers of the "Grapefruit Pill Diet" misled
    consumers by saying grapefruit caused weight loss, when there's no scientific study to prove it.

    "Right now, grapefruit is associated with weight loss," Ahrens said, "but that's not as powerful as
    saying grapefruit causes weight loss. Our aim is to nail it down."

    In December, the Citrus Department sought researchers who would study "the effect of grapefruit
    products on 'bloating,' and if initial weight loss, if any, is due in part or whole as a
    diuretic/bloat reliever."

    The study -- and the entire Citrus Department -- are paid for by a tax on every box of citrus sold
    in Florida.

    Researchers at the Scripps Clinic in San Diego were awarded the state contract.

    "They plan to enroll 100 people in the study and include a control group who will take fake
    grapefruit pills. The participants won't change their diet in any other way."

    "We'll find out of there really is some chemical that's doing something metabolically," said Judith
    Sheard, manager of the Scripps study.

    One Web site devoted to dissecting various fad diets, dietreviews.com, posts a warning: "There is no
    one food that has magical properties to cause fat to melt off. If there were, we would have known
    about it before now!"

    The Grapefruit Diet

    There are many versions of the Grapefruit Diet, which began in the 1930s as the Hollywood Diet. This
    diet claims that grapefruit contains a special fat-burning enzyme, activated when you eat half a
    grapefruit for each meal, along with small amounts of other food.

    * * * Does grapefruit have a special fat-burning enzyme?

    No. There is no scientific basis to this claim. Grapefruit is a good food, but so are other healthy
    foods like vegetables and other fruits.

    * * * Does the diet work?

    It works because people cut their calories. If you consume fewer calories than your body uses, you
    will lose weight.

    Source: Dr. Kelly D. Brownell, director of the Yale Center for Eating and Weight Disorders,
    www.webmd.com

    Regards:

    MikeV
     
  9. Mike V

    Mike V Guest

    "tcomeau" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > "Mike V" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:<[email protected]>...
    > > "tcomeau" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    > > news:[email protected]...
    > > > Some interesting slight of hand here:
    > > >
    > > >
    http://www.scrippsclinic.com/news/Article_Fulltext.cfm?ID=211&nc0.04389574
    > > >
    > > > ------------------------
    > > > Grapefruit Diet: Fact, Not Fiction
    > > >
    > > > Scripps Clinic Research Verifies Link between Grapefruit and Weight Loss
    > >
    > > SNIP
    > > >
    > > > I can't find where this "study" was published. Hmmmmm.
    > > >
    > > > Look at this quote:
    > > >
    > > > " ....the only dietary change was the intake of Florida grapefruit and grapefruit juice."
    > > >
    > > > Are we to assume that non-Florida grapefruit do not have the same benefit? And why did he
    > > > specifically mention Florida?
    > > >
    > > > Check out the second last paragraph about the FDOC. Why is this relevant? Did the florida
    > > > citrus growers or a florida government citrus support agency pay for this study? Why are they
    > > > not clear on this? Who paid for tis study?
    > > >
    > > > Sounds awfully fishy to me. Is this science? It was presented as science and it sure got a lot
    > > > of headlines.
    > > >
    > > > TC
    > >
    > > Draw your own conclusions. MikeV
    > >
    > > My email to Scripps clinic:
    > >
    > > Sent on: 2/9/04 at 8:32 PM Comments: Re: grapefruit diet. very interesting report. What do the
    > > the initials FDOC stand for. Can we assume that FDOC funded the study? Will
    it
    > > be reported in a peer reviewed journal? Thank you. MikeV
    > >
    > >
    > > Reply:
    > >
    > > Dear Mike,
    > >
    > > Florida Department of Citrus, and yes they funded it and it is submitted
    and
    > > awaiting acceptance or rejection, per Dr. Fujioka.
    > >
    > > Sincerely,
    > >
    > > Monique Inglese
    > >
    > > Website Communications Coordinator Scripps Clinic Marketing and Communications Department 4275
    > > Campus Point Court, CP10 San Diego, CA 92037 Phone (858)678-6838 Fax (858)678-6900 e-mail
    > > ([email protected])
    >
    >
    > Why was the funding not clearly stated in the press release?
    >
    > How much did the study cost?
    >
    > What other researchers signed the study?
    >
    > What interests does the Scripps Clinic, any of its related organisations, researchers, directors
    > and staff have in the citus industry, the food industry or the pharmaceutical industry?
    >
    > How much money have they recieved from these industries?
    >
    > Who funds the Scripps organisations?
    >
    > TC

    Get us some answers, TC!

