rec.running FAQ, part 1 of 8

Discussion in 'General Fitness' started by Ozzie Gontang, Jul 27, 2004.

  1. Archive-name: running-faq/part1
    Last-modified: 10 March 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

    This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to
    rec.running plus interesting & useful information for runners. If known,
    author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie Gontang
    <[email protected]> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper
    info of sources or holder's of copyright.

    Part 1 of 8
    What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group
    Runner or Jogger
    Avoiding Dogs
    Books and Magazines
    Winter Running Gear
    Clothes (Winter/Summer)
    Rules For Winter Running
    Clothing Layers
    Dressing for Winter
    Clothing Materials
    60/40 Cloth
    Breathability of Materials
    Breathable options
    General Information
    Running Mailing Lists
    Terminology ( overpronation, oversupination)
    Calorie/energy count
    Calories burned by running
    Muscle fuels used during exercise
    Part 2 of 8
    Fat burning primer
    Conversion chart
    Fluid replacement
    Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries
    Second Wind
    Soda Pop
    Computer software
    Interval training
    Sore Knees
    Leg Massage
    Part 3 of 8
    Mail Order Addresses
    Increasing your mileage
    Major Marathons (e.g. Boston, LA, New York)
    Part 4 of 8
    Miscellaneous Medical /Injuries
    Achilles tendinitis (incomplete)
    Shin splints
    Side stitches
    Lactic Acid
    Loose bowels
    Diabetes & running
    Nutrition and Food
    Part 5 of 8
    Nutrition primer
    Powerbar Recipe
    Predicting times
    Running Clubs & Organizations
    Part 6 of 8
    Tredmill Running
    Weather (cold, hot, wind, rain, altitude)
    Part 7 of 8
    Pregnancy & Running
    Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People
    Hints for the Successful Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours)
    Part 8 of 8
    Running Related Internet Sites


    What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group

    Read news.announce.newusers and news.answers for a few weeks. Always make
    sure to read a newsgroup for some time before you post to it. You'll be
    amazed how often the same question can be asked in the same newsgroup.
    After a month you'll have a much better sense of what the readers want to

    The difference between jogging and running is in the eye of the beholder.
    Partial list compiled by Phil Margolies <[email protected]>

    Jogging is spelled with a j, an o, and two g's, running is spelled with
    an r, a u, and two n's. Otherwise there is no important difference that
    I am aware of ;-)
    There is no real distinction between the two. Traditionally joggers are
    considered to be more casual and slower than someone who refers to
    themselves as a runner. But use which ever term you prefer.
    A jogger is person who worries about the difference.
    A runner just goes out and runs.
    This issue has been beaten to death more than once, but ......

    My gut feeling is:
    if your goal/focus is to get there in minimum time; you are racing (or
    race training)
    if your goal/focus is on what your are doing; you are running
    if your focus is to lose weight or gain fitness or whatever else
    (possibly indicated by wearing headphones?); you are jogging.

    Speed doesn't matter; some people race at 4:00/mile, some at 12:00/mile.
    No one of these three activities is any better or nobler than any other.
    When I'm tired I jog, when I'm not I run. After all, it's all relative.
    Speed IMHO has nothing to do with it.
    Joggers are interested in the fitness benifits of the activity.
    Runners are interested in the sport of racing.
    The best quote I ever read on this was: The difference between a jogger and
    a runner is a bib number.
    A Jogger is everyone that I can pass.
    A Runner is everone who passes me.
    There are many differences between a jogger & a runner, although both are
    very positive activities & neither should be knocked. Here's a couple of
    differences I notice:

    Jogging is a hobby. Running is a way of life.
    Joggers get out on a nice day. Runners get out everyday.

    Avoiding Dogs (Arnie Berger [email protected])

    There are varying degrees of defense against dogs.

    1- Shout "NO!" as loud and authoritatively as you can. That works more than
    half the time against most dogs that consider chasing you just good sport.

    2- Get away from their territory as fast as you can.

    3- A water bottle squirt sometimes startles them.

    If they're waiting for you in the road and all you can see are teeth then
    you in a heap o' trouble. In those situations, I've turned around, slowly,
    not staring at the dog, and rode away.

    "Halt" works pretty well, and I've used it at times. It's range is about 8

    I bought a "DAZER", from Heathkit. Its a small ultrasonic sound generator
    that you point at the dog. My wife and I were tandeming on a back road and
    used it on a mildly aggressive German Shephard. It seemed to cause the dog
    to back off.

    By far, without a doubt, hands down winner, is a squirt bottle full of
    reagent grade ammonia, fresh out of the jug. The kind that fumes when you
    remove the cap. When I lived in Illinois I had a big, mean dog that put its
    cross-hairs on my leg whenever I went by. After talking to the owner
    (redneck), I bought a handlebar mount for a water bottle and loaded it with
    a lab squirt bottle of the above mentioned fluid. Just as the dog came
    alongside, I squirted him on his nose, eyes and mouth. The dog stopped dead
    in his tracks and started to roll around in the street. Although I
    continued to see that dog on my way to and from work, he never bothered me

    Finally, you can usually intimidate the most aggressive dog if there are
    more than one of you. Stopping, *and moving towards it will often cause it
    to back off*. ( But not always ). My bottom line is to always *run* routes
    that I'm not familiar with, with someone else.

    E-Book John Lupton <[email protected]>

    Gordon Pirie's book "Running Fast and Injury Free" which can be found via . Pirie is a proponent of fore-foot striking.
    All I can say is Pirie works for me. As a novice, having a pretty
    straightforward book on technique to read, one that is uncomplicated by
    jargon, is very useful. For me, even before a novice puts on his/her
    running shoes for the first time, it is worth reading this book (its *very*
    short). Not all of it is relevant to the recreational runner, but the bits
    that are are very obvious and accessible.

    Books and Magazines (Phil Cannon [email protected])


    1) The Lore of Running - Tim Noakes
    2) The Complete Book of Running - Fixx
    3) The Runner's Handbook - Bloom
    4) Long Distance Runner's Guide to Training and Racing - Sperks/Bjorklund
    5) The Runner's Handbook - Glover & Shepard
    6) Galloway's Book on Running - Galloway
    7) Jog, Run, Race - Henderson
    8) The New Aerobics - Cooper
    9) Training Distance Runners- Martin and Coe
    10) Any book by Dr. George Sheehan
    11) The Essential Runner (John Hanc)
    12) The Runner's World Complete Book of Running (Amby Burfoot)

    check for books available at:The Athlete's Bookstore [email protected]

    RUNNING DIALOGUE David Holt RN, Santa Barbara and 31:16 10 K.

    Includes winter running advice; extensive interval (three chapters) and
    diet advice; marathon chapter; three chapters on injury prevention and
    predicting times; plus table for paces to train for 2 mile pace for VO2
    max, and 15K pace for anaerobic threshold.

    Table of contents/list of contributors
    or send a blank E-mail to [email protected]


    Track and Field News (12/96-monthly $34.95 US per year) 2370 El Camino
    Real, Ste 606 Mountain View CA 94040
    415-948-8188 Fax: 1-415-948-9445 1-800-GET-TRAK (1-800-438-8725)

    Self-proclaimed "Bible of the Sport", T&FN is the source for major meet
    results in T&F, road racing, cross-country, and race walking from the high
    school to int'l levels. Emphasis on U.S. athletes. though significant int'l
    coverage provided. Compiles annual post-season rankings of the top 10
    performers in world and U.S. in every major event, men and women. Publishes
    list of top 50 performances in each event for the year. Also sponsors
    TAFNUT tours for major championships and the Euro Circuit/GP meets. Lots of
    stats, good interviews.

    Track Technique (quarterly; $15 in US, $16 outside) same contact info as
    Track & Field News.

    The official USATF(formerly TAC) quarterly, each issue has important
    articles on technique, training, and other practical information on all
    events, at all levels. Intended for coaches.

    California Track News ($18/yr)
    4957 East Heaton
    Fresno, CA 93727

    Calif.'s only all track & X-county publication. Lots of attention to prep

    Running Journal, P.O. Box 157, Greeneville, TN 37744. Covers southeastern
    United States monthly. Founded 1984. Covers road races in 13 states, plus
    ultras, multi-sports, racewalking. Annual subscription is $22.95.

    Running Research News
    P.O. Box 27041
    Lansing, MI 48909
    Credit card orders: 1-517-371-4897 MC/Visa accepted. e-mail: [email protected]

    12/96 $35/year $65/2 years (10 issues per year, 12-14 pages per issue.)
    76 back issues, $265 (postage US 10 outside US $30)

    (Add $10 for overseas airmail, except Mexico and Canada) ALL non-US
    customers please provide a credit card number or money order in U.S. funds,
    or a check drawn on a U.S. bank (with American-bank computer numbers).

    Running Times (monthly $24.95 US per year) P.O. Box 511
    Mount Morris, IL 61054-7691

    Runner's World (monthly $24 US per year) P.O. Box 7574 Red Oak, IA 51591-2574

  2. Archive-name: running-faq/part2
    Last-modified: 13 Dec 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    SOURCES: Fats are stored as adipose, body fat, and muscle fat
    (triglycerides). CHOs are stored as muscle and liver glycogen (long chains
    of glucose) and blood glucose.
    During a workout the early phases are characterized by a reliance
    on CHOs, both muscle glycogen and blood glucose. The blood glucose comes
    from the breakdown of liver glycogen. Again this is dependent upon
    intensity (see above). However, the muscle can also use fat as a fuel, The
    sources of this are from the inside of the muscle or from the outside -
    i.e. from adipose tissue. The problem is that levels of fats from adipose
    take a while to reach high enough levels for their use to become
    significant. Their concentration in the blood only reaches very high
    levels when the intensity of the exercise is low (i.e. 50% of max or less)
    and if the duration is sufficient (1 hour or more). However, when the
    concentration of fats from outside of the muscle is high enough the muscle
    can use these instead of glycogen and delay the use of glycogen, this is
    critical at times since muscle glycogen is a "rate-limiting" fuel for
    muscle. That is when muscle glycogen runs out, or gets very low, then you
    feel terrible - you've BONKED or HIT THE WALL (see below).

