rec.running FAQ, part 1 of 8

Discussion in 'General Fitness' started by Ozzie Gontang, Feb 14, 2004.

  1. Archive-name: running-faq/part1
    Last-modified: 10 March 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

    This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to rec.running plus interesting &
    useful information for runners. If known, author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie
    Gontang <[email protected]> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper info of sources or
    holder's of copyright.

    ==================================================================
    Part 1 of 8 What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group Runner or Jogger Avoiding
    Dogs Books and Magazines Winter Running Gear Clothes (Winter/Summer) Rules For Winter Running
    Clothing Layers Dressing for Winter Clothing Materials Microfibers Polyolefin Nylon Wool Gortex
    Polypropylene/Thermax
    60/40 Cloth Breathability of Materials Breathable options Linings Maintenance
    General Information Running Mailing Lists Terminology ( overpronation,
    oversupination) Calorie/energy count Calories burned by running Muscle fuels
    used during exercise Part 2 of 8 Fat burning primer Conversion chart Fluid
    replacement Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries Second Wind Soda Pop Computer
    software Hashing Interval training Legs Sore Knees Leg Massage Part 3 of 8 Mail
    Order Addresses Marathon Increasing your mileage Major Marathons (e.g. Boston,
    LA, New York) Part 4 of 8 Miscellaneous Medical /Injuries Achilles tendinitis
    (incomplete) Shin splints Side stitches Lactic Acid Loose bowels Diabetes &
    running Nutrition and Food Part 5 of 8 Nutrition primer Powerbar Recipe
    Orienteering Predicting times Running Clubs & Organizations Part 6 of 8 Shoes
    Stretching Sweat Tredmill Running Weather (cold, hot, wind, rain, altitude) Part
    7 of 8 Pregnancy & Running Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People
    Hints for the Successful Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours) Part 8 of 8 Running
    Related Internet Sites

    =================================================================

    What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group

    Read news.announce.newusers and news.answers for a few weeks. Always make sure to read a newsgroup
    for some time before you post to it. You'll be amazed how often the same question can be asked in
    the same newsgroup. After a month you'll have a much better sense of what the readers want to see.

    The difference between jogging and running is in the eye of the beholder. Partial list compiled by
    Phil Margolies <[email protected]>

    Jogging is spelled with a j, an o, and two g's, running is spelled with an r, a u, and two n's.
    Otherwise there is no important difference that I am aware of ;-)
    ********************
    There is no real distinction between the two. Traditionally joggers are considered to be more casual
    and slower than someone who refers to themselves as a runner. But use which ever term you prefer.
    ********************
    A jogger is person who worries about the difference. A runner just goes out and runs.
    ********************
    This issue has been beaten to death more than once, but ......

    My gut feeling is: if your goal/focus is to get there in minimum time; you are racing (or race
    training) if your goal/focus is on what your are doing; you are running if your focus is to
    lose weight or gain fitness or whatever else (possibly indicated by wearing headphones?); you
    are jogging.

    Speed doesn't matter; some people race at 4:00/mile, some at 12:00/mile. No one of these three
    activities is any better or nobler than any other.
    ********************
    When I'm tired I jog, when I'm not I run. After all, it's all relative.
    ********************
    Speed IMHO has nothing to do with it. Joggers are interested in the fitness benifits of the
    activity. Runners are interested in the sport of racing.
    ********************
    The best quote I ever read on this was: The difference between a jogger and a runner is a
    bib number.
    ********************
    A Jogger is everyone that I can pass. A Runner is everone who passes me.
    ********************
    There are many differences between a jogger & a runner, although both are very positive activities &
    neither should be knocked. Here's a couple of differences I notice:

    Jogging is a hobby. Running is a way of life. Joggers get out on a nice day. Runners get
    out everyday.

    Avoiding Dogs (Arnie Berger [email protected])

    There are varying degrees of defense against dogs.

    1- Shout "NO!" as loud and authoritatively as you can. That works more than half the time against
    most dogs that consider chasing you just good sport.

    2- Get away from their territory as fast as you can.

    3- A water bottle squirt sometimes startles them.

    If they're waiting for you in the road and all you can see are teeth then you in a heap o' trouble.
    In those situations, I've turned around, slowly, not staring at the dog, and rode away.

    "Halt" works pretty well, and I've used it at times. It's range is about 8 feet.

    I bought a "DAZER", from Heathkit. Its a small ultrasonic sound generator that you point at the dog.
    My wife and I were tandeming on a back road and used it on a mildly aggressive German Shephard. It
    seemed to cause the dog to back off.

    By far, without a doubt, hands down winner, is a squirt bottle full of reagent grade ammonia, fresh
    out of the jug. The kind that fumes when you remove the cap. When I lived in Illinois I had a big,
    mean dog that put its cross-hairs on my leg whenever I went by. After talking to the owner
    (redneck), I bought a handlebar mount for a water bottle and loaded it with a lab squirt bottle of
    the above mentioned fluid. Just as the dog came alongside, I squirted him on his nose, eyes and
    mouth. The dog stopped dead in his tracks and started to roll around in the street. Although I
    continued to see that dog on my way to and from work, he never bothered me again.

    Finally, you can usually intimidate the most aggressive dog if there are more than one of you.
    Stopping, *and moving towards it will often cause it to back off*. ( But not always ). My bottom
    line is to always *run* routes that I'm not familiar with, with someone else.

    E-Book John Lupton <[email protected]>

    Gordon Pirie's book "Running Fast and Injury Free" which can be found via http://www.gordonpirie.com
    . Pirie is a proponent of fore-foot striking. All I can say is Pirie works for me. As a novice,
    having a pretty straightforward book on technique to read, one that is uncomplicated by jargon, is
    very useful. For me, even before a novice puts on his/her running shoes for the first time, it is
    worth reading this book (its *very* short). Not all of it is relevant to the recreational runner,
    but the bits that are are very obvious and accessible.

    Books and Magazines (Phil Cannon [email protected])

    Books
    =====

    61) The Lore of Running - Tim Noakes
    62) The Complete Book of Running - Fixx
    63) The Runner's Handbook - Bloom
    64) Long Distance Runner's Guide to Training and Racing - Sperks/Bjorklund
    65) The Runner's Handbook - Glover & Shepard
    66) Galloway's Book on Running - Galloway
    67) Jog, Run, Race - Henderson
    68) The New Aerobics - Cooper
    69) Training Distance Runners- Martin and Coe
    70) Any book by Dr. George Sheehan
    71) The Essential Runner (John Hanc)
    72) The Runner's World Complete Book of Running (Amby Burfoot)

    check for books available at:The Athlete's Bookstore [email protected]

    RUNNING DIALOGUE David Holt RN, Santa Barbara and 31:16 10 K.

    Includes winter running advice; extensive interval (three chapters) and diet advice; marathon
    chapter; three chapters on injury prevention and treatment; predicting times; plus table for paces
    to train for 2 mile pace for VO2 max, and 15K pace for anaerobic threshold.

    Table of contents/list of contributors -http://home.sprynet.com/sprynet/holtrun/ or send a blank E-
    mail to [email protected]

    Magazines
    =========

    Track and Field News (12/96-monthly $34.95 US per year) 2370 El Camino Real, Ste 606 Mountain View
    CA 94040 415-948-8188 Fax: 1-415-948-9445 1-800-GET-TRAK (1-800-438-8725)

    Self-proclaimed "Bible of the Sport", T&FN is the source for major meet results in T&F, road racing,
    cross-country, and race walking from the high school to int'l levels. Emphasis on U.S. athletes.
    though significant int'l coverage provided. Compiles annual post-season rankings of the top 10
    performers in world and U.S. in every major event, men and women. Publishes list of top 50
    performances in each event for the year. Also sponsors TAFNUT tours for major championships and the
    Euro Circuit/GP meets. Lots of stats, good interviews.

    Track Technique (quarterly; $15 in US, $16 outside) same contact info as Track & Field News.

    The official USATF(formerly TAC) quarterly, each issue has important articles on technique,
    training, and other practical information on all events, at all levels. Intended for coaches.

    California Track News ($18/yr) 4957 East Heaton Fresno, CA 93727

    Calif.'s only all track & X-county publication. Lots of attention to prep action.

    Running Journal, P.O. Box 157, Greeneville, TN 37744. Covers southeastern United States monthly.
    Founded 1984. Covers road races in 13 states, plus ultras, multi-sports, racewalking. Annual
    subscription is $22.95.