    Meanwhile, this may provide some insight:

    Low-carb diets squeezing orange growers By MIKE SCHNEIDER, Associated Press Last Updated 1:20 p.m.
    PST Thursday, January 22, 2004 LAKELAND, Fla. (AP) - Tired of losing orange juice drinkers to low-
    carb diets, Florida's citrus growers are fighting back. The state Department of Citrus on
    Wednesday changed its marketing strategy to convince consumers that orange juice can be compatible
    with the Atkins diet as well as the popular weight-loss plan pushed by television talk show host
    Dr. Phil McGraw.

    The department's lawyer also is reviewing legal options against some books, such as "The South
    Beach Diet," that discourage orange juice for dieting purposes because of its high sugar levels.
    About $1.8 million will be spent on a marketing campaign to combat the bad image caused by low-
    carb diets. The department is abandoning a marketing campaign that targeted moms and young
    professional women.

    "There are powerful, negative messages against us," said Bob Crawford, executive director of the
    Florida Department of Citrus. "We're not going to stand and take it."

    Florida's $9 billion citrus industry has reason to be concerned. Orange juice consumption has fallen
    from 888 million gallons during the 2000-2001 growing season to an expected 844 million gallons in
    the current season.

    Citrus officials said a noticeable drop occurred last March when low-carb diets began to reach a
    critical mass.

    "People are dropping out of the market," said Dan Gunter, a consultant for the Department of Citrus.

    Crawford said the Atkins diet and Dr. Phil's diet leave room for orange juice consumption. But he
    said lawyers were reviewing claims against orange juice made in "The South Beach Diet" and other
    publications.

    "I think if people write things that aren't true about our product, we'll first talk about it with
    them and hopefully avoid litigation," Crawford said.

    In "The South Beach Diet," Dr. Arthur Agatston urges readers to eat fruits rather than drink
    fruit juice.

    "Again, fruit juices are a big source of trouble, in part because we've come to associate them with
    healthy habits," Agatston writes in the best-selling book. "But they also bring with them high
    levels of fructose, which can be the undoing of any effort to lose weight."

    The publisher, Rodale Inc., said it stands by the book's "sound nutritional advice."

    Most of Florida's oranges are processed into juice. Florida is the nation's largest producer of
    oranges and second in the world to Brazil.
     
  10. This post not CC'd by email
    On Thu, 12 Feb 2004 21:56:26 GMT, "Mike V" <[email protected]>
    wrote:

    >Hi Quentin and TC:
    >
    >Keep in mind that this was a news release. The following article does not hide the promotional
    >character of the research. It also answers a couple of the questions raised by you and TC:

    G'day G'day Mike,

    >1 $150,000.

    I'll leave that point to TC. Frankly I'm always glad when people do research on real food. If the
    pilot studies are shown to have flaws and raise as many questions as they answer then to my mind
    that isn't a problem. It is in fact part of the solution. Once an industry starts doing research
    they get exposure and IMHO that makes it harder for them to stop. It is embarrassing if they do a
    pilot study and their critics have ammunitions to say, "research failed to prove the claims the
    blah, blah, blah industry has been coyly hinting at for years." "Couldn't substantiate their
    claims." As I've said before, I'm glad someone fronts up and pays for the research. It's a gamble
    and I'm glad some one does it.

    >It also answers a couple of the questions raised by you and TC:

    Hmmm. I'd rather say this further research proposal makes it clear the pilot study did not answer
    the questions. The results in the news article clearly compared half a grapefruit per meal and
    grapefruit juice. No grapefruit pills ... no control.

    >2 Quote: "They plan to enroll 100 people in the study and include a control group who will take
    >fake grapefruit pills. The participants won't change their diet in any other way."

    Here it is saying "they plan", "will take" ... all indications of discussion of an event that has
    yet to take place and naturally yet to produce results ... I hope.

    >By JULIE HAUSERMAN, Times Staff Writer © St. Petersburg Times published March 4, 2003
    >
    >TALLAHASSEE -- The Florida Citrus Department is paying $150,000 to find out whether one of the
    >oldest fad diets in America, the Grapefruit Diet, actually works.
    >
    >The contract for the study went to researchers in California -- Florida's rival in citrus sales.
    >
    >The researchers will give overweight people grapefruits, grapefruit pills and grapefruit juice to
    >see if it makes them lose weight, even if they continue to chow down on bacon and eggs and
    >cheeseburgers.