    BONKING/HITTING THE WALL: Lots of people talk about the phenomenon
    of bonking. It hits some people harder than others, I don't know why and
    have never seen any good information why? However, bonking is a
    combination of two processes. The first is a lack of muscle glycogen (see
    above). The second is low blood glucose. When muscle glycogen is low the
    muscle runs into a fuel crisis. It cannot burn fats at a rate high enough
    to sustain the muscle's maximal output. The consequence is that your
    muscle switches to burning more fats and so you have to slow down. The
    crappy feeling that you experience at the same time, often characterized
    by nausea and disorientation, is likely a consequence of low blood
    sugar/glucose (hypoglycemia).

    The trick then is to alleviate/delay the onset of these symptoms by
    consuming sugar solutions, or simply by becoming so well trained that you
    don't have to worry (see TRAINING below). Why is low blood sugar bad?
    Because your brain, eye tissue, and others are able to burn only glucose.
    That is when the levels of glucose are low your brain runs out of fuel, so
    you feel awful. Your vision might become impaired also.

    FATS vs. CHOs: However, as I've said above your muscle can burn
    fats and if given the chance your muscle will burn whatever fuel it has in
    the greatest abundance, even lactate! So, if supplied with enough fat
    muscle can burn fat and hence, "spare" muscle glycogen. This is the idea
    behind many runners drinking caffeine/coffee before a race. The caffeine
    has effects that cause release of fats from adipose tissue and the level
    of fats in the blood increases. The end result is that for the early
    phases of the race the runner's muscle's can use fat and delay the use of
    muscle glycogen, hence, sparing that glycogen for later use.

    One should be cautioned, however, that this mechanism for increasing fat
    usage has only been shown with some very high doses of caffeine that are
    not achievable without taking caffeine pills. It also critically dependent
    upon the person's habitual caffeine intake ("big" coffee drinker appear
    not to derive as great of a benefit as non-habitual users). There are
    other ways to maximize the use of muscle glycogen, however.

    CHO LOADING: CHO loading is a practice that many athletes use
    before a longer duration event to "supercompensate" their muscles with
    glycogen, delay it's running out (see above). The practice is of little
    use when the duration of the event is less than 60 minutes, since muscle
    glycogen will usually be able to meet the demands of such a duration.
    However, it should be noted that repeated bouts of high intensity exercise
    will also deplete one's muscles of glycogen (for example wrestling 3-4
    bouts in one day).

    There are two basic protocols for CHO loading, one is just as good as the
    other. However, they involve an initial bout of exercise to deplete the
    muscle's glycogen (under normal dietary conditions), followed by a period
    of high CHO diet (i.e. 70% or more of one's total calories from CHO). This
    period should be the 4-5 days prior to the event and should be a time when
    the athlete tapers their training, so as not to deplete muscle glycogen
    too much. The result is an overload of glycogen in one's muscles.

    Two notes: 1) This procedure will result, if done correctly, in most
    people gaining 2-5 pounds. Why? Because muscle and liver glycogen is
    stored with water and increasing glycogen will increase water content -
    i.e. increased weight is water. 2) Preliminary evidence indicates that
    this procedure is less effective in women. That is to say that if a female
    runner were to increase her CHOs to 70% (or >) of her caloric intake she
    may not have an increase in muscle glycogen. Why? It may relate to a
    gender difference in the ability to store muscle glycogen or in the amount
    of CHOs that 70% of the female athlete's diet represents (i.e. 70% of a
    2000 calorie diet would be 1400 Cal from CHO, eating this may not be
    enough to increase muscle glycogen content). Stay tuned for more info here!

    TRAINING: When one trains or conditions by completing endurance
    exercise changes occur at many levels, including the muscle. The changes
    that occur at the level of the muscle include an increased ability to
    utilize fats. Not surprisingly then one's endurance is increased. How? An
    increased utilization of fats means less reliance on glycogen, less
    reliance on glycogen means you don't run out of the fuel that allows you
    to maintain a high rate of muscle contraction, and hence a high rate of
    running/exercising. Another adaptation that occurs is that your muscle
    uses less glucose, this is important for tissues such as brain (see

    Conversion chart (Jack Berkery [email protected])

    1 yard = .9144 meter
    100 yards = 91.4400 meters
    220 yards = 201.1680 meters
    440 yards = 402.3360 meters
    880 yards = 804.6720 meters

    1 meter = 1.094 yards
    100 meters = 109.400 yards
    200 meters = 218.800 yards
    400 meters = 437.600 yards
    800 meters = 875.200 yards

    1 mile = 1.609 Kilometers
    1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet
    1 Kilometer = .6214 miles = 1094 yards = 3281 feet

    Kilmoeters to miles Miles to Kilometers
    ------------------------------------------------------ 1 km = .6214 miles
    1 mile = 1.609 km
    2 km = 1.2418 miles 2 miles = 3.218 km
    3 km = 1.8642 miles 3 miles = 4.827 km
    4 km = 2.4856 miles 4 miles = 6.436 km
    5 km = 3.1070 miles 5 miles = 8.045 km
    6 km = 3.7284 miles 6 miles = 9.654 km
    7 km = 4.3498 miles 7 miles = 11.263 km
    8 km = 4.9712 miles 8 miles = 12.872 km
    9 km = 5.5926 miles 9 miles = 14.481 km
    10 km = 6.2140 miles 10 miles = 16.090 km 11 km = 6.8354 miles 11 miles =
    17.699 km 12 km = 7.4568 miles 12 miles = 19.308 km 13 km = 8.0782 miles 13
    miles = 20.917 km 14 km = 8.6996 miles 14 miles = 22.526 km 15 km = 9.3210
    miles 15 miles = 24.135 km 20 km = 12.4280 miles 20 miles = 32.180 km 25 km
    = 15.5350 miles 25 miles = 40.225 km 30 km = 18.6420 miles

    1 marathon = 26 miles + 385 yards = 42.186 km

    Fluid replacement (2 personal methods)

    As an ultramarathoner, trail runner fluid replenishment etc. is quite
    important. My findings, based on personal experience, is that in 90+ degree
    weather I use a liter per hour on a one hour run - and that is carrying the
    water with me. If you are not running enough distance, dont be concerned
    about energy type drinks, and you probably don't lose enough salts to need
    electrolytes. But your system will absorb more fluid faster is it is
    hypotonic and cool. If you guys are always running for 45 minutes or an
    hour in HOT weather - I would really suggest carrying water. When you
    realize your dehydrated its TOO late - and it takes longer to replenish
    fluids than it does to lose them. (Milt Schol [email protected])

    I prepare for a run with about 24-30 ounces of lukewarm water within 3
    hours of the run. As for after the run, if it was particularly strenuous
    (and in the 85+ and humid Pittsburgh weather of late, the runs have been
    strenuous for me), within 10-15 minutes following the run, I take ~10-15
    ounces of room-temperature, diluted Exceed (about 2 parts Exceed to 3 parts
    water). I follow that with about 24-30 ounces of room-temperature water
    over the next hour or two. (Barbara Zayas [email protected])

    Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries (John Schwebel
    [email protected])

    Ten Laws of Running Injuries stated therein:

    Running Injuries Are Not an Act of God

    Each Running Injury Progresses
    Through Four Grades

    Each Running Injury Indicates That the
    Athlete Has Reached the Breakdown Point

    Virtually All Running Injuries Are Curable

    X-Rays and Other Sophisticated Investigations Are Seldom Necessary to
    Diagnose Running Injuries

    Treat the Cause, Not the Effect

    Rest is Seldom the Most Appropriate Treatment

    Never Accept as a Final Opinion
    the Advice of a Nonrunner

    Avoid the Knife

    There Is No Definitive Scientific Evidence That Running Causes
    Osteoarthritis in Runners Whose Knwees Were Normal When They Started

    Second Wind (Newsweek July 27, '92)

    If an Olympian experiences a second wind, it's probably a sign that he
    isn't in a great shape. Scientists are divided over whether a second wind
    is purely psychological - the athlete "willing" himself forward. But if it
    has a physical basis too, the sudden feeling of "I can do it!" right after
    "I want to die" probably reflects a change in metabolism. The body gets
    energy by breaking down glucose, which is stored in muscles. This reaction
    releases lactic acid, which the body must burn in order to prevent a
    lactic-acid buildup that causes cramps. Burning lactic acid requires
    oxygen. If the body does not breathe in enough oxygen; the runner
    experiences oxygen debt: the heart beats more quickly; the lungs gasp; the
    legs slow. The second wind, says physicist Peter Brancazio of Brooklyn
    College, may come when the body finally balances the amount of oxygen
    coming in with that needed to burn the lactic acid. (When burned, lactic
    acid is transformed into sweat and carbon dioxide.) Why doesn't everybody
    get a second wind? Couch potatoes don't push themselves past oxygen debt;
    true Olympians have enough lung capacity and cardiovascular fitness to
    avoid oxygen debt in the first place.

    Soda Pop (Paulette Leeper [email protected])

    Q: Does anyone have any opinions on Soda pop as a drink in General.

    I find the CAFFEINE in soda to be irritating and DEHYDRATING, so, IMHO,
    drinking soda with caffeine (regardless of whether or not it contains sugar
    or aspartame) defeats the purpose of quenching thirst. It's much like
    drinking beer to quench thirst... it FEELS good, and TASTES good, but as a
    mechanism for hydration, it does the exact opposite.

