*Minerals*

Discussion in 'Food and nutrition' started by [email protected], Jan 8, 2006.

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    CALCIUM
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 400 - 1000 mg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 500 - 2000 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Milk, Molasses, Nuts, Dandelions, Tofu, Shellfish,
    Eggs, Wheat, Collards, and Legumes.

    Tissue Stores: Bones and Teeth (99% as Hydroxyapatite)

    Normal Functions: Bone development / maintenance; Blood clotting;
    Neuromuscular activity; May retard elevated cholesterol and lipids in
    the bloodstream; Regulates the permeability of cell membranes; Required
    for the activation of several enzyme systems, heartbeat regulation,
    blood clotting.

    Deficiency States: Osteoporosis; Rickets, Osteomalacia; Hypoglycemic on
    increased protein diets; Tetany; Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension; Tooth
    decay / periodontal disease; Glucose intolerance.

    Toxicity: May occur with increased intake or with abnormalities in
    calcium/phosphorus ratio.

    Exceptional Needs: Childhood; Pregnancy; Lactation; Infancy; After
    periods of prolonged bed-rest, ie., Hospitalization; Hyperthyroidism;
    Osteoporosis; Hypertension; Hypochlorhydria.
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    CHROMIUM
    U.S. Adult R.D.A: 50 - 200 mcg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 50 - 1,000 mcg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Meat products, Cheese, Whole grains, Milk, Eggs,
    Brewers yeast, Mushrooms, and Peppers.

    Tissue Sources: Skin, Fat, Adrenals, Brain, Spleen, and Muscle.

    Normal Functions: Essential part of glucose tolerance factor required
    in insulin potentiation; Stimulates both fatty acid and cholesterol
    synthesis.

    Deficiency States: Diabetes mellitus; Possibly deficient in alcoholics
    and post operative patients; Hyperlipidemia; Arteriosclerosis;
    Disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism, taste and smell.

    Toxicity: None noted

    Exceptional Needs: Diabetes mellitus; Hypoglycemia; Elderly patients
    because of poor absorption; Possibly deficient in patients with
    schizophrenia; Patients on highly refined (processed) carbohydrate
    diet.

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    COBALT
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 3 - 5 mcg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 5 - 25 mcg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Kidney, Beef, Lamb, Veal, Poultry, Ocean fish, Milk,
    Cheese and Eggs.

    Tissue Stores: Bone, Muscle, and Kidney

    Normal Functions: Intrinsic part of Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin);
    Required for the synthesis of Methionine from Homocysteine and the
    conversion of Methylmalonic acid to Succinyl CoA for fatty acid
    synthesis; Necessary for Folic Acid synthesis.

    Deficiency States: Certain forms of macrocytic anemias, ie, Pernicious
    anemia; Hypochlorhydria.

    Toxicity: Increased intake may cause hyperthyroidism and proliferation
    of other cancerous tissues; Toxicity increased by excessive ethanol
    ingestion.

    Exceptional Needs: Hypertension; Ethanol abuse; Hypochlorhydria;
    Vegetarian diets and Pernicious anemia.

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    COPPER
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 2 mcg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 1 - 4 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Liver, Fish, Soybeans, Meats, Seafood, Nuts / seeds,
    Whole grains, and Legumes.

    Tissue Stores: Liver, Brain, and Bile.

    Normal Functions: Co-enzyme for energy metabolism; Anti-inflammatory;
    Maintains blood vessel wall integrity; Important for iron absorption
    and utilization; Necessary for SOD formation; Helps protect myelin
    sheath around the nerves.

    Deficiency States: Excessive Vitamin "C" intake; Hepatitis; Puerperal
    insanity (Post partum depression); Iron deficiency anemia;
    Hyperlipidemia; Arteriosclerosis; Osteoporosis; and Hypothyroidism.

    Toxicity: Increased levels may lead to mental / physical fatigue;
    Wilson's disease; Depression; Irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.


    Exceptional Needs: Women on estrogen therapy; Increased tissue levels
    of zinc; Premature birth; certain forms of microcytic anemias;
    Infectious hepatitis.