    This study proposal doesn't mention insulin, a key feature of the news article research. Now the
    insulin production aspect fascinates me. How was the grapefruit lowering insulin levels.

    1. Did it improve insulin sensitivity? That would be great for diabetics on sulph type oral meds
    where the drug improves the initial release of insulin. There is recent research showing
    vinegar with meals improved insulin sensitivity. I have no idea why. Sometimes the mild organic
    acids found in foods lower glycemic indices. I suspect there is some thing more. So many
    cuisines include acetic acid and citric acid it seems likely that there is some selection
    pressure for doing so. OK, it is likely to be avoiding food poisoning and keeping food through
    long Winters and T2 diabetes until recently has been confined to those who have almost done
    breeding. Whatever.

    2. The last thing they want is to have something that interferes with insulin production. Palmitic
    acid from saturated fats does in the presence of high glucose.

    3. Hopefully it doesn't bump off a few beta cells in the pancreas. That wouldn't be nice.

    Put simply, we all need to know whether the post prandial insulin is lower because it interferes
    with insulin production or whether it reduces the need for excess insulin production.

    [snip]

    >* * * Does the diet work?
    >
    >It works because people cut their calories. If you consume fewer calories than your body uses, you
    >will lose weight.
    >
    >Source: Dr. Kelly D. Brownell, director of the Yale Center for Eating and Weight Disorders,
    >www.webmd.com

    That could suggest Dr Kelly D. Brownell believes any one of a number of possibilities.

    4. grapefruit are low in calories compared with the other foods people would eat if they didn't eat
    grapefruit.

    5. people eat smaller portions of grapefruit. They don't really like them so they eat them
    reluctantly ... crude but effective food aversion therapy.

    6. they have a high satiety index ... people don't start eating something else soon after
    eating them.

    7. they induce satiation. People stop eating sooner. This might or might not be because they feel
    satisfied. It might or might not be because they no longer feel hungry.

    8. something I haven't thought of yet.

    >Regards:
    >
    >MikeV

    --
    Quentin Grady ^ ^ / New Zealand, >#,#< [ / \ /\ "... and the blind dog was leading."

    http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/quentin
     
  11. Tim Tyler

    Tim Tyler Guest

    Quentin Grady <[email protected]> wrote or quoted:

    > Grapefruit is notorious for its unfavourable interactions with very prescription drugs. The
    > problem is likely to be diminished liver clearance.

    More specifically:

    ``Grapefruit juice is a potent inhibitor of the intestinal cytochrome P-450 3A4 system
    (specifically: CYP3A4 - mediated drug metabolism) which is responsible for the first-pass metabolism
    of many medications. [...]''

    - http://www.globalrph.com/gfruit.htm
    --
    __________
    |im |yler http://timtyler.org/ [email protected] Remove lock to reply.
     