    Computer Software (Jack Berkery [email protected]) (Paul Gronke,
    [email protected])

    There is a Shareware program in the WUSTL archives available through
    anonymous ftp. (also on other archive sites) Look into
    .../msdos/database/ I didn't exactly like it but it may suit
    your style. It works with CGA/EGA/VGA graphics. Don't know how it functions
    under windows. []

    AEROBIX.ZIP B 81246 910420 Fitness Log: Record aerobic exercise/progres
    JOGGR105.ZIP B 59053 920312 Runner's log and analysis database, v1.05
    PT100.ARC B 175592 890914 Physical Training test scorekeeper database
    RUNLOG.ZIP B 71801 900308 Runner's/bicycler's workout log

    All programs are available in the DATABASE directory on Simtel, via
    anonymous FTP. There are a number of Simtel mirrors, including
    WUARCHIVE.WUSTL.EDU (dir = mirrors/msdos/database), OAK.OAKLAND.EDU (dir =
    pub/msdos/database), and a lot of non US sites.

    RunCoach helps coach people who are running, jogging or racing. It is
    based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and can produce an optimum
    training program tailored to the individual. If you are just starting to
    run, want to enter a fun run or are an expert runner and want to improve
    your time then RunCoach can help. First you enter some data about
    yourself, then set a goal race (or ask RunCoach to suggest one), tell
    RunCoach when you can train and RunCoach will quickly generate a
    personalised training schedule. It will also estimate how likely you are
    to succeed at your goal. Ver 0.90 was the first public release and can be
    found as RUNCOACH.ZIP. Ver 0.94 (RUNCO94B.ZIP) is the latest (july 95)
    release. It works in both miles or kms, has a better understanding of the
    taper, has a built in series of running guides and has a built in sports
    psych, so you can discuss any problems. It is available from a number of
    FTP sites but as an example try Simtel:

    Its running knowledge is extensive and includes the following:-
    - internally classifies runners into five major groups
    - takes into account age, experience, PB's, sex, training program etc
    - able to select days of the week you can run, and your long run day
  3. Archive-name: running-faq/part3
    Last-modified: 16 Jul 2002
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    Mail Order Addresses

    The addresse/phone of some popular running mail order outfits (Directory
    assistance at 1-800-555-1212 for mail order outfits not listed):

    Road Runner Sports
    6150 Nancy Ridge Road 1-800-551-5558 (Orders) [email protected]
    San Diego, CA 92121 1-800-662-8896 (Cust Serv) Fax: 1-619-455-6470

    California Best
    970 Broadway 1-800-CAL-BEST
    Chula Vista, CA 91911-1798 1-800-225-2378

    80 Speedwell Ave [email protected]
    Morristown, NJ 07970 1-800-835-2786

    Hoy's Sports
    1632 Haight St
    San Francisco, 94117 1-800-873-4329

    Holabird Sports
    9008 Yellow Brick Rd
    Baltimore, Md 21237 1-410-687-6400 Fax: 1-410-687-7311


    Increasing your mileage (Jack Berkery [email protected])

    There are many good, professional, books and articles on how to train for
    whatever distance you choose. More for the marathon than others I think.
    Get one or two and mull them over. The following recommendations are a
    distillation of having read and digested most of these and more than a
    decade of experience.

    Let's suppose you are beginning with a base load of about 20 miles per week
    over a long period. First I DO NOT recommend that anyone who has been
    running for less than 3 years should run a marathon. Running is a long-term
    game and it takes time for your body to become adjusted physically to the
    demands, not only of the marathon itself, but also of the heavy training
    mileage required to build up to it.

    Next, you should always keep in mind that your build-up should not exceed
    10% per week. 10% doesn't sound like much but it's actually a big
    adjustment for your system to make. Not only muscles, but bones and
    connective tissues must be strengthened to take the increased load and
    running marathon mileage is a lot of pounding. Remember 10%. That is not to
    say that if you ran 20 miles last week, you cannot go more than 22 next
    week, but over a period of 3-4 weeks the rate of increase should not exceed
    the 10% slope. After 4 weeks then, you should be doing just under 30 miles,
    but not more. If you go from 20 to 24 in the first week thereby exceeding
    the 10% rate, then doing 24 again the second week will bring you back on
    track. You can continue to build up mileage for about 6 weeks when you'll
    reach 35 miles. Then you MUST BACK OFF for a week or so. Drop back by about
    25-30% for one week. Take two or three days off in a row. Get some rest to
    gain strength before beginning the climb again.

    How much mileage is enough for a marathon? I have known people to run
    marathons on 25 or 35 miles per week. Don't try it. How they got away with
    it is not important. It is only important to know that it simply ain't
    smart. You can get away with 40-45 per week if you are doing a regular long
    run of 15-18 each week. It is better to be doing 50 or more for 6 to 8
    weeks before the marathon. This means you have to have the time necessary
    to build to 50 at that 10% rate (with 1 rest week out of every 6) and then
    sustain that 50+ mileage for 6-8 weeks as well. This is a heavy schedule.
    Never doubt that. When you listen to the mega-mileage people talk about 70
    or 80 or more, they make it sound as if everyone should be able to do that.
    Well we CAN'T all do that. We all have a break-down point and for the great
    majority, it lies somewhere below 50 or 60 miles per week. You'll know
    where yours is only after repeated tries to exceed it result in an injury.

    So how do you build the mileage? Suppose you are doing an even 3 miles a
    day, no more, no less. You must begin by building the long run. In a
    marathon training schedule, the long run is everything. Start the first
    week of the build-up by just lengthening one run. All other days should
    remain the same. Make one, usually Sat. or Sun., a 5-6 miler to get your
    10% increase. Take the next day off from running. Rest is important after
    the long run to allow your system adjustment time. The next week of the
    build-up, increase the one long run again while still holding the normal
    daily runs the same. As a rule of thumb, your long run can go to 3 times
    the distance of your daily average run. So while still doing regular 3
    milers, you can build up that Sat. morning run to 9 miles. Don't do a 12
    miler though until you have made your daily run 4 miles. This means keeping
    the long run at 9 miles for a few weeks and increasing the daily runs until
    your average is 4 or 5 a day. Then you can return to increasing the long
    run. Toward the end of the build-up you may be doing something like 6-8
    each weekday plus an 18-20 miler on the weekend. It might also be a good
    idea to alternate long runs of 15 and 20 miles every other week.

    As you get close to the date of the marathon, run your last long run 2
    weeks before. DO NOT do a long run one week prior to the marathon. In fact
    for the last week you should taper down to do only about half, yes half,
    the mileage you have been doing. DO NOT run the day before and 2 days
    before the race you might only do 3 miles just to get the legs loose and
    the blood flowing. You MUST be well rested for the big race itself.

    Now assuming you do everything right there is still no guarrantee that the
    marathon is going to go well. Many things might prevail to make it hurt,
    hot or humid weather, getting caught up in too hard a pace, not drinking
    enough water before or along the way (THE GREATEST SIN). You may even spend
    3 or 4 months building your training only to come down with an illness or
    injury a few weeks before the race which will set you right back to
    square-one. If you want certainties, you're in the wrong game. What matters
    is not that you get to do that particular marathon on that particular day 5
    months from now, but rather what you plan to do over the next 5 or 10 or 50
    years. I did say running is a long-term game, no?

    Another note of caution. All the rules can be broken. You may get away with
    lower training, higher ramp-up rates or shorter long-runs. You might even
    get away with it more than once, but sooner or later it's gonna get ya.
    Take the more conservative plan and be safe. You're looking for a positive
    experience not an injury.

    ------------------Major Marathons & partial World Marathon Schedule

    Boston Marathon ==================
    Boston Athletic Association
    P.O. Box 1996 Hopkington, MA 01748
    Tel: 508-435-6905 Fax: 508-435-6590
    The Boston Marathon is held on Patriots day (3rd monday in April).

    Starting time: Noon Boston Marathon qualifying times.

    Age Men Women Wheelchair Divison
    18-34 3:10 3:40 CLASS MEN WOMEN
    35-39 3:15 3:45 1 (Quad Class) 3:00 3:10
    40-44 3:20 3:50 2-5 2:10 2:35
    45-49 3:30 4:00
    50-54 3:35 4:05
    55-59 3:45 4:15
    60-64 4:00 4:30
    65-69 4:15 4:45
    70-74 4:30 5:00
    75-79 4:45 5:15
    80+ 5:00 5:40

    Note: Qualifying time based on age on the day of the Boston Marathon.
    Example: You run a qualifying race at the age of 44 in 3:22. You then have
    a birthday before the Boston Marathon, making you 45. You qualify, because
    your required qualification time is 3:25.

    Chicago Marathon =========
    101 W. Grand Ave. Ste. 600 (Carey Pinkowski)
    Chicago, IL 60610 (312) 527-2200 [VOICE] (312) 527-9901 [FAX]

    London Marathon ========
    PO Box 3460
    London, England SE1 8RZ 44 71 620 4117 fax: 44 71 620 4208
    UK entrants: In Oct. get *proper* form from London, fill in,
    enclose cheque. You should find out before Xmas if picked in the lottery.
    .. If you've run a sub 2h40 (men) or sub 3h10 (ladies) no need for lottery
    as you qualify for the national championships (held in conjunction with

    Non-UK entrants: Get on "official" trips to come to the UK
    to run London from sports travel firms. If you book with sports travel firm
    you will definitely get an entry. Going it alone then write:

    Los Angeles Marathon March ======
    11110 W. Ohio Avenue, #100
    Los Angeles, CA 90025-3329 (310) 444-5544 AGE 18-59 60+

    Marine Corps Marathon =======
    Box 188
    Quantico, VA 22134 (703)640-2225

    New York Marathon ======
    P.O. Box 1766 GPO
    New York, NY 10116 (212) 860-4455

    For U.S. residents: Send a self-addressed #10 business-size
    envelope (about 4" x 9.5") and a check or money order (no cash) for a $5.00
    non-refundable handling fee. Make the check payable to: NYRRC.
    Send AFTER midnight of "set start date." All requests must be
    posted "start date" or later.
    The NYRRC sets a "start date" for accepting requests for
    applications, about May 15-20. Prospective applicants must send a SASE and
    $5, postmarked ON OR AFTER this date, to a PO Box in NY. They send a blank
    application, with no guarantee of anything, fairly promptly.
    Fill it out and return it ASAP. A caveat: You must be a member of
    UST&F, the USA's governing federation of running, to run in the NYCM. You
    can apply for entry along with your marathon application; instructions and
    UST&F application are sent with the blank NYCM application.