    Running Research News
    P.O. Box 27041 Lansing, MI 48909 Credit card orders: 1-517-371-4897 MC/Visa accepted. e-mail:
    [email protected]

    12/96 $35/year $65/2 years (10 issues per year, 12-14 pages per issue.) 76 back issues, $265
    (postage US 10 outside US $30)

    (Add $10 for overseas airmail, except Mexico and Canada) ALL non-US customers please provide a
    credit card number or money order in U.S. funds, or a check drawn on a U.S. bank (with American-bank
    computer numbers).

    Running Times (monthly $24.95 US per year) P.O. Box 511 Mount Morris, IL 61054-7691 1-800-877-5402

    Runner's World (monthly $24 US per year) P.O. Box 7574 Red Oak, IA 51591-2574 1-800-666-2828

    Masters Track & Field News (5 issues/yr; $10.50) P.O. Box 16597 North Hollywood, CA 91615

    Results, rankings, age-records, schedules, stories of age 40+ athletes worldwide. "Satisfaction
    guaranteed"

    "The Schedule" - A monthly magazine in California that has an extensive lists of races and other
    info. Northern CA: 80 Mitchell Blvd, San Rafael CA 94903-2038 (415) 472-7223; 472-7233 FAX Southern
    CA: 549 Highland Dr, San Luis Obispo, CA 93405-1116 (805) 541-2833

    Winter Running Gear Curt Peterson <[email protected]>

    13 Nov 1996 Just wear the same things for running as for cross country skiing.

    Suggestions- Wind briefs -available in both womens and mens. Underlayer turtleneck. Underlayer long
    underwear Tights ( thin or thicker cross country ski tights which are thicker wt.) Wicking socks
    vest or sweatshirt, but if long long run I use a Thermax sweatshirt Shell for wind hat and neck
    gator if really cold. You can run in virtually all weather. Our run group in Michigan runs every
    Monday night all year no matter what the conditions are. I think -4 F is our record.

    ==================================================================
    Clothes (Winter/Summer) (Mike Gilson [email protected])

    Disclaimer What I have to say here is *my* opinion only.
    ----------
    Preference on amount of clothing required for winter running varies widely among runners. A couple
    of runners that I see wear shorts, long sleeved T's and gloves at 30F! Experiment with how much
    clothing at various temp's.

    Rules for Winter Running

    Rule 1: Dress in layers. Outer layers can be added/shed easily. Rule 2: Stay dry. When clothes get
    wet,they don't performance - & you get cold. Rule 3: Hydrate. You may not sweat as much, but fluid
    replacement still needed.

    Clothing Layers Inner layer. The layer closest to the skin should be a tight, lightweight fabric
    that wicks water away from the skin. Shirts should be long-sleeved, skin-tight (without chafing),
    and may be turtle-necked (my preference). There are a variety of fabrics that are effective in
    wicking water; I have had a lot of success with polypro, but it is not machine washable. These are
    readily available at running specialty shops and mail order. For pants, lycra running tights work
    very well. Outer layer. The next layer should be a looser, mediumweight fabric that wicks water. A
    zipper at the neck is convenient for temperature control. I prefer a shirt that is slightly longer
    than waist-length so that I have the option of tucking it into the pants. I've had more success in
    finding these in cycling stores than anywhere else. Two layers of lycra tights if very cold.

    Shell. A water-proof or water resistant shell that is breathable is useful in the coldest
    conditions. These are usually sold as suits, but tops are available separately at a higher cost. Gore-
    tex is considered the best fabric, but there are cheaper alternatives. You can get these suits made
    to your measurements or buy them off the rack. I have a Burley jacket, which I purchased at a
    cycling shop. It's chief advantage over the running suits is the venting and extra zippers for
    temperature control. There are zippers under each arm, starting at mid chest going up to the armpit
    and travelling down the arm to about mid forearm.

    Tights. Tights have been mentioned above as inner/outer layers. Many people run in sweats, but
    sweats have two disadvantages: they're heavy and they get heavier when wet. Lycra is lightweight and
    warm, but costs more and shows off body (im)perfections more than sweats.

    Gloves. Any cotton glove works. Polyproplyene or other microbfiber materials.

    Hat. A lot of heat is lost through the scalp, so a hat is a must for most people. Cotton hats get
    too heavy with sweat. Balaclavas are more versatile than hats, and allow you to cover you neck/face
    if requires. Both hats and balaclavas are available in wicking fabrics.

    Socks. A wicking sock will seem less heavy and your feet will be drier than a conventional sock.
    Coolmax socks are my preference, worn in a single layer. You can also find other fabrics, such as
    capilene or polypro socks, which are considerably more expensive.

    Running shoes. Runner's World (anyone know which issue?) had some tips from Alaskan runners on how
    to put (short) screws into the sole of the shoe for better traction on the ice. I haven't tried it,
    but you obviously have to be careful not to puncture the midsole, air/gel chambers, etc.

    Dressing for Winter Running

    Temp range Number of layers (degrees F) Inner Outer Shell Tights Gloves Hat Socks
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    50-55 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 40-45 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 30-35 1 1 0 1-2 1 1 1 20-25 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 -15 1 1
    1/pants 1 1 1

    Clothing Materials compiled by Ozzie Gontang <[email protected]> (see
    www.FabricLink.com/characteristics.html)

    MICROFIBERS Man-made: available in acrylic, nylon, polyester and rayon.

    Characteristics:
    * Washable, dry cleanable Shrink-resistant
    * High strength (except Rayon) Insulates well against wind, rain, cold Major End Uses:
    sportswear, activewear,swimwear, outerwear, rainwear.

    Micro-fibers is not a fiber unto itself. It is a technology developed to produce an ultra-fine
    fiber, and then weave it or knit it into a very high quality fabric constructions. DuPont
    introduced the first microfiber in 1989, a polyester microfiber. Today in addition to polyester
    microfibers, there are also nylon microfibers that have become important in the pantyhose market,
    rayon microfibers, and acrylic microfibers.

    An important characteristic of microfiber fabrics: they can be woven so tightly so the fabric can't
    be penetrated by wind, rain, or cold. For this reason, raincoat manufacturers have become big users
    of polyester microfibers. Microfibers also have a wicking ability, which allows perspiration to pass
    through. So they're comfortable to wear.

    Nov. '96 RW (pp.48-52) evaluted 12 underlayer shirts for keeping you comfortable wicking away
    sweat to the exterior surface of the fabric. Polyester has been treated (hydrophillic chemical)
    and altered (electrostatic evaporation process, differing inner/outer surfaces) to enhance its
    wicking ability.

    Some names: Capilene, BiPolar 100 polyester, BiPolar 200 polyester, Dri-F.I.T. Dacron is the
    trademark name for Dupont polyester. Woven fabric made from dacron is similar to nylon ripstop or
    taffeta, but not as stretchy. Many of the better clothing insulations are made from dacron. They
    are usually referred to by more specific trademark names, like quallofil, hollofil, polarguard, and
    dacron-88.

    POLYOLEFIN (OLEFIN)

    Characteristics:
    * Lightweight, lightest fiber, it floats
    * Strong
    * Abrasion resistant, resilient
    * Stain-, static-, sunlight-, and odor-resistant
    * High insulation characteristics
    * Resists deterioration from chemicals, mildew, sweat, rot and weather
    * Fast drying
    * High wickability
    * Static and pilling can be a problem
    * Ironing, washing/drying need to be done at low temperature
    * Non-allergenic Major End Uses: Apparel - activewear, sportswear, jeans, socks,
    underwear, lining fabrics.

    Of all fibers, this is probably least familiarto you. Developed in 1961, polyolefin has been used
    exclusively in the home furnishings and high performance activewear market: backpacking, canoeing,
    mountain climbing apparel. In 1996 producers of olefin began to make in-roads into the mainstream
    apparel market. It is being blended with cotton in the denim market. It's being tested in the
    swimwear market. Asics Japan has developed a swimsuit made of polyolefin and Lycra for the
    Japanese Olympic Swim Team. Polyolefin is the least absorbent of all the man-made fibers, and the
    only fiber that floats. (Swimmers will do anything to cut a milli-second off their times!)

    NYLON

    Characteristics:
    * Lightweight * Exceptional strength
    * Good drapeability * Abrasion resistant
    * Easy to wash * Resists shrinkage and wrinkling
    * Fast drying, low moisture absorbency
    * Resistant to damage from oil and many chemicals
    * Static and pilling can be a problem
    * Poor resistance to continuous sunlight Major End Uses:
    * Apparel - swimwear, activewear, foundation garments, hosiery, blouses, dresses,
    sportswear, raincoats, ski and snow apparel, windbreakers, childrenswear.
    * Other-Luggage/back packets/life vests/umbrellas/sleeping bags,tents.