  12. Mike V

    Mike V Guest

    "Quentin Grady" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > This post not CC'd by email On Thu, 12 Feb 2004 21:56:26 GMT, "Mike V"
    > <[email protected]> wrote:
    >
    > >Hi Quentin and TC:
    > >
    > >Keep in mind that this was a news release. The following article does not hide the promotional
    > >character of the research. It also answers a couple
    of
    > >the questions raised by you and TC:
    >
    > G'day G'day Mike,
    >
    > >1 $150,000.
    >
    > I'll leave that point to TC. Frankly I'm always glad when people do research on real food. If the
    > pilot studies are shown to have flaws and raise as many questions as they answer then to my mind
    > that isn't a problem. It is in fact part of the solution. Once an industry starts doing research
    > they get exposure and IMHO that makes it harder for them to stop. It is embarrassing if they do a
    > pilot study and their critics have ammunitions to say, "research failed to prove the claims the
    > blah, blah, blah industry has been coyly hinting at for years." "Couldn't substantiate their
    > claims." As I've said before, I'm glad someone fronts up and pays for the research. It's a gamble
    > and I'm glad some one does it.
    >
    > >It also answers a couple of the questions raised by you and TC:
    >
    > Hmmm. I'd rather say this further research proposal makes it clear the pilot study did not answer
    > the questions. The results in the news article clearly compared half a grapefruit per meal and
    > grapefruit juice. No grapefruit pills ... no control.
    >
    > >2 Quote: "They plan to enroll 100 people in the study and include a control group who will take
    > >fake grapefruit pills. The participants won't change their diet in any other way."
    >
    > Here it is saying "they plan", "will take" ... all indications of discussion of an event that has
    > yet to take place and naturally yet to produce results ... I hope.
    >
    > >By JULIE HAUSERMAN, Times Staff Writer © St. Petersburg Times published March 4, 2003
    > >
    > >TALLAHASSEE -- The Florida Citrus Department is paying $150,000 to find
    out
    > >whether one of the oldest fad diets in America, the Grapefruit Diet, actually works.
    > >
    > >The contract for the study went to researchers in California -- Florida's rival in citrus sales.
    > >
    > >The researchers will give overweight people grapefruits, grapefruit pills and grapefruit juice to
    > >see if it makes them lose weight, even if they continue to chow down on bacon and eggs and
    > >cheeseburgers.
    >
    > This study proposal doesn't mention insulin, a key feature of the news article research. Now the
    > insulin production aspect fascinates me. How was the grapefruit lowering insulin levels.
    >
    > 1. Did it improve insulin sensitivity? That would be great for diabetics on sulph type oral meds
    > where the drug improves the initial release of insulin. There is recent research showing
    > vinegar with meals improved insulin sensitivity. I have no idea why. Sometimes the mild organic
    > acids found in foods lower glycemic indices. I suspect there is some thing more. So many
    > cuisines include acetic acid and citric acid it seems likely that there is some selection
    > pressure for doing so. OK, it is likely to be avoiding food poisoning and keeping food through
    > long Winters and T2 diabetes until recently has been confined to those who have almost done
    > breeding. Whatever.
    >
    > 2. The last thing they want is to have something that interferes with insulin production. Palmitic
    > acid from saturated fats does in the presence of high glucose.
    >
    > 3. Hopefully it doesn't bump off a few beta cells in the pancreas. That wouldn't be nice.
    >
    > Put simply, we all need to know whether the post prandial insulin is lower because it interferes
    > with insulin production or whether it reduces the need for excess insulin production.
    >
    > [snip]
    >
    > >* * * Does the diet work?
    > >
    > >It works because people cut their calories. If you consume fewer calories than your body uses,
    > >you will lose weight.
    > >
    > >Source: Dr. Kelly D. Brownell, director of the Yale Center for Eating and Weight Disorders,
    > >www.webmd.com
    >
    > That could suggest Dr Kelly D. Brownell believes any one of a number of possibilities.
    >
    > 1. grapefruit are low in calories compared with the other foods people would eat if they didn't
    > eat grapefruit.
    >
    > 2. people eat smaller portions of grapefruit. They don't really like them so they eat them
    > reluctantly ... crude but effective food aversion therapy.
    >
    > 3. they have a high satiety index ... people don't start eating something else soon after eating
    > them.
    >
    > 4. they induce satiation. People stop eating sooner. This might or might not be because they feel
    > satisfied. It might or might not be because they no longer feel hungry.
    >
    > 5. something I haven't thought of yet.
    >
    > >Regards:
    > >
    > >MikeV
    >
    >
    > --
    > Quentin Grady ^ ^ / New Zealand, >#,#< [ / \ /\ "... and the blind dog was leading."
    >
    > http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/quentin

    Hi Quentin,TC: Careful and skeptical analysis of studies always appreciated. Just think that a
    somewhat sloppy Scripps news release was hardly worth the attention. There are certainly many
    questions to be answered. Clearly grapefruit has significant metabolic activity. Regards MikeV
     
  13. Quentin Grady <[email protected]> writes:

    >This post not CC'd by email On Fri, 13 Feb 2004 08:03:48 +1300, Quentin Grady
    ><[email protected]> wrote:

    >>We need to know what is and isn't so.

    >G'day G'day Folks,

    >One short coming of industry sponsored news reports is that some of the less responsible ones fail
    >to mention contraindications.

    >Grapefruit is notorious for its unfavourable interactions with very prescription drugs. The problem
    >is likely to be diminished liver clearance.

    Unfavourable? Depends what you want. It slows down the metabolic destruction of some drugs,
    increasing their half life in the system. So to achieve the same average blood levels, while taking
    grapefruit, you'd take less. Could be an advantage. Caffeine is one that lasts longer with
    grapefruit.