    Applications accepted on the following basis:

    Slots are reserved for non-USA runners (don't know how they are allocated).

    12,000+ applications are accepted "first-come, first served" basis. The
    NYRRC claims this is not a tough thing if you act promptly - i.e. send
    request for ap on "Opening Day", and mail back the completed app. within a
    day or two.

    X,000 slots remain. Once above criteria filled, all applications received
    go (figuratively) into a big, big box. In late July or early August, NYRRC
    draws out the X,000 lucky envelopes. These entries are accepted. They draw
    a few hundred more, I guess, to set up a waiting list in the event of
    NB: the rest of the applications are returned with refunded entry fee.

    San Francisco Marathon ====
    City of San Francisco Marathon
    P.O. Box 77148
    San Francisco, CA 94107 (415) 391-2123

    Honolulu Marathon )======
    Honolulu Marathon Assoc.
    3435 Wailae Ave. #208
    Honolulu, HI 96816 808-734-7200

    Many tours to the large national & international marathons are organized by:

    Marathon Tours
    108 Main St
    Charleston MA 02129 (617) 242-7845

    Marie Frances Productions
    7603 New Market Dr
    Bethesda, MD 20817 301-320-3363


    Pulled this chart out of Marathoning by Manfred Steffny. ( pub 1977).
    (Robert Davidson [email protected])

    Max. possible Realistic
    10Km marathon time marathon time
    ------ ------------- -------------
    27:00 2:05:00 2:08:30
    28:00 2:10:00 2:14:00
    29:00 2:15:00 2:19:30
    30:00 2:20:00 2:25:00
    31:00 2:25:00 2:30:30
    32:00 2:30:00 2:36:00
    33:00 2:35:00 2:43:00
    34:00 2:40:00 2:49:00
    35:00 2:45:00 2:55:00
    36:00 2:50:00 3:00:00
    37:00 2:55:00 3:07:00
    38:00 3:00:00 3:15:00
    39:00 3:05:00 3:20:00
    40:00 3:10:00 3:25:00
    42:30 3:22:00 3:42:30
    45:00 3:35:00 4:00:00
    47:30 3:47:30 4:20:00
    50:00 4:00:00 4:40:00
    Austin "Ozzie" Gontang, Ph.D.
    TEC International
    2903 29th St
    San Diego, CA 92104-4912

    hm/off. 619-281-7447
    fax 619-281-9468
    email <[email protected]>

    Chief Executives Working Together
  4. Archive-name: running-faq/part4
    Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days


    Medical / Injuries

    -------------------------------- Achilles tendonitis (sorry, forgot the

    General advice:

    1. Warm up before you stretch. This could be in the form of a slow jog as
    you start your run. When I feel it necessary, I stop for a few minutes and
    stretch during the early stages of a run.

    2. Stretch after your run. This has proven the best solution for me.
    Whenever I skip this part, I end up stiff the next day. The muscles are
    nice and warm after a run and respond well to stretching. My flexibility
    has improved as a result of this practice, too.

    3. With regards to an injury, you've got to be tough and rest it in order
    for it to heal. This might be a good time to concentrate on strength
    training with weights.


    The good news: since this seems to be your first injury, and your training
    load is light, your tendinitis is probably due to the most simple cause -
    leg length imbalance. Get someone to mark how far you can bend to each
    side, if these are different heights then you might find a heel raiser
    under the bad leg will both even out the side-bend _and_ speed up the

    The bad news: achilles is notoriously slow to heal even with the correct
    treatment. And the chances of recurrence are quite high. However the
    condition you describe shouldn't prevent your training, as long as you
    promote healing with stretching, massage (calf/inner thigh/groin), ice,

    Shin splints (Harry Y Xu [email protected]) (Doug Poirier
    [email protected]in (Rodney Sanders [email protected])

    Excerpts from _The SprotsMedicine Book_ G. Mirkin, MD. and M. Hoffman:

    ``Shin splints are....condition that can result from muscle imbalance. They
    are characterized by generalized pain in front of the lower leg and are
    particularly comon in runners and running backs.... The most common cause
    is a muscle imbalance where the calf muscles--which pull the forefoot
    down--overpower the shin muscles--which pull the forefoot up. As the
    athlete continues to train, the calf muscle usually becomes proportionately
    much stronger than the shin muscles.

    The treatment for shin splints is to strengthen the weaker muscles (shins)
    and stretch the stronger muscles (calves).

    To strengthen the shins, run up stairs. To stretch the calves,...(do
    stretching exercises for the calves, et. the wall push-ups)'' *end of


    In my experience, I have found that stretching is the real key to avoiding
    shin-splints. I believe there's a book with stretches by Bob Anderson that
    you may want to check. Also, back issues of running magazines sometimes
    have helpful information. Basically, I do the standard "lean on the wall
    stretch" and a stretch by standing flat-footed on one leg and bending at
    the knee to stretch the achilles. I then top these off with a few toe
    raises (no weights!) before I head out to run... If you're having trouble,
    I'd recommend stretching 2-3 times a day until you get over the problem.
    Start slowly!

    Also, you probably should avoid hills and extremely hard surfaces until the
    situation improves. I've known several people who've had shin splints and
    gotten over them by stretching. (Of course, you should be careful in case
    the shin splints are the result of a more severe problem...)


    Help with shin splints.

    1. Try picking up marbles with your toes and holding onto them for a few

    1A. While recovering from shin splints, it may help to use a wedge in the
    heel of your shoes. By raising the heel, you are reducing the pull on the
    muscles and tendons on the front.

    2. Stand on the stairs with your heels out over the edge. Lower your heels
    as far as they will go without undue discomfort, and hold for 15 seconds.
    Slowly raise yourself up on your toes. Repeat 5 million times. (Sherwood
    Botsford [email protected])

    3. If you can, rig something with either surgical tubing or a large
    rubberband. For example: put the tubing around one of the back legs of your
    desk in some sort of a loop. Reach under the tubing with your toes, with
    your heel as a pivot pull the tubing toward you. This will work the muscle
    in the front of the shins. Repeat 6 million times. It's easier than the
    stair exercise

    4. Run on different terrain, preferably grass. It'll absorb the shock.

    5. This normally affects knees, but it might affect shins. Don't run on the
    same side of the road all of the time. It is sloped left or right to let
    the water run off. Running on the same slope for long periods of time will
    cause adverse effects to the ankles, shins...etc.... If you are running on
    a track, alternate your direction of travel, as the lean when you are going
    around the corners is at least as bad as the crown slope of a road. This is
    especially true of small indoor tracks.

    6. Strenghening the front muscles: Make a training weight by tying a strip
    of cloth to a pop bottle. Sit on the kitchen counter top, hang bottle from
    toes, and raise it up and down by flexing your ankle. Weight can be
    adjusted by adding water or sand to the bottle. (Sherwood Botsford
    [email protected])

    7. Scatter a few chunks of 2x4 around the house where you tend to stand,
    say kitchen and bathroom. Now everytime you are at the stove or at the
    bathroom (in front of either fixture) stand on 2x4 and rest your heels on
    the floor. One in front of the TV and used during every commercial will
    either stretch you, or stop you from watching TV. [email protected]

    ------------------------------ Side stitches (Jack Berkery
    [email protected])

    The Latest Word on Stitches

    In the May-June 1992 issue of Running Research News there is an article by
    Dr. Gordon Quick about the causes of and cures for stitches. To summarize:

    1) Stitches are a muscle spasm of the diaphragm. The cause of the spasm is
    that the organs below it are jouncing up and down and pulling down as it
    wants to pull up. The liver being the largest organ is the biggest culprit
    which is why most stitches are on the right side. A stomach full of food
    may also contribute to the problem for the same reason. Stitches also occur
    more often when running downhill or in cold weather.

    2) The cure seems almost too simple. Breathe out when your left foot
    strikes the ground instead of when the right foot strikes so that the
    organs on the right side of the abdomen are jouncing up when the diaphragm
    is going up. The organs attached to the bottom of the diaphragm on the left
    aren't as big, so exert less downward pulling strain. If this is not enough
    to get rid of it, stop and raise you arms above your head until the pain
    goes away and when you resume, be a left foot breather. (Conversely, if
    your stitch occurs on the left side, switch your breathing to exhale on the
    right foot.)

    3) Do not eat anything for an hour before running if you are prone to
    stitches, BUT PLEASE DO DRINK WATER. Water empties from the stomach faster
    than solids and the risk of complications from dehydration far exceed the
    problems one may have with a stitch.

    4) In the long term, exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles will
    help prevent stitches because tighter abs will allow less movement of those
    internal organs. Practice belly breathing instead of chest breathing as
    recommended by Noakes. For the most part, stitches diminish over time.
    While they are not strictly a novice runner's problem (about 1/3 of all
    runners get them from time to time) they usually will go away after a few
    weeks of conditioning.


    By Tim Noakes Oxford Uni. Press, 1985. Quoted from "Lore of Running"

    Proper breathing prevents the development of the `stitch'. The stitch is a
    condition that occurs only during exercise and which causes severe pain
    usually on the right side of the abdomen, immediately below the rib margin.
    Frequently the pain is also perceived in the right shoulder joint, where it
    feels as if an ice-pick were being driven into the joint. The pain is
    exacerbated by down-hill running and by fast, sustained running as in a
    short road race or time trial. For various complex anatomical reasons, the
    fact that the stitch causes pain to be felt in the shoulder joint suggests
    that the diaphragm is the source of the pain.

    It has been suggested that when breathing with the chest too much air is
    drawn into the lungs, and not all is exhaled. This causes a gradual and
    progressive accumulation of air in the lungs, causing them to expand which
    in turn causes the diaphragm to be stretched and to encroach on the
    abdominal contents below it. During running, the over-stretched diaphragm
    becomes sandwiched between an over-expanded chest above, and a jolting
    intestine pounding it from below. It revolts by going into spasm, and the
    pain of this spasm is recognized as the stitch.