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    IRON
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 10 mg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 10 - 30 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Meats, Spinach, Soybeans, Dried legumes, Clams,
    Oysters, Dried fruits, and Egg yolk.

    Tissue Stores: Liver and Spleen

    Normal Functions: Oxygen transport in blood and muscle tissue; Involved
    in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation; Helps improve
    muscle function.

    Deficiency States: Achlorhydria; Increased protein and phosphate in the
    diet, Menorrhagia; Estrogen therapy; Premature infancy; Liver disease;
    Cancer; Certain anemias; Copper deficiency; Excessive calcium intake.

    Toxicity: Increased levels may lead to hemochromatosis and hepatic
    cirrhosis.

    Exceptional Needs: Pregnancy; Menstruation; Acute / chronic blood loss;
    Vegetarian women; Infancy, especially pre-maturity; Bacterial
    infections; Liver disease; Cancer and Estrogen therapy.

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    MAGNESIUM
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 300 - 350 mg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 200 - 1,000 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Whole grains, Nuts, Seeds, Cocoa, Milk, Green
    vegetables, Seafood, and Brown rice.

    Tissue Stores: Bone (60% of body stores), Muscle, and Liver.

    Normal Functions: Bone structure; Stabilizes the ATP intracellular
    structure; Co-enzyme in 80% of all enzymes, Kreb's Cycle and reactions
    with protein and nucleic acid synthesis; Involved in
    thyroid/parathyroid production.

    Deficiency States: Post-surgical or burn patients; Increased calcium
    intake; Cirrhosis of the liver; Diabetic acidosis; Arteriosclerosis;
    Leukemia; Tetany; Sudden cardiac death; Hyper-aldosteronism.

    Toxicity: May cause CNS depression, anesthesis and possibly paralysis.

    Exceptional Needs: Diets with increased refined carbohydrates; Diuretic
    therapy; Malabsorption; Decreased renal function; Malnourishment in
    hospitalized patients; Excessive alcohol ingestion.

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    MANGANESE
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 2 - 5 mg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 15 - 30 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Whole grain cereals, Leafy vegetables, Nuts and Tea.

    Tissue Stores: Liver, Kidney, Pineal / pituitary glands, and Pancreas.

    Normal Functions: Associated with enzymes involved in metabolism,
    growth / maintenance of connective tissue, bone and cartilage;
    Implicated in Melanin production, Fatty Acid synthesis, the formation
    of Membrane phospholipids and Prothrombin. Needed for Vitamin C
    absorption.

    Deficiency States: Impaired glucose metabolism; Mucopolysaccharide and
    Lipopolysaccharide deficiencies; Chronic hydralazine poisoning;
    Psychiatric disorders; Decreased mental activity and Neurologic
    disorders.

    Toxicity: High doses may cause hypertension and irreversible neurologic
    disorders; May interfere with the metabolism of other metals /
    minerals.

    Exceptional Needs: Diabetes mellitus; Hypoglycemia; Increased dietary
    hydralazine; Hyperlipidemia; Certain neuromuscular disorders (epilepsy,
    Tardive Dyskinesia); Anorexia and Iron deficiency.

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    MOLYBDENUM
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 150 - 500 mcg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 1 - 10 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Whole grains, Wheat germ, Nuts, Meats, Legumes, and
    Green leafy vegetables.

    Tissue Stores: Liver, Kidney, Bone, and Skin.

    Normal Functions: Prevention of dental caries and cancer of the
    esophagus; May help to prevent impotency in older males; Necessary for
    function of the human body.

    Deficiency States: Increased dental caries; Abnormalities in amino acid
    metabolism; Possible deficiency in patients with esophageal cancer.

    Toxicity: Increased levels may decrease body stores of Copper and Iron;
    Increased levels may also be associated with Gout and other bone
    disease processes.

    Exceptional Needs: Increased refined carbohydrates in diet; Increased
    dental caries and possibly some forms of cancer.