    Nylon is one of the strongest of all fibers, and for this reason it's used in garments that take a
    great deal of hard wear, like panty hose, swimwear, tents.

    Although nylon is a very strong fiber, one of it's unfavorable characteristics is that it has poor
    resistance to prolonged exposure to the sun. In addition, the Lycra (or spandex) breaks down from
    exposure to chlorine in pool water. Lycra is used for its stretch.

    Supplex has a feel of cotton,comfortable, breathable and water repellent/ NOT water proof). Absorbs
    a small amount of water if it is getting drenched.

    WOOL Natural, Animal fiber

    Characteristics:
    * Comfortable * Luxurious, soft hand
    * Versatile * Lightweight
    * Good insulator * Washable
    * Wrinkle-resistant * Absorbent Major End Uses:
    * Apparel - sweaters, dresses, coats, suits, jackets, pants, skirts, childrenswear,
    loungewear, blouses, shirts, hosiery, scarves.

    GORETEX A teflon based membrane with microscopic holes. Gortex's claim to fame is that it will let
    water vapor (from perspiration) through, but not liquid water (rain). It blocks wind fairly well
    too. The membrane is delicate, so it always comes laminated between 2 layers of other material. It
    does not breathe enough. There are less expensive alternatives.

    POLYPROPYLENE/THERMAX Does not wick very well. Can be uncomfortable. Troublesome to care for
    (e.g. can pill badly) Will keep you fairly warm if soaked. Not very wind resistant. Shrinks under
    heat from dryers. Thermax is an improvement on Polypropylene. The big advantage is that
    Thermax isheat resistance so you can put it in the dryer. Balance that against the extra cost.

    60/40 CLOTH This is a cloth with nylon threads running one direction, cotton in the other. It was
    the standard wind parka material before Goretex came along, and is considerably less expensive.
    Good wind resistance, fairly breathable. Somewhat water resistant, especially if you spray it
    with Scotchguard, but won't hold up to a heavy rain.

    Breathability of Materials summarized from Clive Tully UK Outdoor/Travel Writer
    [email protected]

    Breathability in waterproof clothing is one of the most misunderstood and misrepresented technical
    aspects of outdoors clothing and equipment. It's all very well listing the technical merits of a
    particular fabric, coating or membrane. Too often, the design of the finished garment either makes
    or breaks the fabric manufacturer's claim. E.g., a walking jacket with a permanently vented shoulder
    flap might as well be made of non-breathable PU. It can't maintain the partial pressure which makes
    the fabric work. The exception is Gore-Tex fabric. Garment manufacturers using their fabrics have to
    submit sample products for Gore to check they meet their laid down standards of manufacture. Not
    many fabric manufacturers do that, but then, not many have such a tight grip on their markets.

    The Breathable options

    Breathable waterproof fabrics operate by one of two ways.They're microporous, with microscopic pores
    which permit the passage of water vapour but not water liquid, or they're hydrophilic, a solid
    barrier but capable of absorbing moisture vapour and passing it through its structure. Either may
    come as coatings applied directly to a fabric, or membranes which are glued to the fabric which
    carries it. Then there are microfibre fabrics and cotton fabrics.

    The top end of the market is dominated by Gore-Tex, and like some of the other laminates on offer,
    it comes in a variety of forms. The original, and still the best for durability, is 3-layer, where
    the breathable waterproof membrane is sandwiched between a facing and lining fabric. Garments made
    of this tend to be good value, too, because the manufacturing processes aren't so complex. 2-layer
    is softer, with the membrane glued to the underside of the facing fabric, and a loose lining. Not so
    durable, but usually more breathable, and more expensive. Other varieties, laminate the membrane to
    a lining fabric with loose outer - nice for fashion garments, and sometimes the waterproof lining
    has loose outer and lining on either side - again, more complex constructions generally adding up to
    more expensive garments. And the outside pockets will let in water...

    A coating is a coating, or is it? Breathable PU nylon doesn't really mean an awful lot. Individual
    coatings can have their chemistry tinkered with to make them more breathable or more waterproof.
    Cheaper coatings may be applied in one pass over the fabric, more expensive performance coatings may
    be made up of several thinner applications.

    You'd expect breathable waterproof fabric to work reasonably well in dry conditions, provided you're
    not working so hard as to overload its capability to transport moisture. The real crunch is when
    it's raining. How much does it breathe after 5 hours in pouring rain? Tests showed that all fabrics
    lose an element of breathability in wet conditions. The various configurations of Gore-Tex lost
    between 34 and 43% of their breathability, Sympatex 31% on a Z-liner construction, 70% in a double
    layer. Helly-Tech's decline was just short of 75%, but perhaps the biggest surprise was Lowe
    Alpine's Triple Point Ceramic 1200, losing just 15%.

    Whatever the coating or laminate, the facing fabric and its water-repellent surface treatment is
    absolutely critical. It's fair to say that the coarse texturised facing fabrics will fare less well
    than smooth ones because of a larger surface area to grab water when the water repellent treatment
    wears off.

    Linings

    It is a misconception that a lining is an aid to breathability. It isn't. It won't make any
    improvement. As an extra layer of insulation, it will make condensation inside the jacket MORE
    likely. What it does is improve the comfort factor by putting a layer between you and any
    condensation which may form on the shiny underside of your coating or membrane. 2-layer Gore-Tex
    would be just too fragile without a loose lining to protect it. In other instances, it's used to
    mask what's going on (or rather, not) at the point of greatest resistance!

    A mesh lining can achieve the same effect with less resistance to the passage of water vapour -
    looks nice too, even if it is a bit of a pain with Velcro - but the best functional designs will
    still employ a smooth lining fabric down the arms to avoid drag over your fleece. But if the mesh is
    to do the same job for a poor breathable coating or membrane as a close weave lining fabric, it has
    to be made from an absorbent or wicking fibre, otherwise, there's not much point in having the
    lining at all.

    Maintenance Whether you have an expensive membrane or an inexpensive coating lurking behind the face
    fabric of your jacket, the moment the fabric "wets out", you're in danger of anything from
    drastically reducing performance to turning your jacket into something with the breathability of a
    bin liner. It's easy to see when this happens. The water no longer beads up and rolls off the
    surface of the fabric, and you'll see it soaking into the material in patches. The fabric is still
    waterproof (apart from pressure points - see above), but its breathability will be greatly impaired.
    The answer is to keep your jacket clean, following any washing instructions to the letter, and
    maintain the water repellent finish on the outside.

    General Information

    Running Mailing Lists

    T & F Mailing List For details send email to: (Derrick Peterman)[email protected]

    The Track and Field Mailing List is a world wide network of athletes, coaches, sports scientists,
    officials, and track and field enthusiasts. Many national class athletes from several nations
    subscribe. The list provides rapid dissemination of results, discussion of track and field topics,
    and a source for inquiry about track and field events.

    Terminology: Pronation/Supination (Tom Page [email protected])

    "Over" pronation describes a minor misalignment of the leg's forward swing that causes the
    footstrike to be skewed to the inside of the heel.
    (J.Horalek)

    "Over" supination is the reverse - impact is shifted toward the outside of the heel. (Jim Horalek)

    Pronation and supination describe natural and normal motions of the foot during the walking or
    running stride. In a normal stride, the outside portion of the heal strikes the ground first. The
    foot pronates to absorbe shock. That is, it rolls inward. At the end of the stride, the foot re-
    supinates -- rolls outward-- on push-off.

    What the previous writer (Jim Horalek [email protected]) is defining is `over pronation', and
    `over supination'. These are excesses of the normal motions. Note that over pronation is fairly
    common and many shoes are designed to counteract this. Over supination is very rare. Most people who
    think they over supinate probably just under pronate. Some people who think they over pronate may in
    fact pronate a normal amount, but fail to re-supinate sufficiently at the end of the stride.

    Calorie/Energy Count (Kenrick J. Mock [email protected])

    Here is a little table adapted from "Beyond Diet...Exercise Your Way to Fitness and Heart Health" by
    Lenore R. Zohman, M.D.

    Energy Range = Approx. Calories Per Hour

    Energy Range Activity Conditioning Benefits

    72-84 Sitting, Conversing None

    120-150 Strolling, 1 mph Not strenuous enough to produce endurance unless Walking, 2 mph your
    exercise capacity is very low

    150-240 Golf, power cart. Not sufficiently taxing or continuous to promote endurance.

    240-300 Cleaning windows Adequate for conditioning if carried out Mopping floor continuously for
    vacuuming 20-30 minutes Bowling Too intermittent for endurance Walking, 3mph Adequate dynamic
    exercise if Cycling, 6mph your capacity is low Golf, pulling cart Useful if you walk briskly,if cart
    is heavy isometrics may be involved.