    Although there is really not a shred of scientific evidence for this
    belief, I have found that diaphragm spasm is almost certainly involved in
    the stitch and that belly-breathing can frequently relieve the pain.

    The runner who wishes to learn how to belly-breath should lie on the floor
    and place one or more large books on his stomach. He should concentrate on
    making the books rise when he breathes in and fall when he exhales. As it
    takes about two months to learn to do the movement whilst running fast, it
    is important to start practicing well before an important race.

    A change in breathing pattern may help relieve the stitch. Within a short
    period of starting running, breathing becomes synchronized with footfall.
    Thus one automatically breaths in on one leg and out when landing either on
    the same leg - that is 2, 3 or 4 full strides later - or on the opposite
    leg - that is 1 1/2, 2 1/2, or 3 1/2 strides later. Thus the ratio of
    stride to breathing may be 2:1, 3:1, 4:1; or 1.5:1, 2.5:1, 3.5:1.

    This phenomenon was first reported by Bramble and Carrier (1983). Of
    particular interest was their finding that most runners are `footed', that
    is the beginning and end of a respiratory cycle occurs on the same foot,
    usually in a stride to breathing ratio of either 4:1 whilst jogging or 2:1
    whilst running faster. Runners then become habituated to breathing out on
    the same let, day after day. This produces asymmetrical stresses on the
    body and could be a factor in both the stitch and in certain running
    injuries. I am `left-footed' and have also suffered my major running
    injuries only on my left side. If changes in breathing patterns do not
    prevent the stitch then the last step is to increase abdominal muscle
    strength. The correct way to strengthen the abdominal muscles is to do
    bent-knee sit ups with the feet unsupported.


    EDITORS NOTE: Readers response to "Belly Breathing" definition above.
    "Belly Breathing" (Lamont Granquist [email protected])

    While I wasn't breathing with my chest, I wasn't really "Belly Breathing".
    When I exhaled, what I was doing was pulling my stomach muscles in. I found
    out that this is *not* the way to "Belly Breathe". The idea is to throw
    your gut out as much as possible -- try and look as fat & ugly as you can
    when you run. For the suggestion in the FAQ of lying on your back and
    lifting a book, it should probably be noted that when exhaling you want to
    try to keep the book lifted up (of course naturally, you don't want to try
    to do this all so hard that it becomes difficult to exhale -- the idea is
    that breathing this way should be comfortable).

    Stitches continued (Sunil Dixit [email protected])

    1. Since it is a cramp, I try not to drink or eat too soon before my runs,
    and I try to limit my intake during runs.

    2. I stretch my abs extensively before a run. Putting my arm over my head
    and leaning to the opposite side until I'm pulling on the side of my
    abdominals works well.

    3. I regulate my breathing by breathing in through my nose, and out through
    my mouth. This sounds like zen-crap, but believe me, it works amazingly
    well in eliminating all types of cramping. When you first do it, it'll feel
    like you're not getting enough oxygen, but if you persist the technique
    will become very comfortable.

    4. I run with my back fairly straight, even up hills. This keeps the lungs
    from bending over in my body, and makes it much easier to breathe.

    5. If none of these work, I keep going anyway. After about 3 miles, it
    usually goes away . . . if you're lucky.

    ------------------ Lactic Acid (Rob Loszewski
    [email protected])

    "Lactic acid buildup (technically called acidosis) can cause burning pain,
    especially in untrained muscles. Lactic acid accumulation can lead to
    muscle exhaustion withing seconds if the blood cannot clear it away. A
    strategy for dealing with lactic acid buildup is to relax the muscles at
    every opportunity, so that the circulating blood can carry the lactic acid
    away and bring oxygen to support aerobic metabolism. ...much of the lactic
    acid is routed to the liver, where it is converted to glucose. A little
    lactic acid remains in muscle tissue, where it is completely oxidized when
    the oxygen supply is once again sufficient." Understanding Nutrition, 5th
    ed., Whitney, Hamilton, Rolfes., West Pub. Comp. 1990, pg402- 403.

    ------------------ Loose Bowels (Rodney Sanders [email protected])

    Some general advice to take care of loose bowels.

    (1) Look for offending foods in your diet. For example, many people have a
    lactose intolerance which can cause all sorts of fun if you had a triple
    cheese pizza the night before the run...

    (2) If you run in the morning, eat lightly and early the night before... I
    try to make sure I eat the least problematic foods close to my workouts...
    I've personally found baked chicken/fish, baked potatoes, and pasta with
    light sauces (no alfredo!), to be pretty good...
  5. Archive-name: running-faq/part5
    Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days


    Nutrition in athletics is a very controversial topic. However, for an
    athlete to have confidence that his/her diet is beneficial he/she must
    understand the role each food component plays in the body's overall makeup.
    Conversely, it is important to identify and understand the nutritional
    demands on the physiological processes of the body that occur as a result
    of racing and training so that these needs can be satisfied in the
    athlete's diet.

    For the above reasons, a basic nutrition primer should help the athlete
    determine the right ingredients of his/her diet which fit training and
    racing schedules and existing eating habits. The body requires three basic
    components from foods: 1) water; 2) energy; and 3)nutrients.


    Water is essential for life and without a doubt the most important
    component in our diet. Proper hydrations not only allows the body to
    maintain structural and biochemical integrity, but it also prevents
    overheating, through sensible heat loss(perspiration). Many *runners* have
    experienced the affects of acute fluid deficiency on a hot day, better
    known as heat exhaustion. Dehydration can be a long term problem,
    especially at altitude, but this does not seem to be a widespread problem
    among *runners* and is only mentioned here as a reminder (but an important


    Energy is required for metabolic processes, growth and to support physical
    activity. The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences
    has procrastinated in establishing a Recommended Daily Allowance(RDA) for
    energy the reasoning being that such a daily requirement could lead to
    overeating. A moderately active 70kg(155lb) man burns about 2700 kcal/day
    and a moderately active 58kg(128lb) woman burns about 2500 kcal/day.

    It is estimated that runners burn XXXX kcal/min or about XXX-XXX kcal/hr
    while *running* (this is obviously dependent on the level of exertion).
    Thus a three hour training *run* can add up to XXXX kcals(the public knows
    these as calories) to the daily energy demand of the *runner*. Nutritional
    studies indicate that there is no significant increase in the vitamin
    requirement of the athlete as a result of this energy expenditure.

    In order to meet this extra demand, the *runner* must increase his/her
    intake of food. This may come before, during or after a *run* but most
    likely it will be a combination of all of the above. If for some reason
    extra nutrients are required because of this extra energy demand, they will
    most likely be replenished through the increased food intake. Carbohydrates
    and fats are the body's energy sources and will be discussed shortly.


    This is a broad term and refers to vitamins, minerals, proteins,
    carbohydrates, fats, fiber and a host of other substances. The body is a
    very complex product of evolution. It can manufacture many of the resources
    it needs to survive. However, vitamins, minerals and essential amino
    acids(the building blocks of proteins) and fatty acids cannot be
    manufactured, hence they must be supplied in our food to support proper

    Vitamins and Minerals

    No explanation needed here except that there are established RDA's for most
    vitamins and minerals and that a well balanced diet, especially when
    supplemented by a daily multivitamin and mineral tablet should meet all the
    requirements of the cyclist.

    Proper electrolyte replacement(sodium and potassium salts) should be
    emphasized, especially during and after long, hot rides. Commercially
    available preparations such as Exceed, Body Fuel and Isostar help replenish
    electrolytes lost while *running*.


    Food proteins are necessary for the synthesis of the body's
    skeletal(muscle, skin, etc.) and biochemical(enzymes, hormones,
    etc.)proteins. Contrary to popular belief, proteins are not a good source
    of energy in fact they produce many toxic substances when they are
    converted to the simple sugars needed for the body's energy demand.

    Americans traditionally eat enough proteins to satisfy their body's
    requirement. All indications are that increased levels of exercise do not
    cause a significant increase in the body's daily protein requirement which
    has been estimated to be 0.8gm protein/kg body weight.


    Carbohydrates are divided into two groups, simple and complex, and serve as
    one of the body's two main sources of energy.

    Simple carbohydrates are better known as sugars, examples being fructose,
    glucose(also called dextrose), sucrose(table sugar) and lactose(milk

    The complex carbohydrates include starches and pectins which are
    multi-linked chains of glucose. Breads and pastas are rich sources of
    complex carbohydrates.

    The brain requires glucose for proper functioning which necessitates a
    carbohydrate source. The simple sugars are quite easily broken down to help
    satisfy energy and brain demands and for this reason they are an ideal food
    during racing and training. The complex sugars require a substantially
    longer time for breakdown into their glucose sub units and are more suited
    before and after riding to help meet the body's energy requirements.


    Fats represent the body's other major energy source. Fats are twice as
    dense in calories as carbohydrates(9 kcal/gm vs 4 kcal/gm) but they are
    more slowly retrieved from their storage units(triglycerides) than
    carbohydrates(glycogen). Recent studies indicate that caffeine may help
    speed up the retrieval of fats which would be of benefit on long rides.

    Fats are either saturated or unsaturated and most nutritional experts agree
    that unsaturated, plant-based varieties are healthier. Animal fats are
    saturated(and may contain cholesterol), while plant based fats such as corn
    and soybean oils are unsaturated. Unsaturated fats are necessary to supply
    essential fatty acids and should be included in the diet to represent about
    25% of the total caloric intake. Most of this amount we don't really
    realize we ingest, so it is not necessary to heap on the margarine as a
    balanced diet provides adequate amounts.


    Now that we have somewhat of an understanding of the role each food
    component plays in the body's processes let's relate the nutritional
    demands that occur during *running* in an attempt to develop an adequate
    diet. Basically our bodies need to function in three separate areas which
    require somewhat different nutritional considerations. These areas are: 1)
    building; 2) recovery; and 3) performance.