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    PHOSPHORUS
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 800 mg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 1,000 - 1,500 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Cod, Beef, Milk, Yogurt, Chicken, Cola beverages, High
    protein foods, and Grains.

    Tissue Stores: Bony Skeleton, and Cell membranes.

    Normal Functions: Involved in energy metabolism; Part of phospholipid
    metabolism; Bone and teeth structure; Intracellular buffer; Involved in
    Kidney / Liver functions and the production of Lecithin.

    Deficiency States: Increased Plasma Calcium concentrations; Increased
    Parathyroid concentrations.

    Toxicity: Excessive ingestion may cause Osteoporosis and severe
    diarrhea.

    Exceptional Needs: Patients on Estrogen therapy; Increased vitamin "D"
    intake; Long-term Glucocorticoid and Thyroid therapy.

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    POTASSIUM
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 1,500 - 3,000 mg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 2,000 - 5,000 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Vegetables, Fruits, Meats, Milk, Prunes, Beans,
    Lentils, Dates, Broccoli, and Potatoes.

    Tissue Stores: Intracellularly

    Normal Functions: Regulates intracellular osmotic pressure, cell
    membrane potential and charge, thereby controlling nerve impulse, heart
    rhythm, etc.; Controls blood pressure by modifying smooth muscle
    activity and salt excretion.

    Deficiency States: Patients on highly refined carbohydrate and salt
    diets; digitalis therapy~ or patients with diabetes mellitus,
    hypotension, severe diarrhea or vomiting; Hypercholesterolemia.

    Toxicity: Hyperkalemia may be seen in patients with cardiac
    irregularities and renal failure.

    Exceptional Needs: Patients on Diuretic therapy, Prednisone, ACTH or
    Digitalis therapy; Abnormal glucose metabolism; Impaired cardiac
    functions; Adrenal hyperplasia; Cancer; Renal failure.

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    SELENIUM
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 25 - 200 mcg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 50 - 1000 / Day

    Dietary Sources: Seafood, Liver, Kidney, Whole grains, Vegetables,
    Garlic and Brazil nuts.

    Tissue Stores: Red blood cells, Liver, Spleen Heart, and Nails.

    Normal Functions: A key component of the enzyme Glutathione Peroxidase
    which protects tissues, especially cell membranes from free radical
    pathology; Stimulates antibody production and protein synthesis in the
    Liver; Activates RNA and DNA.

    Deficiency States: Liver disease, Possibly deficient in Sudden Infant
    death Syndrome; Protein calorie malnutrition; Aspermatogenesis;
    Cataracts, Cancer; Cardiovascular disease.

    Toxicity: Liver failure; Inhibits cell mitosis; Hair loss; Chronic
    arthritis; Diabetes Mellitus; Renal damage; Metallic taste of the
    tongue.

    Exceptional Needs: Bottle fed infants; Increased dietary fats; Cardiac
    disease or cancer patients; Patients on Total Parenteral Nutrition
    (TPN); Cataracts; Chronic Cadmium or Mercury toxicity.

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    SODIUM
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 200 mg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 1,000 - 3,000 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Buttermilk, Haddock, Milk, Processed meats and fish,
    Canned vegetables, and Condiments.

    Tissue Stores: Bony skeleton, and Intra / extracellular spaces.

    Normal Functions: Regulates extra-cellular electrolyte / cation ratio
    and osmotic homeostasis, thereby regulating blood volume; Conversion of
    essential fatty acids to phospholipids; Essential for the transport of
    nutrients across the cell membranes.

    Deficiency States: Periods of prolonged vomiting, diarrhea and
    diaphoresis; Decreased calcium absorption; Decreased Vitamin "C" in the
    adrenals; Hypochlorhydria; Reproductive disorders.

    Toxicity: Excessive intake may contribute to hypertension.

    Exceptional Needs: Strenuous physical activity; Pregnancy; Diuretic
    therapy; Hypochlorhydria; Chronic infections; Hyperadrenalism;
    Excessive weight loss; Reproductive disorders.

