Is there something unique about cereal fibre?

Discussion in 'Food and nutrition' started by Quentin Grady, Feb 26, 2004.

  1. G'day G'day Folks,

    Cereal fibre appears to have a more consistent track record when it comes to avoiding diseases than
    fibre from vegetables and fruit. This may be because cereals in the form of bread, pasta and
    breakfast cereals make a bigger contribution to the fibre intake for most people.

    The questions I ask myself are "What if this is not the reason? What features could cereal fibre
    have that fruit and vegetable fibres not have?

    Best wishes,

    1: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3658-63.

    Dietary fiber reduces peripheral arterial disease risk in men.

    Merchant AT, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Ascherio A.

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    [email protected]

    We prospectively evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber and peripheral arterial disease
    risk (PAD) among 46,032 men, aged 40 to 75 y, in 1986.

    [snip]

    In a nonlinear model the overall inverse association (P = 0.02) and nonlinear components (P = 0.03)
    were significant.

    Fruit, vegetable and total fiber intakes were not associated with PAD risk. These results suggest an
    inverse association between cereal fiber intake and PAD risk in men. Increasing cereal fiber intake
    may prevent PAD.

    PMID: 14608090 [PubMed - in process]

    When it comes to rectal cancer cereal WHOLE grain REDUCES the risk but REFINED grain INCREASES
    it. Of course that doesn't mean it is the fibre that does the trick. There are no figures for
    whole meal.

    2: Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Feb;79(2):274-81.

    Plant foods, fiber, and rectal cancer.

    Slattery ML, Curtin KP, Edwards SL, Schaffer DM.

    Health Research Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, and the Kaiser Permanente Medical
    Research Program, Oakland, CA, USA. [email protected]

    BACKGROUND: Associations between colon and rectal cancer and intakes of vegetables, other plant
    foods, and fiber have stimulated much debate.

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between rectal cancer and plant food and fiber intakes.
    DESIGN: Data from 952 incident cases of rectal cancer were compared with data from 1205 population-
    based controls living in Utah or enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in northern
    California

    RESULTS: Rectal cancer was inversely associated with intakes of vegetables (odds ratio: 0.72; 95%
    CI: 0.54, 0.98), fruit (0.73; 0.53, 0.99), and whole-grain products (0.69; 0.51, 0.94), whereas a
    high intake of refined-grain products was directly associated with an increased risk of rectal
    cancer (1.42; 1.04, 1.92).

    Similarly, relative to low fiber intakes, high intakes of dietary fiber reduced the risk of rectal
    cancer (0.54; 0.37, 0.78). The reduced risk of rectal cancer associated with vegetable (0.48; 0.29,
    .80), fruit (0.63; 0.38, 1.06), and fiber (0.40; 0.22, 0.71) intakes was strongest for persons who
    received the diagnosis after age 65 y. A threshold effect at approximately 5 servings of
    vegetables/d was needed to see a reduced risk of rectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest
    that plant foods may be important in the etiology of rectal cancer in both men and women. Age at
    diagnosis appears to play an important role in the association.

    A similar pattern is noticed with CVD events. (In another study fruit fibre out performed cereal but
    vegetable fibre didn't feature in the winners circle.)

    PMID: 14749234 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    3: JAMA. 2003 Apr 2;289(13):1659-66.

    Cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in elderly
    individuals.

    Mozaffarian D, Kumanyika SK, Lemaitre RN, Olson JL, Burke GL, Siscovick DS.

    Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle,
    Wash, USA. [email protected]

    Setting and PARTICIPANTS: Population-based, multicenter study among 3588 men and women aged 65 years
    or older and free of known CVD at baseline in 1989-1990. Usual dietary fiber consumption was
    assessed at baseline (mean participant age, 72 years) using a 99-item food frequency questionnaire.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident CVD (combined stroke, ischemic heart disease death, and nonfatal
    myocardial infarction).

    RESULTS: During 8.6 years mean follow-up, there were 811 incident CVD

    smoking, pack-years of smoking, daily physical activity, exercise intensity, alcohol intake, and
    fruit and vegetable fiber consumption, cereal fiber consumption was inversely associated with
    incident CVD (P for trend =.02), with 21% lower risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% confidence
    interval [CI], 0.62-0.99) in the highest quintile of intake, compared with the lowest quintile.

    In similar analyses, neither fruit fiber intake (P for trend =.98) nor vegetable fiber intake (P for
    trend =.95) were associated with incident CVD.

    When CVD events were separately evaluated, higher cereal fiber intake was associated with lower risk
    of total stroke and ischemic stroke and a trend toward lower risk of ischemic heart disease death.

    In a post hoc analysis, dark breads such as wheat, rye, or pumpernickel were associated with a lower
    risk of incident CVD (HR, .76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.90) rather than cereal fiber from other sources.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cereal fiber consumption late in life is associated with lower risk of incident CVD,
    supporting recommendations for elderly individuals to increase consumption of dietary cereal fiber.

    Publication Types: Multicenter Study

    PMID: 12672734 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    --
    Quentin Grady ^ ^ / New Zealand, >#,#< [ / \ /\ "... and the blind dog was leading."

    http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/quentin
     
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