    300-360 Scrubbing floors Adequate if done in at least 2 minute stints Walking, 3.5 mph Usually good
    dynamic aerobic exercise Cycling, 8 mph Ping Pong Vigorous continuous play can Badminton have
    endurance benefits. May aid skill. Volleyball Tennis, doubles Not beneficial unless there is
    continuous play for at least 2 minutes at a time. Aids skill.

    360-420 Walking, 4mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial. Cycling, 10mph Skating Should be continuous

    420-480 Walking, 5mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial. Cycling, 11mph Tennis, singles Benefit if played
    30 minutes or more with an attempt to keep moving Water Skiing Total isometrics

    480-600 Jogging, 5 mph Dynamic, aerobic, endurance Cycling, 12mph building exercise. Downhill skiing
    Usually too short to help endurance significantly. Paddleball Not sufficiently continuous for
    aerobic benefits.

    600-660 Running, 5.5 mph Excellent conditioner. Cycling, 13 mph

    Over 660 Running, 6+ mph Excellent conditioner Handball, Squash Conditioning benefit if played 30
    min or more. Swimming (wide Good conditioning exercise caloric range)
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Calories burned by running (Rob Lingelbach [email protected])

    Here is a table I clipped from Runner's World; the source listed is "Exercise & Physiology" (Lea &
    Febiger, 1986). At 70% of max.

    Pace (minutes per mile)
    12:00 10:43 9:41 8:46 8:02 7:26 6:54 6:26 6:02 Wt(lbs) Calories burned per hour running 100
    400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 119 432 486 540 594 648 702 756 810 864 128 464 522
    580 638 696 754 812 870 928 137 496 558 620 682 744 806 868 930 992 146 528 594 660 726
    792 858 924 990 1056 154 560 630 700 770 840 910 980 1050 1120 163 592 666 740 814 888
    962 1036 1110 1184 172 624 702 780 858 936 1014 1092 1170 1248 181 656 738 820 902 984
    1066 1148 1230 1312 190 688 774 860 946 1032 1118 1204 1290 1376 199 720 810 900 990
    1080 1170 1260 1350 1440 207 752 846 940 1034 1128 1222 1316 1410 1504 216 784 882 980
    1078 1176 1274 1372 1470 1568 225 816 918 1020 1122 1224 1326 1428 1530 1632 234 848 954
    1060 1166 1272 1378 1484 1590 1696
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Muscle Fuels Used During Exercise Stuart Phillips([email protected])

    There are 3 main fuels used during exercise by the contracting muscle: 1) Protein; 2)
    Carbohydrate; 3) Fat.

    PROTEIN: A majority of text books written will not acknowledge protein as a major fuel, and
    it likely is not. It should be pointed out that protein requirements of someone who is
    running/exercising on a regular basis are GREATER than those of a sedentary population. Is
    this something to worry about? Most "North American" diets contain more protein than is
    needed. So the bottom line is you get more than you need so don't worry. Vegetarians? Again
    the answer is likely yes, they also get enough protein. Even when consuming a pure protein
    diet there is enough protein to more than cover the needs of a person who regularly
    runs/exercises. Moreover, most vegetarians are aware of what they eat and plan their diets
    very well.

    FUELS: Fats and carbohydrates (CHOs are then the major fuel sources for the exercising
    person. The balance of the use of these fuels is dependant upon exercise intensity and
    duration (the two are inversly related). The general rule is that the lower the intensity
    the greater the energy cost of exercise can be covered by fat. Hence, the greater the
    exercise duration the more fat will be burned, usually because the intensity of one's
    workout will decrease - FATIGUE! The flip side then, is that during higher intensity
    exercise (>70% of max), one relies heavily on CHOs.
     
    Tags:


  2. Archive-name: running-faq/part2
    Last-modified: 13 Dec 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    SOURCES: Fats are stored as adipose, body fat, and muscle fat (triglycerides). CHOs are
    stored as muscle and liver glycogen (long chains of glucose) and blood glucose. During a
    workout the early phases are characterized by a reliance on CHOs, both muscle glycogen and
    blood glucose. The blood glucose comes from the breakdown of liver glycogen. Again this is
    dependent upon intensity (see above). However, the muscle can also use fat as a fuel, The
    sources of this are from the inside of the muscle or from the outside -
    i.e. from adipose tissue. The problem is that levels of fats from adipose take a while to reach high
    enough levels for their use to become significant. Their concentration in the blood only
    reaches very high levels when the intensity of the exercise is low (i.e. 50% of max or less)
    and if the duration is sufficient (1 hour or more). However, when the concentration of fats
    from outside of the muscle is high enough the muscle can use these instead of glycogen and
    delay the use of glycogen, this is critical at times since muscle glycogen is a "rate-limiting"
    fuel for muscle. That is when muscle glycogen runs out, or gets very low, then you feel
    terrible - you've BONKED or HIT THE WALL (see below).

    BONKING/HITTING THE WALL: Lots of people talk about the phenomenon of bonking. It hits some
    people harder than others, I don't know why and have never seen any good information why?
    However, bonking is a combination of two processes. The first is a lack of muscle glycogen
    (see above). The second is low blood glucose. When muscle glycogen is low the muscle runs
    into a fuel crisis. It cannot burn fats at a rate high enough to sustain the muscle's
    maximal output. The consequence is that your muscle switches to burning more fats and so
    you have to slow down. The crappy feeling that you experience at the same time, often
    characterized by nausea and disorientation, is likely a consequence of low blood
    sugar/glucose (hypoglycemia).

    The trick then is to alleviate/delay the onset of these symptoms by consuming sugar solutions, or
    simply by becoming so well trained that you don't have to worry (see TRAINING below). Why is low
    blood sugar bad? Because your brain, eye tissue, and others are able to burn only glucose. That is
    when the levels of glucose are low your brain runs out of fuel, so you feel awful. Your vision might
    become impaired also.

    FATS vs. CHOs: However, as I've said above your muscle can burn fats and if given the
    chance your muscle will burn whatever fuel it has in the greatest abundance, even lactate!
    So, if supplied with enough fat muscle can burn fat and hence, "spare" muscle glycogen.
    This is the idea behind many runners drinking caffeine/coffee before a race. The caffeine
    has effects that cause release of fats from adipose tissue and the level of fats in the
    blood increases. The end result is that for the early phases of the race the runner's
    muscle's can use fat and delay the use of muscle glycogen, hence, sparing that glycogen
    for later use.

    One should be cautioned, however, that this mechanism for increasing fat usage has only been shown
    with some very high doses of caffeine that are not achievable without taking caffeine pills. It also
    critically dependent upon the person's habitual caffeine intake ("big" coffee drinker appear not to
    derive as great of a benefit as non-habitual users). There are other ways to maximize the use of
    muscle glycogen, however.

    CHO LOADING: CHO loading is a practice that many athletes use before a longer duration
    event to "supercompensate" their muscles with glycogen, delay it's running out (see above).
    The practice is of little use when the duration of the event is less than 60 minutes, since
    muscle glycogen will usually be able to meet the demands of such a duration. However, it
    should be noted that repeated bouts of high intensity exercise will also deplete one's
    muscles of glycogen (for example wrestling 3-4 bouts in one day).

    There are two basic protocols for CHO loading, one is just as good as the other. However, they
    involve an initial bout of exercise to deplete the muscle's glycogen (under normal dietary
    conditions), followed by a period of high CHO diet (i.e. 70% or more of one's total calories from
    CHO). This period should be the 4-5 days prior to the event and should be a time when the athlete
    tapers their training, so as not to deplete muscle glycogen too much. The result is an overload of
    glycogen in one's muscles.

    Two notes: 1) This procedure will result, if done correctly, in most people gaining 2-5 pounds.
    Why? Because muscle and liver glycogen is stored with water and increasing glycogen will increase
    water content -
    i.f. increased weight is water. 2) Preliminary evidence indicates that this procedure is less
    effective in women. That is to say that if a female runner were to increase her CHOs to 70% (or
    >) of her caloric intake she may not have an increase in muscle glycogen. Why? It may relate to
    a gender difference in the ability to store muscle glycogen or in the amount of CHOs that 70%
    of the female athlete's diet represents (i.e. 70% of a 2000 calorie diet would be 1400 Cal from
    CHO, eating this may not be enough to increase muscle glycogen content). Stay tuned for more
    info here!