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    VANADIUM
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 100 - 300 mcg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 1 - 4 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Dietary fats, Vegetable oils, Whole grains, Seafood
    and Liver.

    Tissue Stores: Adipose tissue, Bone, Liver, Lung, and Spleen.

    Normal Functions: May exhibit a lipid lowering effect by the
    stimulation of acetyl CoA Decyc1ase; May help to prevent dental caries;
    Involved in glucose metabolism and Glutathione production; Inhibits ATP
    hydrolyzing enzymes.

    Deficiency States: Conditions with decreased red blood cell counts;
    Impaired iron absorption; Dental caries; Hypertrig1yceridemia; Altered
    lipid metabolism.

    Toxicity: Excessive inhalation may cause bronchial infections,
    dermatitis and sore eyes.

    Exceptional Needs: Hyper1ipidemias; Childhood (bone / teeth growth);
    Requirements increased in patients with increased tooth decay / dental
    caries; Excessive Vitamin "C" intake.

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    ZINC
    U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 15 mg / Day

    Therapy Dose Range: 15 - 100 mg / Day

    Dietary Sources: Meat, Eggs, Seafood (oysters), Milk whole grains,
    Spinach, Soybeans, and Sunflower seeds.

    Tissue Stores: Prostate, Skin, and Retina.

    Normal Functions: Necessary co-enzyme in over 90 different enzyme
    systems; Associated with cholesterol, protein, and energy metabolism;
    Required for nucleic acid synthesis and carbon dioxide transport;
    Essential for normal growth, healing, and immune function.

    Deficiency States: Impaired RNA / DNA and protein synthesis; Chronic
    infections; High fiber diets; Pregnancy; Decrease growth patterns and
    sexual maturation; Decreased senses of taste and smell.

    Toxicity: Impaired immune response; Diaphoresis; ETOH intolerance;
    Chronic nausea and vomiting.

    Exceptional Needs: Pregnancy; Neonatal period; Childhood and
    adolescent; Elderly patients because of decreased absorption and
    intake; Patients with chronic disease processes, ie. Diabetes Mellitus.


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    Ionic Trace Minerals
    Minerals are absolutely necessary for life. They serve as co-factors
    for all the biologic reactions necessary for energy, growth and repair.
    Many of these trace minerals are needed in as many as 200 to 300
    chemical reactions within the body. Trace minerals can be given
    Intravenously in a doctor's office, or taken as a supplement. In severe
    mineral depletion such as receiving EDTA Chelation, then a vitamin /
    mineral IV is needed between Chelation treatments. However, under
    normal circumstances a high quality supplement (meaning a wide array of
    minerals in a highly bioavailable state) is the best choice. If taken
    as a supplement, an excellent choice is minerals that are balanced in
    an "ionic" state providing high bioavailability to the body.

    The Great Salt Lake in Utah is an excellent source for ionic minerals.
    The Great Salt Lake has been concentrating mineral salts in its waters
    for thousands of years. Fortunately, the lake avoids the build up of
    toxic heavy metals as they are precipitated to the sediments and deep
    brines of the lake. The unique processing of the lake water used to
    acquire ionic minerals results in a composition of "earthy salts" such
    as magnesium, potassium, calcium and bromides as well as the trace
    elements. There is very little sodium chloride or common salt as this
    is left in the bottom of the "holding pond" during processing. The
    final product provides a rich source of desired minerals including the
    important trace minerals.

    Minerals are such an integral component of body function that it is
    impossible to detail all their actions in a short space. Suffice to say
    that the "bulk" minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium and
    chloride are involved in most biologic reactions. Additionally, we are
    now learning about the necessity of various trace elements as well. For
    example, selenium deficiency results in heart disease and likely even
    cancer. Deficiencies in copper, zinc and manganese alter the function
    of anti-oxidant co-enzymes causing dysfunction in these integral
    protective systems. Iodine is necessary for thyroid function. This is
    only a sampling of the known functions of minerals in the human body.