    --
    Chris Malcolm [email protected] +44 (0)131 651 3445 DoD #205
    IPAB, Informatics, JCMB, King's Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, UK
    [http://www.dai.ed.ac.uk/homes/cam/]
     
  14. This post not CC'd by email
    On Fri, 13 Feb 2004 16:46:01 +0000 (UTC), [email protected]
    (Chris Malcolm) wrote:

    >Unfavourable? Depends what you want. It slows down the metabolic destruction of some drugs,
    >increasing their half life in the system. So to achieve the same average blood levels, while taking
    >grapefruit, you'd take less. Could be an advantage. Caffeine is one that lasts longer with
    >grapefruit.

    G'day G'day Chris,

    Good point. The events that get the publicity are the bad ones where prescription drugs become
    toxic at normal doses.

    Best wishes,
    --
    Quentin Grady ^ ^ / New Zealand, >#,#< [ / \ /\ "... and the blind dog was leading."

    http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/quentin
     
  15. This post not CC'd by email
    On Fri, 13 Feb 2004 16:20:10 GMT, "Mike V" <[email protected]>
    wrote:

    >Hi Quentin,TC: Careful and skeptical analysis of studies always appreciated.

    G'day G'day Mike,

    Thanks. I do it for the exercise as much as the outcome.

    >Just think that a somewhat sloppy Scripps news release was hardly worth the attention.

    True ... unless one wishes to make use of other people's sloppy presentations as free raw material
    to exercise ones analytic skills.

    To me it like running on a treadmill in a gym. One doesn't get anywhere and one has to hold onto a
    belief, perhaps unfounded, that the exercise is beneficial.

    >There are certainly many questions to be answered.

    Agreed.

    >Clearly grapefruit has significant metabolic activity.

    Agreed. The effect on insulin is one I'd like to know more about.

    >Regards MikeV

    Best wishes and thanks.
    --
    Quentin Grady ^ ^ / New Zealand, >#,#< [ / \ /\ "... and the blind dog was leading."

    http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/quentin
     
  16. This post not CC'd by email
    On Fri, 13 Feb 2004 13:34:39 GMT, Tim Tyler <[email protected]> wrote:

    >Quentin Grady <[email protected]> wrote or quoted:
    >
    >> Grapefruit is notorious for its unfavourable interactions with very prescription drugs. The
    >> problem is likely to be diminished liver clearance.
    >
    >More specifically:
    >
    >``Grapefruit juice is a potent inhibitor of the intestinal cytochrome P-450 3A4 system
    >(specifically: CYP3A4 - mediated drug metabolism) which is responsible for the first-pass
    >metabolism of many medications. [...]''
    >
    > - http://www.globalrph.com/gfruit.htm

    G'day G'day Tim,

    Thanks for filling the details. I think of it as step one of the brown stuff hitting the fan. Step
    two mops up.

    Best wishes,

    --
    Quentin Grady ^ ^ / New Zealand, >#,#< [ / \ /\ "... and the blind dog was leading."

    http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/quentin
     
  17. Mike V

    Mike V Guest

    "Chris Malcolm" <[email protected]> wrote in message
    news:[email protected]...
    > Quentin Grady <[email protected]> writes:
    >
    > >This post not CC'd by email On Fri, 13 Feb 2004 08:03:48 +1300, Quentin Grady
    > ><[email protected]> wrote:
    >
    > >>We need to know what is and isn't so.
    >
    > >G'day G'day Folks,
    >
    > >One short coming of industry sponsored news reports is that some of the less responsible ones
    > >fail to mention contraindications.
    >
    > >Grapefruit is notorious for its unfavourable interactions with very prescription drugs. The
    > >problem is likely to be diminished liver clearance.
    >
    > Unfavourable? Depends what you want. It slows down the metabolic destruction of some drugs,
    > increasing their half life in the system. So to achieve the same average blood levels, while
    > taking grapefruit, you'd take less. Could be an advantage. Caffeine is one that lasts longer with
    > grapefruit.
    >
    > --
    > Chris Malcolm [email protected] +44 (0)131 651 3445 DoD #205 IPAB, Informatics, JCMB,
    > King's Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, UK [http://www.dai.ed.ac.uk/homes/cam/]
    >

    Hello Chris: Agreed. Is there any (known) downside to grapefruit consumption (prescription or otc
    drug effects excluded)? My position is: the grapefruit came first! I spend a disproportionate
    fraction of my life trying to avoid pharmaceutical interference with what I believe to be a pretty
    decent basic system, if you treat it properly. :-} (successful so far, . . . no health problems)

    Regards, MikeV South Carolina (40 year UK ex-pat)
     
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