    TRAINING: When one trains or conditions by completing endurance exercise changes occur at
    many levels, including the muscle. The changes that occur at the level of the muscle
    include an increased ability to utilize fats. Not surprisingly then one's endurance is
    increased. How? An increased utilization of fats means less reliance on glycogen, less
    reliance on glycogen means you don't run out of the fuel that allows you to maintain a high
    rate of muscle contraction, and hence a high rate of running/exercising. Another adaptation
    that occurs is that your muscle uses less glucose, this is important for tissues such as
    brain (see above).

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Conversion chart (Jack Berkery [email protected])

    1 yard = .9144 meter 100 yards = 91.4400 meters 220 yards = 201.1680 meters 440 yards = 402.3360
    meters 880 yards = 804.6720 meters

    1 meter = 1.094 yards 100 meters = 109.400 yards 200 meters = 218.800 yards 400 meters = 437.600
    yards 800 meters = 875.200 yards

    1 mile = 1.609 Kilometers 1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet 1 Kilometer = .6214 miles = 1094 yards
    = 3281 feet

    Kilmoeters to miles Miles to Kilometers ------------------------------------------------------ 1 km
    = .6214 miles 1 mile = 1.609 km 2 km = 1.2418 miles 2 miles = 3.218 km 3 km = 1.8642 miles 3 miles =
    4.827 km 4 km = 2.4856 miles 4 miles = 6.436 km 5 km = 3.1070 miles 5 miles = 8.045 km 6 km = 3.7284
    miles 6 miles = 9.654 km 7 km = 4.3498 miles 7 miles = 11.263 km 8 km = 4.9712 miles 8 miles =
    12.872 km 9 km = 5.5926 miles 9 miles = 14.481 km 10 km = 6.2140 miles 10 miles = 16.090 km 11 km =
    6.8354 miles 11 miles =
    17.699 km 12 km = 7.4568 miles 12 miles = 19.308 km 13 km = 8.0782 miles 13 miles = 20.917 km 14 km
    = 8.6996 miles 14 miles = 22.526 km 15 km = 9.3210 miles 15 miles = 24.135 km 20 km = 12.4280
    miles 20 miles = 32.180 km 25 km
    = 15.5350 miles 25 miles = 40.225 km 30 km = 18.6420 miles

    1 marathon = 26 miles + 385 yards = 42.186 km

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Fluid replacement (2 personal methods)

    As an ultramarathoner, trail runner fluid replenishment etc. is quite important. My findings, based
    on personal experience, is that in 90+ degree weather I use a liter per hour on a one hour run - and
    that is carrying the water with me. If you are not running enough distance, dont be concerned about
    energy type drinks, and you probably don't lose enough salts to need electrolytes. But your system
    will absorb more fluid faster is it is hypotonic and cool. If you guys are always running for 45
    minutes or an hour in HOT weather - I would really suggest carrying water. When you realize your
    dehydrated its TOO late - and it takes longer to replenish fluids than it does to lose them. (Milt
    Schol [email protected])

    I prepare for a run with about 24-30 ounces of lukewarm water within 3 hours of the run. As for
    after the run, if it was particularly strenuous (and in the 85+ and humid Pittsburgh weather of
    late, the runs have been strenuous for me), within 10-15 minutes following the run, I take ~10-15
    ounces of room-temperature, diluted Exceed (about 2 parts Exceed to 3 parts water). I follow that
    with about 24-30 ounces of room-temperature water over the next hour or two. (Barbara Zayas
    [email protected])

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries (John Schwebel [email protected])

    Ten Laws of Running Injuries stated therein:

    The 1ST LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Running Injuries Are Not an Act of God

    The 2ND LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Each Running Injury Progresses Through Four Grades

    The 3RD LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Each Running Injury Indicates That the Athlete Has Reached the
    Breakdown Point

    The 4TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Virtually All Running Injuries Are Curable

    The 5TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: X-Rays and Other Sophisticated Investigations Are Seldom Necessary
    to Diagnose Running Injuries

    The 6TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Treat the Cause, Not the Effect

    The 7TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Rest is Seldom the Most Appropriate Treatment

    The 8TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Never Accept as a Final Opinion the Advice of a Nonrunner

    The 9TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Avoid the Knife

    The 10TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: There Is No Definitive Scientific Evidence That Running Causes
    Osteoarthritis in Runners Whose Knwees Were Normal When They Started Running

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Second Wind (Newsweek July 27, '92)

    If an Olympian experiences a second wind, it's probably a sign that he isn't in a great shape.
    Scientists are divided over whether a second wind is purely psychological - the athlete "willing"
    himself forward. But if it has a physical basis too, the sudden feeling of "I can do it!" right
    after "I want to die" probably reflects a change in metabolism. The body gets energy by breaking
    down glucose, which is stored in muscles. This reaction releases lactic acid, which the body must
    burn in order to prevent a lactic-acid buildup that causes cramps. Burning lactic acid requires
    oxygen. If the body does not breathe in enough oxygen; the runner experiences oxygen debt: the heart
    beats more quickly; the lungs gasp; the legs slow. The second wind, says physicist Peter Brancazio
    of Brooklyn College, may come when the body finally balances the amount of oxygen coming in with
    that needed to burn the lactic acid. (When burned, lactic acid is transformed into sweat and carbon
    dioxide.) Why doesn't everybody get a second wind? Couch potatoes don't push themselves past oxygen
    debt; true Olympians have enough lung capacity and cardiovascular fitness to avoid oxygen debt in
    the first place.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Soda Pop (Paulette Leeper [email protected])

    Q: Does anyone have any opinions on Soda pop as a drink in General.

    I find the CAFFEINE in soda to be irritating and DEHYDRATING, so, IMHO, drinking soda with caffeine
    (regardless of whether or not it contains sugar or aspartame) defeats the purpose of quenching
    thirst. It's much like drinking beer to quench thirst... it FEELS good, and TASTES good, but as a
    mechanism for hydration, it does the exact opposite.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Computer Software (Jack Berkery [email protected]) (Paul Gronke, [email protected])

    There is a Shareware program in the WUSTL archives available through anonymous ftp. (also on other
    archive sites) Look into ../msdos/database/joggr105.zip I didn't exactly like it but it may suit
    your style. It works with CGA/EGA/VGA graphics. Don't know how it functions under windows.

    ntu.ac.sg [155.69.1.5]

    AEROBIX.ZIP B 81246 910420 Fitness Log: Record aerobic exercise/progres JOGGR105.ZIP B 59053 920312
    Runner's log and analysis database, v1.05 PT100.ARC B 175592 890914 Physical Training test
    scorekeeper database RUNLOG.ZIP B 71801 900308 Runner's/bicycler's workout log

    ---------------------
    All programs are available in the DATABASE directory on Simtel, via anonymous FTP. There are a
    number of Simtel mirrors, including WUARCHIVE.WUSTL.EDU (dir = mirrors/msdos/database),
    OAK.OAKLAND.EDU (dir = pub/msdos/database), and a lot of non US sites.

    RUNCOACH.ZIP RunCoach RunCoach helps coach people who are running, jogging or racing. It is based on
    Artificial Intelligence techniques and can produce an optimum training program tailored to the
    individual. If you are just starting to run, want to enter a fun run or are an expert runner and
    want to improve your time then RunCoach can help. First you enter some data about yourself, then set
    a goal race (or ask RunCoach to suggest one), tell RunCoach when you can train and RunCoach will
    quickly generate a personalised training schedule. It will also estimate how likely you are to
    succeed at your goal. Ver 0.90 was the first public release and can be found as RUNCOACH.ZIP. Ver
    0.94 (RUNCO94B.ZIP) is the latest (july 95) release. It works in both miles or kms, has a better
    understanding of the taper, has a built in series of running guides and has a built in sports psych,
    so you can discuss any problems. It is available from a number of FTP sites but as an example try
    Simtel: oak.oakland.edu /SimTel/msdos/database/runco94b.zip

    Its running knowledge is extensive and includes the following:-
    - internally classifies runners into five major groups

    - able to select days of the week you can run, and your long run day
    - provides feedback on whether you are capable of meeting your goal time
    - can suggest goal's based on your individual ability
    - provides a schedule even if Run Coach is sceptical you can reach your goal
    - knows about VO2 max, anaerobic threshold, efficiency, long runs etc
    - has many rules for minimising injury
    - has a variety of individualised speedwork schedules built in
    - understands periodisation & complex schedules & selects between them
    - can predict race results for distances not previously run
    - can produce a schedule for the complete beginner through to the elite

    RUNLOG.ZIP - I found this to be a barely usable program. It was not at all clear what I needed to
    enter at any of the prompts. There was no help key. There was no information telling me what format
    any times, distances, etc. need to be entered as. This does have a time prediction module. The
    interface is kind of nice. There are graphical displays of improvement, heart rate, etc. With a
    better manual expaining what you need to enter, I would rate is usable. At present, I found the
    other programs nicer. If you figure out what need to be entered where, you can use this program.