    Unfortunately, studies have shown that many areas of the country where
    our foods are grown are deficient in one or more bulk and trace
    elements. As we cannot be sure that the individual foods we eat have
    been grown in mineral rich soil, it is critical that we supplement to
    insure adequate levels.

    Side Effects:

    No known toxic reactions in recommended amounts.

    References:

    1. McCarty MF. The case for supplemental chromium and a survey of
    clinical studies with chromium picolinate. J Appl Nutr 1991;43:59-66.
    2. Prasad A. Discovery of human zinc deficiency and studies in an
    experimental human model. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:403-12 [review].
    3. Weisinger JR, Bellorin-font, E. Magnesium and phosphorus. Lancet
    1998;352:391-96 [review].
    4. Clark LC, Combs GF, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium
    supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the
    skin. JAMA 1996;276:1957-63.

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    Calcium and Magnesium
    Additional Information
    A Calcium and Magnesium blend must be formulated with superior
    ingredients and in proper mineral ratios to enhance bioavailability and
    absorbability. Calcium should never be taken alone. As an example for
    Milk drinkers: Milk contains 8 parts calcium and only one part
    magnesium. Calcium needs magnesium in order to be assimilated into the
    body. In the case of drinking milk, magnesium will be pulled out of the
    body so the calcium can be processed, resulting in a magnesium
    deficiency. A high calcium and a low magnesium ratio in the body
    results in many problems. We have been instructed for years to get
    enough calcium. Little has been said of magnesium. Therefore it is in
    best wisdom if you plan on supplementing your calcium intake, it must
    be in a proper blend of calcium WITH magnesium. Since many factors can
    use up magnesium in your body, including stress, I prefer a ratio of
    two parts calcium to one part magnesium in a supplementation.


    Calcium
    Most individuals are aware of the benefits of calcium supplementation.
    Calcium is critical in the prevention of osteoporosis. Calcium, though,
    also appears to play a role in maintaining normal blood pressure. In
    addition, calcium is required by the body for blood clotting, muscle
    contraction and nerve transmission. Calcium may play a role in
    triglyceride and cholesterol reduction due to its fat binding
    properties within the gastrointestinal tract.

    Calcium is present in dairy foods. It is also available from salmon,
    green leafy vegetables, tofu and sardines.

    Calcium is found in many different forms within supplements. Studies of
    these different forms reveal the following. Calcium citrate/ malate is
    the best-absorbed form of this supplement. It is this form that most
    authorities recommend for enhanced bioavailability.

    There are a number of additional factors that affect calcium absorption
    and use within the body including availability of specific trace
    minerals and Vitamin D.

    How much Calcium should I take?

    The National Academy of Sciences has recommended 1000 mg of calcium
    daily for adults ages nineteen to fifty. Adults over fifty should take
    1200 mg daily. As calcium absorption and utilization in bone is
    dependent upon Magnesium, Vitamin D and Vitamin K, as well as specific
    trace minerals, supplementation with these is also necessary to
    maximize prevention of osteoporosis.

    Side effects of Calcium:

    Rarely side effects such as constipation and bloating can be seen with
    calcium supplements. Individuals with kidney disease and
    hyperparathyroidism should check with their health care professional
    prior to use. Calcium competes with a number of minerals for absorption
    therefore supplementation with a multi-mineral may be necessary to
    prevent decreased levels of other minerals.


    Magnesium
    While calcium is needed for muscle contraction, magnesium is needed for
    muscle relaxation. Think of your heart muscle. Your heart muscle, and
    any other muscle in your body, will have a "contraction" phase, then a
    "relaxation" phase. What occurs when a muscle is unable to relax? It
    goes into spasm. Spastic cervical (neck) muscles and other skeletal
    muscles are a good example. Have you ever heard of anyone who always
    has a very tight neck or other muscles that never seem to relax,
    usually therefore resulting in headaches? Muscle spasms, muscle cramps,
    muscle jerks, and muscle tics, eye tics, and hiccups are all caused buy
    a magnesium deficiency.

    Modern stresses whether chemical, environmental, or mental, quickly
    deplete magnesium reserves, (which is often depleted faster than
    calcium reserves.) This often results in internal stress.