    Building refers to increasing the body's ability to perform physiological
    processes, one example being the gearing up of enzyme systems necessary for
    protein synthesis, which results in an increase in muscle mass, oxygen
    transport, etc. These systems require amino acids, the building blocks of
    proteins. Hence, it is important to eat a diet that contains quality
    proteins (expressed as a balance of the essential amino acid sub units
    present)fish, red meat, milk and eggs being excellent sources.

    As always, the RDA's for vitamins and minerals must also be met but, as
    with the protein requirement, they are satisfied in a well balanced diet.


    This phase may overlap the building process and the nutritional
    requirements are complimentary. Training and racing depletes the body of
    its energy reserves as well as loss of electrolytes through sweat.
    Replacing the energy reserves is accomplished through an increased intake
    of complex carbohydrates(60-70% of total calories) and to a lesser extent
    fat(25%). Replenishing lost electrolytes is easily accomplished through the
    use of the commercial preparations already mentioned.


    Because the performance phase(which includes both training *runs* and
    racing)spans at most 5-7 hours whereas the building and recovery phases are
    ongoing processes, its requirements are totally different from the other
    two. Good nutrition is a long term proposition meaning the effects of a
    vitamin or mineral deficiency take weeks to manifest themselves. This is
    evidenced by the fact that it took many months for scurvy to show in
    sailors on a vitamin C deficient diet. What this means is that during the
    performance phase, the primary concern is energy replacement (fighting off
    the dreaded "bonk") while the vitamin and mineral demands can be

    Simple sugars such a sucrose, glucose and fructose are the quickest sources
    of energy and in moderate quantities of about 100gm/hr(too much can delay
    fluid absorption in the stomach) are helpful in providing fuel for the body
    and the brain. Proteins and fats are not recommended because of their slow
    and energy intensive digestion mechanism.

    Short, *runs* or races of up to one hour in length usually require no
    special nutritional considerations provided the body's short term energy
    stores (glycogen) are not depleted which may be the case during *long*

    Because psychological as well as physiological factors determine
    performance most *runners* tend to eat and drink whatever makes them feel
    "good" during a *run*. This is all right as long as energy considerations
    are being met and the stomach is not overloaded trying to digest any fatty
    or protein containing foods. If the vitamin and mineral requirements are
    being satisfied during the building and recovery phases no additional
    intake during the performance phase is necessary.


    Basically, what all this means is that good nutrition for the *runner* is
    not hard to come by once we understand our body's nutrient and energy
    requirements. If a balanced diet meets the RDA's for protein, vitamins and
    minerals as well as carbohydrate and fat intake for energy then everything
    should be OK nutritionally. It should be remembered that the problems
    associated with nutrient deficiencies take a long time to occur. Because of
    this it is not necessary to eat "right" at every meal which explains why
    weekend racing junkets can be quite successful on a diet of tortilla chips
    and soft drinks. However, bear in mind that over time, the body's
    nutritional demands must be satisfied. To play it safe many *runners* take
    a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement tablet which has no adverse
    affects and something I personally recommend. Mega vitamin doses(levels
    five times or more of the RDA) have not been proven to be beneficial and
    may cause some toxicity problems.


    "Good" nutrition is not black and white. As we have seen, the body's
    requirements are different depending on the phase it is in. While the
    building and recovery phases occur somewhat simultaneously the performance
    phase stands by itself. For this reason, some foods are beneficial during
    one phase but not during another. A good example is the much maligned
    twinkie. In the performance phase it is a very quick source of energy and
    quite helpful. However, during the building phase it is not necessary and
    could be converted to unwanted fat stores. To complicate matters, the
    twinkie may help replenish energy stores during the recovery phase however,
    complex carbohydrates are probably more beneficial. So, "one man's meat may
    be another man's poison."


    This term refers to the quantity of nutrients in a food for its
    accompanying caloric(energy) value. A twinkie contains much energy but few
    vitamins and minerals so has a low nutrient density. Liver, on the other
    hand, has a moderate amount of calories but is rich in vitamins and
    minerals and is considered a high nutrient density food.

    Basically, one must meet his/her nutrient requirements within the
    constraints of his/her energy demands. Persons with a low daily activity
    level have a low energy demand and in order to maintain their body weight
    must eat high nutrient density foods. As already mentioned, a *runner* has
    an increased energy demand but no significant increase in nutrient
    requirements. Because of this he/she can eat foods with a lower nutrient
    density than the average person. This means that a *runner* can be less
    choosy about the foods that are eaten provided he/she realizes his/her
    specific nutrient and energy requirements that must be met.


    Now, the definition of that nebulous phrase, "a balanced diet". Taking into
    consideration all of the above, a diet emphasizing fruits and vegetables
    (fresh if possible), whole grain breads, pasta, cereals, milk, eggs, fish
    and red meat(if so desired) will satisfy long term nutritional demands.
    These foods need to be combined in such a way that during the building and
    recovery phase, about 60-70% of the total calories are coming from
    carbohydrate sources, 25% from fats and the remainder(about 15%) from

    It is not necessary to get 100% of the RDA for all vitamins and minerals at
    every meal. It may be helpful to determine which nutritional requirements
    you wish to satisfy at each meal. Personally, I use breakfast to satisfy
    part of my energy requirement by eating toast and cereal. During lunch I
    meet some of the energy, protein and to a lesser extent vitamin and mineral
    requirements with such foods as yogurt, fruit, and peanut butter and jelly
    sandwiches. Dinner is a big meal satisfying energy, protein, vitamin and
    mineral requirements with salads, vegetables, pasta, meat and milk. Between
    meal snacking is useful to help meet the body's energy requirement.


    All this jiberish may not seem to be telling you anything you couldn't
    figure out for yourself. The point is that "good" nutrition is not hard to
    achieve once one understands the reasons behind his/her dietary habits.
    Such habits can easily be modified to accommodate the nutritional demands
    of *running* without placing any strict demands on one's lifestyle.

    ------------------------ Powerbars (John McClintic [email protected])

    I submit "power bar" recipe originated by Bill Paterson from Portland Oregon.

    The odd ingredient in the bar, paraffin, is widely used in chocolate
    manufacture to improve smoothness and flowability, raise the melting point,
    and retard deterioration of texture and flavor. Butter can be used instead,
    but a butter-chocolate mixture doesn't cover as thinly or smoothly.
  6. Archive-name: running-faq/part6
    Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    Shoes (Thomas Page [email protected])

    Here is a summary of shoe reviews gleaned from various places including
    manufacturers' adds, Road Runner Sports catalog, Runner`s World, Running
    Times, rec.running postings, and my own experience. I will post and update

    Guide to Categories
    BASICS: A good quality shoe for a beginning through mid-mileage runner.

    LIGHTWEIGHT TRAINER/RACER: Typically under 10 ounces. Very light, very
    fast, biomechanically gifted runners can wear these shoes as daily
    trainers. Other runners may get away with using these as a second pair for
    racing in or for track workouts. These shoes usually have blown rubber
    soles for light weight so they wear out too quickly for an everyday
    training shoe for most of us.

    MC: (Motion Control) Made for over-pronators and heavier runners.

    STABILITY: For neutral runners and mild over-pronators. Offers some
    resistance to pronation and supination.

    RACING FLAT: Most people should race in their regular trainers or
    lightweight trainers. For people who can get away with it, racing flats
    might buy them a few seconds in a 10k. If that is the difference between
    1st and 2nd, it is probably worth it. If it is the difference between 38:04
    and 38:14 it is probably not worth the risk of injury. These shoes have
    very little stability, cushioning, or durability, but they tend to weigh
    2-4 oz. less than a lightweight trainer.

    If you remove the insole, you can tell the type of construction. Slip
    Lasted shoes have a sewn seam running the length of the shoe. Board lasted
    shoes have a cardboard board running the length of the shoe. Combination
    lasted shoes have cardboard in the rear half, and a seam up the front half.
    Slip lasted shoes are the most flexible. Board lasted shoes are the most
    stable and least flexible. Combination lasted shoes attempt to compromise
    giving a flexible forefoot and a stable rear. Orthotics wearers should
    stick to board or combination lasted shoes. True over-supinators (these are
    rare) should use flexible slip lasted shoes. Another way to look at it: if
    you have a rigid foot (tends to be high arched feet), favor flexible (slip
    laste) shoes. If you have a floppy foot (tends to have flatter feet and
    overpronate), favor combination or board construction.

    The last is the form the shoe is made on. Lasts vary from curved, to
    semi-curved, to straight. Straight lasts are generally the most stable
    shoes, while curved lasted shoes tend to be the most flexible. You just
    have to see what last from what manufacturer fits your foot.

    A good running shoe store is essential. The sales people at the sporting
    goods chain stores and the mall shoe stores just don't know their products
    or how to fit runners, despite advertising to the contrary. A real runner's
    store should allow you to run in the shoe on the sidewalk outside the
    store, or at least on a tread mill in the store and watch you run. They
    should be able to tell you if you over-pronate in a particular shoe. The
    advice you get in a good store is worth the price (full retail) you pay.

    Don't be a jerk and pick the brains of a good running shoe store salesman
    and then buy at a discount place. If you value their advice, buy a pair of
    shoes from the specialty running store so they will still be in business
    the next time you need them. Then, if you liked the pair you bought, go
    ahead and buy it from a discount store or mail order place in the future;
    you don't owe the store your business forever. Remember though, that models
    change, and you will want to go back to the good store every few years.

    Weight is typically listed for mens' size 9 as quoted by manufacturer and
    found either in Runners World, Running Times, or Road Runner Sports
    catalog. Different sources differ in the weight they report, often by as
    much as an ounce. I have not been consistent about which source I use here
    so you may find a discrepancy with a source you consult.

    M.C. stands for Motion Control (i.e. a shoe for over-pronators).

    ************** SHOE REVIEWS *************

    Check out: Runner's World Online!