    JOGGR105.ZIP - This is a program of British origin. The interface is kind of interesting. It has
    most of the data entry options that you would want. It will graphically display your improvement.
    You can control the menu of courses so that you don't have to reenter distance and course info each
    time. Most annoying problem: everythin is in British units, so that you have to convert 100 meter
    dash, 5K, 10K, etc. into milage. This might not be a drawback for some; it is a major drawback for
    me. The data entry, printing is all nice. It escapes from errors well (unlike Runlog, which tends to
    bomb). This is definitely usable.

    RUNSTA11.ZIP - I really like this program and will continue to use it. It is by far the largest of
    the programs (300K zipped, 3 times the size of the others), so you might go for another if disk
    space is a problem. However, you get a full featured training / racing log for the space. What I
    like about it: 1) you can make it as complex or simple as possible. Via config options, you can
    enter for each race/training: shoes, weather, heart rate, health, hilliness, race surface, temp,
    calories...or none of these, depending on your preference. 2) You can easily set up a menu of
    courses to choose from in the race *and* training run entry 3) Race and Training are kept separate,
    a very nice feature if you want to track training runs and racing in the same database. 4) Multiple
    database files easily used, special configs are unique to each database file (meaning that you can
    monitor bicycle, running in the same program) 5) Can display data entries (runs) in a "calendar"
    format, then select the ones you wish to examine with a keystroke 6) Nice graphical displays

    Drawbacks: requires more memory than the other programs. Might not run on pre-286 machines, but I
    don't know. More disk space required. Not sure if it does time forecasting, I need to check.

    RUNSTAT3 Ver.3.0, Jan. 1995 by Scott Diamond <[email protected]>

    RunStat3 is a Windows program useful to runners The program's main window is a pace calculator. You
    enter distance and time for your run and RunStat3 calculates your pace for your run and finishing
    times for a large set of distances and times. E.g., if you ran a 10k run, RunStat3 would list
    finishing times for 1 mile, 5k, 10k, 1/2 marathon, marathon, etc (you can add your own custom
    entries). Two listing for finishing times are presented, one based on running at constant pace and a
    'realistic' estimate which accounts for slowing your pace the longer you run.

    RunStat3 also supports an ascii logbook in which users can keep a record of all their runs. RunStat3
    includes a searching, plotting and statistics calculator so that you can search your log book and
    plot all your times for a given course, or total your mileage for each pair of shoes or make other
    plots. There is almost no limit to the number of entries you can place in your log file for tracking
    your runs (e.g temp., wt, avg. heart rate, course, shoes, etc.)

    The program is freeware. For more information, set your web-browser to:
    <http://www.scottdiamond.com/Running/runstat/runstat.html>

    ===========================================================================

    Hashing

    From: Dweezil the Butt Beaker <[email protected]> Subject: Rules of Hashing (one version,
    re: Rule Six) Organization: Orlando Hash House Harriers

    X-Hhh: A Drinking Club With A Running Problem. X-Hhh-Motto: If you have half a mind to hash, that's
    all you need. X-Hhh-Philosophy: Carpe Cerevisiam X-Oh3-Motto: We get drunk, we get naked, we give
    hashing a bad name. X-O2H3-Motto: We have beer, we have cookies, we give hashing a nice name. X-Dbh3-
    Motto: Daytona Beach Hash House Harriers never run out of beer. X-Dbh3-Motto: We have beer before,
    during, and after the hash.

    The Hash House Harriers is a running/drinking/social club which was started by bored expatriates in
    Kuala Lumpuer, Malaysia in 1938. ("Hash House" is the nickname of the restaurant/bar to which they
    retired for food and beer after a run.) Hashing is based on the English schoolboy game of "Hare and
    Hounds"; a Hash is a non-competitive cross-country run set by one or more runners called hares. The
    hares run out in advance of the other runners (the pack of hounds), and set a course marked by white
    flour, toilet paper, and/or chalk marks.

    Hash Rules
    ----------

    1. A HASHMARK is a splash of flour used to mark the trail. The pack should call out "On-On" when
    they see a hashmark. Blasts on horns, whistles, and other noise makers are encouraged. Hounds
    asking "RU?" (are you on trail?) of the FRB's (Front-Running Bastards) should be answered "On-
    On", which means they are on trail, or "Looking", which means they`ve lost the trail.

    2. ARROWs, or several closely spaced hashmarks, are used to indicate change of trail direction.
    Hound should use arrows different from those used by the hares as necessary to assist hounds
    further back in the pack.

    3. A CHECKMARK is a large circled X, or a circle with a dot at its center (fondly known as a "Titty
    Check"). Checkmarks indicate that the trail goes "SFP"; that is, the pack must search for true
    trail. Hounds should call out "Checking" when they see a checkmark. (Checking IS NOT Looking!)

    4. A Backtrack is three lines chalked or drawn in flour across the trail, indicating a false trail.
    The pack, upon encountering a backtrack, calls out "On-Back" or "Backtrack", and goes back to
    the last checkmark to find true trail. Sometimes a hound will draw an arrow with a backtrack
    sign at the checkmark to identify the false trail for the rest of the pack.

    A CHECKBACK is a devious variation of the checkmark/backtrack. A checkback is a CB followed by a
    number. For example, a "CB 5" means to backtrack five hashmarks, then look for true trail as one
    would at a check. Also known as a COUNTBACK.

    A WHICHWAY is two arrows, only one of which points toward true trail; no hashmarks will be found in
    the other direction.

    5. Tradition requires a DOWN-DOWN (chug-a-lug) of a beer after a hasher's virgin hash, naming hash,
    and other significant occasions, e.g., 25th hash, 50th hash, etc. A Down-Down is also in order
    for hares, visitors, and for any other reason that can be thought up. While frowned upon as
    "alcohol abuse", it is permissible for non- drinkers to pour the beer over their head; a soda
    Down-Down may also be elected. The primary consideration of the Down-Down is that once the mug
    leaves the drinker's lips, it is turned upside-down over the head.

    6. THERE ARE NO RULES.

    ===========================================================================
    Interval training ([email protected])

    First off, keep in mind that the interval part of the run is the rest part. This is where your body
    recovers and strengthens itself.

    Secondly, say your goal is to run an 8 minute/mile 10k. Start your intervals by doing 5X400m at a
    little under 2 minutes per rep. You'll see that an 8min mile is a 2min 400, so to better that, you
    run a little faster, as I said. Walk or jog between the rep (this is the interval). Remember to keep
    with what you started at. If you jogged to rest, don't walk during the next interval.

    Intervals should be challenging, but not defeating. If you are having problems maintaining your form
    during the course of the whole run, you are doing too much. You should feel good at the end of your
    run, not ready to drop dead.

    Remember to warmup and cool down sufficiently before and after intervals. 10 minutes of jogging is
    suggested.

    Other things to remember: you can customize intervals to achieve different things. For example, to
    increase endurance, you can decrease your interval while running the same rep. Or you can increase
    the rep and still do the same interval. You can work on speed by running faster reps. There are
    other variations as well, but I don't remember all of them.

    Lastly, make sure you have a good aerobic base when you start, and don't do too much too fast. You
    can tire your muscles out, and it will take a while to recover.

    Your goal is to exercise your fast twitch muscles, those used for speed. I've been doing intervals
    for about 2 months now, and it has made a difference. The first race I ran after starting intervals,
    my time dropped by about 15 seconds. I have a race tomorrow, and am hoping to improve on that. I
    also notice I have more pep in my regular workouts. I get out there, and once I'm warmed up, my body
    wants to run fast.

    ===========================================================================

    Legs

    Sore knees ( Elizabeth Doucette <[email protected]>)

    When running (also walking, and cycling), the inner most quad. muscle (inner part of thigh) does not
    get exercised as much as the other three quad. muscles of the thigh. If this inner muscle isn't
    strengthened by specific exercises, an imbalance of the muscles may occur. This can cause irritation
    of the underside of the kneecap (chondromalacia patellae) because the imbalance of the muscles can
    pull the kneecap towards the outside of the leg.