    Excess calcium which has not been properly assimilated, due usually to
    a magnesium deficiency to process that calcium, can lead to gallstones,
    kidney stones, and calcium deposits on joints (often called arthritis).


    Too much calcium and not enough magnesium can also cause PMS
    (pre-menstrual syndrome). This results in premature aging caused by the
    calcification of the female body parts.

    As mentioned above, magnesium and calcium work together to control
    muscle action. With insufficient magnesium the muscles stay tense
    causing a cramp in the muscle. This could happen when you have too much
    calcium and too little magnesium. The same thing can occur in the
    heart, which is a muscle. The heart can go into spasm and not relax. I
    firmly believe this is one of the contributing causes for heart
    attacks. (Atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) is another very large risk
    factor for heart attacks.)

    Magnesium deficiency can cause insomnia (inability to sleep), waking up
    with muscle spasms, cramps, tension and feeling uncomfortable.

    Magnesium activates an enzyme located in all cell membranes. This
    enzyme controls the balance of sodium and potassium, keeping sodium in
    the fluid outside the cells and potassium inside the cells. Such a
    balance is essential for normal water balance, nerve cell activity and
    cellular energy production. Without sufficient cellular magnesium,
    potassium will be rapidly excreted from the body resulting in fatigue,
    heat exhaustion and weakness.

    Magnesium is involved in over three hundred chemical reactions in the
    human body. It is critical in energy production, cellular replication
    and protein formation. Research has shown a role for magnesium in blood
    pressure reduction, enhanced cardiac function, improved energy in
    individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome, improved wellness in women
    with PMS and improved respiratory function in individuals with asthma.
    Magnesium is present in a number of foods including dark green
    vegetable, fish, meat and beans. Despite this, at least one study has
    shown that most individuals do not receive the optimum amount of 425 mg
    daily of magnesium. Individuals taking prescription diuretics, birth
    control pills, as well as diabetic individuals are at increased risk
    for magnesium deficiency. Severe magnesium deficiency may cause muscle
    weakness, fatigue, abnormal heart rhythms, and depression.

    How much Magnesium should I take?

    The listed "optimum" amount is 300 - 500 mg daily. However I prefer a
    ratio of two parts calcium to one part magnesium when taking
    supplementation.

    Side effects of Magnesium:

    At recommended use no serious toxicity exists. Excess magnesium often
    leads to diarrhea. Individuals with kidney disease should consult their
    health care professional prior to use.

    References:

    1. Kawano Y, Matsuoka H, Takishita S, Omae T. Effects of magnesium
    supplementation in hypertensive patients. Hypertension
    1998;32:260-65.
    2. Howard JM, Davies S, Hunnisett A. Magnesium and chronic fatigue
    syndrome. Lancet 1992;340:426.
    3. Weisinger JR, Bellorin-font, E. Magnesium and phosphorus. Lancet
    1998;352:391-96 [review].
    4. Weisinger JR, Bellorin-font, E. Magnesium and phosphorus. Lancet
    1998;352:391-96 [review]
    5. Osborne CG, McTyre RB, Dudek J, et al. Evidence for the relationship
    of calcium to blood pressure. Nutr Rev 1996;54:365-81.
    6. Bell L, Halstenson CE, Halstenson CJ, et al. Cholesterol-lowering
    effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate
    hypercholesterolemia. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:2441-44.
    7. Levenson DI, Bockman RS. A review of calcium preparations. Nutr Rev
    1994;52:221-32 [review].
    8. Levenson DI, Bockman RS. A review of calcium preparations. Nutr Rev
    1994;52:221-32 [review].
    9. Murray M. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Prima Publsihing,
    1996.

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    DISCLAIMER This information is provided for Educational Purposes Only
    and has NOT been designed to diagnose, treat or cure any health
    conditions. Please consult a qualified Health Care Professional with
    Nutritional Training to diagnose your health conditions and avoid
    self-diagnosis. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have not
    evaluated statements about these health topics or any suggested product
    compositions.
     
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