    Active Isolated Stretching

    Aaron Mattes' book Active Isolated Stretching. See RW, Feb/94
    The book is $30 (+ Postage/handling). You can reach Aaron at:

    2932 Lexington St
    Sarasota, FL 34231-6118

    Aaron has video tapes of the stretches. The father/son team which has
    marketed themselves very well, were trained by Aaron Mattes in Active
    Isolated Stretching. They videoed their tape at Aaron's. Anyway, go to the
    source and support those people who often aren't the marketing wizs yet
    share so much great information.

    Two great little books which would be of great help to you are from a
    fellow who has shared a lot of his wisdom on rec.running.

    You can reach Paul Blakey at [email protected]

    His books are:
    The Muscle Book $10.99
    Stretching Without Pain $14.99

    I have used them over the past several years and know that you'll find them
    very helpful in learning what you need to know about your "thinking body."

    Tell them Ozzie sent you. I don't receive any financial compensation, just
    want to support people who, I believe, care about helping people learn to
    take care of themselves plus get some good info out to the world.


    Stretching (Shane P Esau [email protected]) (Rocky Essex
    [email protected])

    STRETCHING EXERCISES by Shane Esau, Edited by Rocky Essex


    When stretching, stretch the muscle until your feel a slight tightness,
    then hold for 20-30 seconds. Repeat, this time stretching the muscle a
    little more. Thus it should take 1-1.5 minutes/stretch (a total of 15-20


    Place your hand on the wall, with the front of your elbow as well on the
    wall Now turn so that you can feel a stretch in your chest - try to keep
    your elbow on the wall - your hand should be shoulder height or higheer.


    Stretch your hamstrings by lying on your back, with 1 knee bent. Then bring
    your other leg up to vertical, keeping your knee straight and your back
    against the floor. This is a much better stretch for your hamstrings than
    is the bent over stretch.


    Stand erect, grab one leg and pull your foot towards your but. Remember to
    keep your stomach tight - don't let your stomach relax - do this for both

    Another quad stretch is to sit on your feet and bend (lean your upper
    torso) backwards, keeping your knees on the ground.


    Stand erect with your feet shoulder width apart. Now take your left leg and
    put it behind your right leg and put your left foot about 12" to the right
    of your right foot. Now lean your torso so that is upright again (take your
    right hand and run it down your right leg until your feel the stretch).
    Repeat with the other leg.


    Try to stretch 1/2 - 1 hour/day - this includes pre-training stretching,
    but at least 1 stretching session/day that is outside of training.


    Take your left hand, and put it behind your head, palm facing the same way
    as your face. Now, slide your hand down your spine, until you feel a
    stretch. Now take your right hand and grab your left elbow, and pull your
    left elbow towards your right hip (over and down). This should stretch the


    First, sit on your feet, with your arms outstretched in front of you. Now,
    place your left hand on top of your right hand. Now, lean back and twist
    your body towards your right side (you want to try to put your right armpit
    on the ground). If this is not stretching, move your hands further out in
    front of you.


    This is for your upper back and is easy to do - take your left elbow in
    your right hand, and pull it across the front of your chest - try pulling
    your left elbow all the way over to your right pec muscle - it may be
    easier if your put your left forearm in your right armpit.


    Lie on your back, and put your legs in the crunch position (90 deg bend in
    your legs and your hips) Now, pedal your legs from bent to almost straight,
    and at the same time bend at the waist bringing your elbows to your knees.
    It is a killer (mainly because of the co-ordination that it takes)

    It is like a leg lift on the starting part, then changes to a crunch situp
    from that point on. Fingers interlaced behind head and pedal while you are


    Sit down with your legs out in front of you. Now bend your left leg and put
    your left foot on the outside of your right leg, between your right cheek
    and your right knee- pull your left foot as close to your right cheek as
    possible. Now, pull your left knee in towards your chest. If you don't feel
    much, grab your left shin, and give your left leg a little twist (ie pull
    your shin closer to your chest). Your should feel this. Another one is to
    lie on your back, put both feet in the air, then bend your left leg again,
    but this time bring your left shin in front of your roght quad. Now pull
    your right leg towards your chest - you should feel this in your buttocks.
    If you don't, push your left knee away from your chest, while maintaining
    the distance between your right leg and your chest.

    ANKLES (Mike Dotseth [email protected])

    Stand with feet in normal standing position. Place a hand on a wall or a
    railing for a little balance. Now, 'roll' your feet around on their 'outer
    edges'. Repeat 50 times. ('Rolling on the outer edges' means to tilt your
    feet as far outward and inward (supination and pronationtween rock forward
    on your the balls of your feet and back on your heels.) The major benefit
    is the stretching and strengthening on the muscles and tendons which keep
    your foot stable as you run.

    A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about stretching and flexibility by
    Brad Appleton can be found on:


    ========================================== Sweat (Sam Henry
    [email protected])

    Question: I sweat more than I can replace during a long run, ride, or
    triathlon. What can I do about it?

    It's hard to say what to do without knowing what you do now. None of us can
    replace as much as we lose while we are losing it. The trick is to keep
    from going into deficit.

    Do you hydrate yourself every day, all day long? Min 2 qts/day.

    Do you hydrate yourself extra before the ride (like a qt an hour for 2 hrs
    or so before the start).

    Do you use sports drinks to help with trace element losses? I use Exceed at
    25% solution for the 1st half of long rides, orange juice at 25% for med
    rides, and plain water for short rides.

    What is your consumption rate during rides? I start drinking 30 mins into
    the ride and drink a qt an hour whether I am thirsty or not. If you are
    thirsty, it is probably getting pretty close to too late.

    Do you eat while you ride? Things like bananas, oranges, and pears provide
    fuel *and* coolant, along with some nifty minerals and such that your body
    needs to make the cooling system work right. I eat fig newtons and such
    right as I start and eat every 20-30 mins after the first hour. Pears,
    particularly, are an easy-to-eat thirst slacker.

    What kind of hydration regimen do you use *afterwards*? I immediately start
    drinking at the end of a ride, starting with a quart of water followed by a
    quart of full-strength sports drink (Exceed for me). I also find something
    to eat that is high in complex carbohydrates. All this within the *first
    hour* after the workout. The eating and drinking are intertwined. Then I
    drink another quart of something that sounds appealing. Then I go back to
    my drinking all day long to get my "normal" two quarts.

    I might have thought I would slosh, but I never have. And most of my riding
    is done at temps above 80 degs and in high humidity. If you are urinating
    infrequently and the urine is a dark color, you are underhydrated, whether
    you have exercised or not. No matter how much you sweat.
  7. Archive-name: running-faq/part7
    Last-modified: 10 March 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days


    Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

    This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to
    rec.running plus interesting & useful information for runners. If known,
    author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie Gontang
    <[email protected]> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper
    info of sources or holder's of copyright.

    Running and Pregnancy. Paula Vanzant-Hardick <[email protected]>

    I have been running for oh, about 11 or 12 years now and have run all the
    way through all of my pregnancies. I feel like it has made them healthier
    for both of us. I have never had any kind of a problem with low iron, high
    blood pressure or any real pregnancy related maladies.

    I also believe that had I not run, my recovery time after each baby was
    born would have been significantly longer than they were. Even after my
    second one (the C section, I could walk a couple of miles within about 10
    days after delivery).

    Running is a FABULOUS form of stress management.

    Now to my diet, I just really maintained my normal diet, the only thing is
    I may have been a little heavier on the fresh fruits (trying to avoid that
    refined sugar you know) and I usually drink at least 10 8oz glasses of
    water a day (you notice I say at least). The water I think also helps to
    keep the yuckies away.

    I am planning to continue my training regime as usual with this pregnancy
    as I have with the others. I guess the only thing that I may do a bit
    differently during pregnancy is if I really feel like I need to walk during
    any of my runs, I will, it may only be a few feet or it may be 1/2 mile
    but if I have a feeling that I don't think should be there I don't hesitate
    to walk it off.

    Any of these other women who have run while pregnant may have other
    suggestions but I guess my biggest thing is to just really do what feels
    best for the person.

    And one last note, there were times during each of my pregnancies that I
    would have rather had a nap, but instead would drag myself out for a run, I
    would not only feel better after I had run, I would have TONS more energy
    (and the second, third and now fourth time that is VERY important.)

    Thanks for asking and giving me the opportunity to share my thoughts!
    Paula (and the thundering herd--Tom, Shaun, Alexa, Erin and #4)

    excerpted by Paula from UK version of Runner's World May 1995

    "Running for Two" (subtitle Good News- running during pregnancy can make
    you and your baby healthier!) By Joe Dunbar

    "There are two main issued: how will training affect the baby, and how will
    pregnancy affect running performance?....In General, the running you do
    when pregnant should be aimed at maintaining rather than developing

    The main danger to the fetus (that British spelling), according to Dr.
    Richard Budgett 0f the British Olympic Medical Centre, is from an increase
    in body temperature. The main effect of too great an increase in body
    temperature is damage to the fetus's central nervous system. The danger is
    especially great in the first three months, but you should be careful
    throughout the pregnancy. Budgett recommends that you limit the increase
    in body temperature to 38.9 Degree C (102 F).

    You are also generally recommended not to exceed a rate of 140-150bpm, but
    individuals vary enormously in their resting , maximum and training heart
    rates. Remember too that one effect of endurance training is that your body
    can control temperature rises more effectively ,so a runner who is highly
    trained before pregnancy should be in a slightly better position. Drinking
    plenty of fluids is essential to avoid dehydration and hyperthermia. This
    will also help to limit the temperature increase, so get into the habit of
    drinking regularly during training it's equally important to avoid
    hypoglycemia during and after exercise carbo drinks will help to replace
    [carbohydrates] both during and after exercise, provided that they aren't
    too concentrated. One recent project that followed two groups of 462
    suburban women through their pregnancies found that women who had burned
    more calories per week (as a result of greater exercise levels) tend to
    give birth to slightly heavier babies than women who had exercised less.