    The kneecap (which has two convex faces on the back) rides in a broad indentation on the femur.
    Weak inner quadriceps (M. Vastus medialis) can pull the kneecap slightly out of its "track"; and
    it is theorized that this is what causes chondromalacia (which I believe is called patellofemoral
    pain syndrome these days). [edited for correctness 2/19/95 by [email protected] mail.cornell.edu
    (Lucie Melahn)]

    I had chondromalacia patellae for a long time (and many of my running friends did too) but I haven't
    had problems since I've been doing specific exercises for my inner quad. muscle. It is tedious and
    boring but it works. I haven't had knee problems for about 3 years now :). I should do this every
    day, whether I work out or not, but I don't always. If I feel any discomfort at all in my knees, I
    make sure I'm more diligent with this exercise and the discomfort always disappears. I'm always able
    to prevent a problem now.

    The exercise is just a leg raise with the foot flexed and pointing away from the body. With this
    exercise make sure that your back is supported. As your quad. muscles fatigue, there is a tendency
    to help out with your back muscles. You may not realize that you're doing this until you notice
    later that your back is a little sore.

    Sitting on the floor, bend one leg (like you're going to do a sit-up), bringing the knee towards the
    chest. The other leg is straight. Place your hands behind you on the floor to support your back. You
    can vary this by leaning against a wall and hugging your knee to your chest with both arms. YOUR
    CANNOT BE TOO CAREFUL WITH YOUR BACK.

    For ease of explanation, start with your right leg being straight and flex your foot (bring your
    toes towards your head, as opposed to pointing them away from you). Turn your leg to the right, so
    that your toes and knee are pointing to the right as far as possible. The position of the foot is
    important because it helps to isolate the inner quad. muscle. Now, do leg raises. When I started I
    could only do 10 or 20 before I needed to rest. Don't do the leg raises too quickly because
    technique is more important than speed. I now do three sets, each leg of 60 repetitions (alternating
    legs after each set) for a total of 180 per leg. It takes me about 10 minutes.

    You can tell if your muscle is getting fatigued because it will start to quiver. Don't push it,
    change legs. Keep note of how many repetitions you do before you get fatigued and try to increase
    the repetitions next time. Compare you to you, not to others.

    Leg presses used to bother my knees. Now that I'm doing leg raises, the leg press doesn't bother me
    any more. Technique is important when doing leg presses. (Technique is probably more important than
    the fact that I'm doing leg raises). Make sure that the seat is forward far enough, so that when you
    press you cannot lock your knee. This makes the initial position feel too cramped. My knees feel too
    close to my chest. But it works for me and for others (both men and women) that I work out with.
    Nautilus equipment uses a cam system, such that there is less resistance on your knees in the
    initial, starting position, so there is less chance of injury.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Leg Massage (John Boone [email protected])

    (From Bicycling magazine, pp.76-77, July 1992, Reproduced without permission)

    MASSAGE TECHNIQUES

    7. Full Muscle Flush

    This surface stroke prepares the muscles for deeper work. It loosens the fibers and increases the
    blood flow to wash out lactic acid and other toxins. Begin with the calves. Place the palms flat
    against the bottom of the muscle and stroke toward the heart in a continuous movement. Always stroke
    toward the heart so the blood containing the toxins isn't traveling back into the muscles. After a
    few of these, knead the muscle during the stroke by working the bottom of the palms in and out. End
    with the original flat stroke.

    8. Broad Cross-Fiber Stroke

    After each muscle group has been flushed, use the same palm position at the center of the muscles,
    but work sideways. Press harder than the flush. The hands are moving acros the muscle fibers,
    separating them and making them pliable so the massage can go deeper with the next type of stroke.
    This is a great supplement to stretching. It makes muscle fibers less likely to tear. End with
    more flushing.

    9. Deep Muscle Spress

    "Spress" is a Swedish term. This technique is also known as muscle stripping. Use fingers, knuckles,
    or even elbows to penetrate the muscle. [Press deep into the leg where previously rubbing the
    surface.] Apply pressure until the comfort limit is passed. If there's pain, work slower, or do a
    few palm strokes before spressing again. Knuckles and thumbs work best. Concentrate on specific
    areas, instead of stroking the whole muscle. But remember to work toward the heart.

    SELF-MASSAGE

    Initial Strokes

    Self-massage uses the same sequence of strokes as assisted massage, and the same order of muscles --
    calf, quads, hamstrings, glutes. But it's usually less effective because self-massagers get tired or
    bored quicker. The most common mistake is skipping the full-muscle flush or cross-fiber stroke to
    concentrate on the spress in the sorest areas. If you don't prepare the muscles, you won't be able
    to penetrate deep enough. [...] Be sure you're applying pressure with both hands. Sometimes one side
    of the leg gets shortchanged.

    Going Deeper

    The advantage of self-massage is that you know exactly where it hurts and can key on these areas.
    You also know when your muscles are loose enough for deeper penetration. [...] Amateurs usually
    don't go [deep enough] in assisted massage, or do so too quickly and it hurts. You can find that
    perfect balance. [...] It's best to use both [hands], but fatigue is a problem in self-massage.



    --
    Austin "Ozzie" Gontang, Ph.D. TEC International 2903 29th St San Diego, CA 92104-4912

    hm/off. 619-281-7447 fax 619-281-9468 email <[email protected]>

    Chief Executives Working Together http://www.teconline.com
     
  3. Archive-name: running-faq/part5
    Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    BASIC NUTRITION PRIMER

    Nutrition in athletics is a very controversial topic. However, for an athlete to have confidence
    that his/her diet is beneficial he/she must understand the role each food component plays in the
    body's overall makeup. Conversely, it is important to identify and understand the nutritional
    demands on the physiological processes of the body that occur as a result of racing and training so
    that these needs can be satisfied in the athlete's diet.

    For the above reasons, a basic nutrition primer should help the athlete determine the right
    ingredients of his/her diet which fit training and racing schedules and existing eating habits. The
    body requires three basic components from foods: 1) water; 2) energy; and 3)nutrients.

    WATER

    Water is essential for life and without a doubt the most important component in our diet. Proper
    hydrations not only allows the body to maintain structural and biochemical integrity, but it also
    prevents overheating, through sensible heat loss(perspiration). Many *runners* have experienced the
    affects of acute fluid deficiency on a hot day, better known as heat exhaustion. Dehydration can be
    a long term problem, especially at altitude, but this does not seem to be a widespread problem among
    *runners* and is only mentioned here as a reminder (but an important one).

    ENERGY

    Energy is required for metabolic processes, growth and to support physical activity. The Food and
    Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences has procrastinated in establishing a Recommended
    Daily Allowance(RDA) for energy the reasoning being that such a daily requirement could lead to
    overeating. A moderately active 70kg(155lb) man burns about 2700 kcal/day and a moderately active
    58kg(128lb) woman burns about 2500 kcal/day.

    while *running* (this is obviously dependent on the level of exertion).

    these as calories) to the daily energy demand of the *runner*. Nutritional studies indicate that
    there is no significant increase in the vitamin requirement of the athlete as a result of this
    energy expenditure.

    In order to meet this extra demand, the *runner* must increase his/her intake of food. This may come
    before, during or after a *run* but most likely it will be a combination of all of the above. If for
    some reason extra nutrients are required because of this extra energy demand, they will most likely
    be replenished through the increased food intake. Carbohydrates and fats are the body's energy
    sources and will be discussed shortly.

    NUTRIENTS

    This is a broad term and refers to vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, fiber and a
    host of other substances. The body is a very complex product of evolution. It can manufacture many
    of the resources it needs to survive. However, vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids(the
    building blocks of proteins) and fatty acids cannot be manufactured, hence they must be supplied in
    our food to support proper health.

    Vitamins and Minerals

    No explanation needed here except that there are established RDA's for most vitamins and minerals
    and that a well balanced diet, especially when supplemented by a daily multivitamin and mineral
    tablet should meet all the requirements of the cyclist.

    Proper electrolyte replacement(sodium and potassium salts) should be emphasized, especially during
    and after long, hot rides. Commercially available preparations such as Exceed, Body Fuel and Isostar
    help replenish electrolytes lost while *running*.

    Proteins

    Food proteins are necessary for the synthesis of the body's skeletal(muscle, skin, etc.) and
    biochemical(enzymes, hormones, etc.)proteins. Contrary to popular belief, proteins are not a good
    source of energy in fact they produce many toxic substances when they are converted to the simple
    sugars needed for the body's energy demand.

    Americans traditionally eat enough proteins to satisfy their body's requirement. All indications are
    that increased levels of exercise do not cause a significant increase in the body's daily protein
    requirement which has been estimated to be 0.8gm protein/kg body weight.

    Carbohydrates

    Carbohydrates are divided into two groups, simple and complex, and serve as one of the body's two
    main sources of energy.

    Simple carbohydrates are better known as sugars, examples being fructose, glucose(also called
    dextrose), sucrose(table sugar) and lactose(milk sugar).