    ....the bottom line? Although each individual will differ, you should bear
    in mind the following guidelines on pregnancy and running:

    o It is safe to continue moderate training throughout your pregnancy,
    although individual complications may cause limitations.
    o Listen to your body and run as you feel.
    o There is no need to switch to other forms of exercise unless you
    have specific problems.
    o Use your heart rate and check your temperature during training.
    Stick to sensible levels to avoid hyperthermia.
    o Take plenty of fluids to limit the risk of dehydration and assist
    o You can reduce lower back pain by strengthening the abdominal & hip
    flexor muscles, & stretching the muscles around the pelvis and spine.
    o Try to avoid explosive exercise during pregnancy.
    o Try water-running sessions: they are specific to running but have
    far less impact, and water helps to avert hyperthermia."

    As I said, I found this article very interesting, and the parts that I have
    included are verbatim, unless in parentheses. Hope you find this
    interesting and of some use to all those expectant mom's who don't want to
    give up their running.

    A Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People from Ozzie Gontang

    from The Way of Chuang Tzu by Thomas Merton, 1965
    New Direction Publishing Corporation

    If a man is crossing a river
    And an empty boat collides with his own skiff,
    Even though he be a bad-tempered man
    He will not become very angry.

    But if he sees a man in the boat,
    He will shout at him to steer clear.

    If the shout is not heard, he will shout again,
    And yet again, and begin cursing.
    And all because there is somebody in the boat.
    Yet if the boat were empty,
    He would not be shouting and not angry.

    If you can empty your own boat
    Crossing the river of the world,
    No one will oppose you,
    No one will seek to harm you....

    When I confronted by reckless drivers, speeding skaters or bikers,
    I simply avoid them and say to myself,
    "Empty boat."

    Over the years, those two words have saved me from feeding
    anger, aggression and violence-both mine and theirs.

    Hints for the Success of the Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours)

    These Hints are from a brochure for Super-Fours, i.e. those running over 4
    hours in the Marathon. It was subtitled: "A Short Guide to the Care and
    Support of Four-Hour Marathoners, The Physically Distressed and Mentally
    Distracted Sub-Fours and The First Time Marathoner-Who Only Wants To
    It was originally published by the International Association of
    Marathoners (IAM and pronounced "I AM") in 1988.

    The last 6 to 8 miles of the Marathon will test an individual physically
    but most of all mentally. No matter how well prepared on may be, the
    unknown of how one will be or how the weather conditions will be leaves
    one with some sense of discovery or travelling unfamiliar territoroes of
    mind/body. It is often for the righteous and well-trained that the fall
    from grace is the hardest.

    IAM Aware:

    Know that you will tell others your verbal time: "About 4 hours."

    Know that you will harbor a desired time: "I THINK I can do it,
    if all goes perfect,
    15 to 30 minutes faster."

    Know that you will have an ideal or fantasized time:
    "Wouldn't it be great to break
    3:30 in my first marathon."

    Acknowledge your desired time and Fantasy Time verbally to yourself, otherwise
    they will influence you finish time for the worse.

    Super-Four Success One:

    Set your time with a standard deviation (SD) of 15 minutes. The SD+/-
    (Verbal Time + 5 minutes). The mind/body message goes from a single
    second in time to a window of 30 minutes and respects the mind, the body
    and the conditions of the day.

    Super-Four Success Two:

    Starting a marathon 30 seconds to 60 seconds per mile faster than your
    race plan for the first 3 to 5 miles can slow your finish time from 20
    minutes to 90 minutes. That speed will burn off several times more
    glycogen in the first 3 to 5 miles than needed. You are fueled with
    energy from minimal running the 6 days before the marathon. You have also
    stored extra energy from eating and hydrating well the last three days
    before the marathon. Know your game plan and stick to it for the first 3
    to 5 miles when you are so full of energy. That energy can easily give
    you the power to run those first few miles at that 30 second to 60 second
    per mile faster...and not even realize it. It will remember somewhere
    between miles 18 and 26.

    Super-Four Success Three:

    The jitteriness you feel the morning of the race and the day before are
    from your body being fueled and needing to expend energy. You can
    identify it as fear, or nervousness, or worry. Just remember you haven't
    run more than 2 to 4 miles in 3 days. You body is ready to do
    something-Run A Marathon. You now feel what it's like not to run a few
    days...or the feelings 3 days after injuring yourself. To walk and
    sightsee 5 to 10 miles the day before the marathon is 500 to 1000 calories
    of energy plus the water to store the glycogen. You may not be able to
    replenish it by race time.

    Super-Four Success Four:

    In the past 6 months if you have moved, bought a house, changed jobs,
    started or ended a relationship, had a child (or fathered a child), have
    trouble at work or home that costs you mental energby, there is a good
    likelihood you will finish 30 to 60 minutes slower than you had planned.

    Super-Four Success Five:

    When you feel tired or unable to go on, should your mind go to the
    finish line, bring it back to the present. If your mind is at the finish,
    so is your body...even though it has 1 to 6 more miles jto go. Bring the
    mind to the present by saying, "I am at Mile ___ and am being drawn by a
    magnet to the finish. I hold my body up and erect and I am being pulled
    steadily to the finish."

    Super-Four Success Six:

    The last 10 miles push the crown of your head up and look to the
    horizon. By holding the head erect you save your shoulder muscles and
    balance not only the weight of your 12 to 14 pound head but also your

    Super-Four Success Seven:

    The last 6 miles run out from the pack and away from the curbside. You
    are in a trance state by mile 18. You will be open to and picking up
    visual and non-verbal cues of runners around you. If you are away from the
    curb and can see 200 to 300 yards in front of you, you will be running
    your own race. Should someone stop dead in f ront of you, do not give them
    any of your energy by getting angry or upset. Simply say as you pass them,
    "Don't lose your form. Even if you walk keep your good running form."

    Super-Four Success Eight:

    When someone running with you starts to speed up or to fall behind, or
    you start to pick up your pace or fall behind; in your mind, picture a pair
    of scissors in your hand cutting the cord between you and the other runner.
    Otherwise, you will be carrying that person in your mind...and it will
    only slow you down...or wear you out if they are in front of you. You can
    only be in one place physically, and that is directly above the space upon
    which you feet are running. Cutting that cord allows you to cut loose from
    a slower runner or free your mind from attempting to keep up with a faster

    Super-Four Success Nine:

    When you run with someone, run shoulder to shoulder. If you run
    slightly behind, the mind often feels like it is having to catch up. If
    your image is that of being pulled or towed by the runner in front of you,
    then running behind is okay...unless the runner complains.

    Super-Four Success Ten:

    In a marathon to catch someone, wind them in over a mile to three miles.
    that way you waste no energy required to finish the last 1 to 6 miles.

    If you want to share your thoughts, suggestions, ideas, mantras, anecdotes,
    and your own Super-Four Success hints, please send e-mail them or send them

    International Association of Marathoners (IAM)
    Attn. Ozzie Gontang
    2903 29th Street
    San Diego, CA 92104

    e-mail: Ozzie Gontang <[email protected]>
    ph. 619-281-7447
    fax 619-281-9468
    Mindful Running:
  8. Archive-name: running-faq/part8
    Last-modified: 21 March 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    (Sites are being rechecked and new ones added by Arthur Bamps
    <[email protected]> . He continues to update the info. Ozzie)
    Part 8 of the FAQ had been subdivided into 3 areas
    Part 1 deals with the WWW pages
    Part 2 deals with mail-based discussion lists
    Part 3 deals with Usenet discussion groups

    Part I

    The Internet Guide to Becoming an Athlete
    Run Down Running Portal - Dan Kaplan (+10000 links)
    Serves runners/walkers/multi-sport athletes-Denny Brooks
    Women's Multisport Online
    Runners Web UK
    Cool Running
    Lets Run
    Jeff Galloway
    Team Oregon
    Remko's T&F Page
    Sportscreen - Athletics online
    The World of Running and Track & Field
    Athletics (Track & Field) Links
    Running Online
    Running ( (UK)
    Trail Running links on DMOZ
    CCRR Running Weblinks was Joe's Running Links
    Tips for Blind and Partially Sighted Runners
    Running with your Dog
    Backward running
    Barefoot running
    Nude Running Events

    Organizations & Associations

    IAAF International Amateur Athletic Federation
    International Olympic Committee
    Association of International Marathons and Road Races
    World Association of Veteran Athletes
    American Running Association
    USA Track & Field
    USA TF New Jersey
    Road Runners Club of America
    American UltraRunning Association
    Athletics Canada
    Athletics Australia
    Australian Sports Commission
    New Zealand
    Athletics New Zealand
    European Athletic Association
    UK Athletics
    Scottish Athletics Federation
    Athletics Association of Wales
    Northern Ireland Athletic Federation
    Asian Amateur Athletic Association
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association

    Running Clubs

    50 States Marathon Club

    Running events

    Links to different Competition Calendars
    Marathon Calendar (over 650 worldwide)
    South Africa
    Reunion-Grand Raid
    South African Augrabies
    Sand Marathon-Marathon des Sables

    Athletics Statistics
    Global and Local Athletic Records

    Medical corner
    Anatomy - Lower Extremity
    Muscles and Joints
    Virtual Sports Injury Clinic
    Iliotibial Band Causes and Solutions
    Dr. Pribut Sports Page
    The SportsMed Web
    Foot & Ankle Web Index
    Masters Physiology & Performance
    Sport and Exercise Psychology
    Zunis Foundation

    Coaching & Training
    Brian Mackenzie on all aspects of it
    Marathon Training
    Hal Higdon
    Do It Sports Virtual Training
    Coaching Science Abstracts
    Abdominal Training

    Ultra running
    Matt Mahoney
    Stan Jensen
    David Blaikie
    Kevin Sayers Resource

    The press
    The Running Network
    Athlete's Bookstore
    Southern California Running/Tri/Bike Calendar
    Runner's World
    for marathoners/ultradistance runners
    42 times per year newsletter
    Peak Performance
    Running Research Newsletter
    David Holt - Running Dialogue