    The complex carbohydrates include starches and pectins which are multi-linked chains of glucose.
    Breads and pastas are rich sources of complex carbohydrates.

    The brain requires glucose for proper functioning which necessitates a carbohydrate source. The
    simple sugars are quite easily broken down to help satisfy energy and brain demands and for this
    reason they are an ideal food during racing and training. The complex sugars require a substantially
    longer time for breakdown into their glucose sub units and are more suited before and after riding
    to help meet the body's energy requirements.

    Fats

    Fats represent the body's other major energy source. Fats are twice as dense in calories as
    carbohydrates(9 kcal/gm vs 4 kcal/gm) but they are more slowly retrieved from their storage
    units(triglycerides) than carbohydrates(glycogen). Recent studies indicate that caffeine may help
    speed up the retrieval of fats which would be of benefit on long rides.

    Fats are either saturated or unsaturated and most nutritional experts agree that unsaturated, plant-
    based varieties are healthier. Animal fats are saturated(and may contain cholesterol), while plant
    based fats such as corn and soybean oils are unsaturated. Unsaturated fats are necessary to supply
    essential fatty acids and should be included in the diet to represent about 25% of the total caloric
    intake. Most of this amount we don't really realize we ingest, so it is not necessary to heap on the
    margarine as a balanced diet provides adequate amounts.

    WHAT THE BODY NEEDS

    Now that we have somewhat of an understanding of the role each food component plays in the body's
    processes let's relate the nutritional demands that occur during *running* in an attempt to develop
    an adequate diet. Basically our bodies need to function in three separate areas which require
    somewhat different nutritional considerations. These areas are: 1) building; 2) recovery; and 3)
    performance.

    Building

    Building refers to increasing the body's ability to perform physiological processes, one example
    being the gearing up of enzyme systems necessary for protein synthesis, which results in an
    increase in muscle mass, oxygen transport, etc. These systems require amino acids, the building
    blocks of proteins. Hence, it is important to eat a diet that contains quality proteins (expressed
    as a balance of the essential amino acid sub units present)fish, red meat, milk and eggs being
    excellent sources.

    As always, the RDA's for vitamins and minerals must also be met but, as with the protein
    requirement, they are satisfied in a well balanced diet.

    Recovery

    This phase may overlap the building process and the nutritional requirements are complimentary.
    Training and racing depletes the body of its energy reserves as well as loss of electrolytes through
    sweat. Replacing the energy reserves is accomplished through an increased intake of complex carbohydrates(60-
    70% of total calories) and to a lesser extent fat(25%). Replenishing lost electrolytes is easily
    accomplished through the use of the commercial preparations already mentioned.

    Performance

    Because the performance phase(which includes both training *runs* and racing)spans at most 5-7 hours
    whereas the building and recovery phases are ongoing processes, its requirements are totally
    different from the other two. Good nutrition is a long term proposition meaning the effects of a
    vitamin or mineral deficiency take weeks to manifest themselves. This is evidenced by the fact that
    it took many months for scurvy to show in sailors on a vitamin C deficient diet. What this means is
    that during the performance phase, the primary concern is energy replacement (fighting off the
    dreaded "bonk") while the vitamin and mineral demands can be overlooked.

    Simple sugars such a sucrose, glucose and fructose are the quickest sources of energy and in
    moderate quantities of about 100gm/hr(too much can delay fluid absorption in the stomach) are
    helpful in providing fuel for the body and the brain. Proteins and fats are not recommended because
    of their slow and energy intensive digestion mechanism.

    Short, *runs* or races of up to one hour in length usually require no special nutritional
    considerations provided the body's short term energy stores (glycogen) are not depleted which may be
    the case during *long* events.

    Because psychological as well as physiological factors determine performance most *runners* tend to
    eat and drink whatever makes them feel "good" during a *run*. This is all right as long as energy
    considerations are being met and the stomach is not overloaded trying to digest any fatty or protein
    containing foods. If the vitamin and mineral requirements are being satisfied during the building
    and recovery phases no additional intake during the performance phase is necessary.

    IMPLICATIONS

    Basically, what all this means is that good nutrition for the *runner* is not hard to come by once
    we understand our body's nutrient and energy requirements. If a balanced diet meets the RDA's for
    protein, vitamins and minerals as well as carbohydrate and fat intake for energy then everything
    should be OK nutritionally. It should be remembered that the problems associated with nutrient
    deficiencies take a long time to occur. Because of this it is not necessary to eat "right" at
    every meal which explains why weekend racing junkets can be quite successful on a diet of tortilla
    chips and soft drinks. However, bear in mind that over time, the body's nutritional demands must
    be satisfied. To play it safe many *runners* take a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement
    tablet which has no adverse affects and something I personally recommend. Mega vitamin
    doses(levels five times or more of the RDA) have not been proven to be beneficial and may cause
    some toxicity problems.

    GREY NUTRITION

    "Good" nutrition is not black and white. As we have seen, the body's requirements are different
    depending on the phase it is in. While the building and recovery phases occur somewhat
    simultaneously the performance phase stands by itself. For this reason, some foods are beneficial
    during one phase but not during another. A good example is the much maligned twinkie. In the
    performance phase it is a very quick source of energy and quite helpful. However, during the
    building phase it is not necessary and could be converted to unwanted fat stores. To complicate
    matters, the twinkie may help replenish energy stores during the recovery phase however, complex
    carbohydrates are probably more beneficial. So, "one man's meat may be another man's poison."

    NUTRIENT DENSITY

    This term refers to the quantity of nutrients in a food for its accompanying caloric(energy) value.
    A twinkie contains much energy but few vitamins and minerals so has a low nutrient density. Liver,
    on the other hand, has a moderate amount of calories but is rich in vitamins and minerals and is
    considered a high nutrient density food.

    Basically, one must meet his/her nutrient requirements within the constraints of his/her energy
    demands. Persons with a low daily activity level have a low energy demand and in order to maintain
    their body weight must eat high nutrient density foods. As already mentioned, a *runner* has an
    increased energy demand but no significant increase in nutrient requirements. Because of this he/she
    can eat foods with a lower nutrient density than the average person. This means that a *runner* can
    be less choosy about the foods that are eaten provided he/she realizes his/her specific nutrient and
    energy requirements that must be met.

    BALANCED DIET

    Now, the definition of that nebulous phrase, "a balanced diet". Taking into consideration all of the
    above, a diet emphasizing fruits and vegetables (fresh if possible), whole grain breads, pasta,
    cereals, milk, eggs, fish and red meat(if so desired) will satisfy long term nutritional demands.
    These foods need to be combined in such a way that during the building and recovery phase, about 60-
    70% of the total calories are coming from carbohydrate sources, 25% from fats and the
    remainder(about 15%) from proteins.

    It is not necessary to get 100% of the RDA for all vitamins and minerals at every meal. It may be
    helpful to determine which nutritional requirements you wish to satisfy at each meal. Personally, I
    use breakfast to satisfy part of my energy requirement by eating toast and cereal. During lunch I
    meet some of the energy, protein and to a lesser extent vitamin and mineral requirements with such
    foods as yogurt, fruit, and peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. Dinner is a big meal satisfying
    energy, protein, vitamin and mineral requirements with salads, vegetables, pasta, meat and milk.
    Between meal snacking is useful to help meet the body's energy requirement.

    CONCLUSION

    All this jiberish may not seem to be telling you anything you couldn't figure out for yourself. The
    point is that "good" nutrition is not hard to achieve once one understands the reasons behind
    his/her dietary habits. Such habits can easily be modified to accommodate the nutritional demands of
    *running* without placing any strict demands on one's lifestyle.

    ------------------------ Powerbars (John McClintic [email protected])

    I submit "power bar" recipe originated by Bill Paterson from Portland Oregon.

    The odd ingredient in the bar, paraffin, is widely used in chocolate manufacture to improve
    smoothness and flowability, raise the melting point, and retard deterioration of texture and flavor.
    Butter can be used instead, but a butter-chocolate mixture doesn't cover as thinly or smoothly.

    POWER BARS
    ----------

    1 cup regular rolled oats
    1/2 cup sesame seed 1 1/2 cups dried apricots, finely chopped 1 1/2 cups raisins 1 cup shredded
    unsweetened dry coconut 1 cup blanched almonds, chopped
    2/2 cup nonfat dry milk
    3/2 cup toasted wheat germ 2 teaspoons butter or margarine 1 cup light corn syrup
    4/4 cup sugar 1 1/4 cups chunk-style peanut butter 1 teaspoon orange extract 2 teaspoons grated
    orange peel 1 package (12 oz.) or 2 cups semisweet chocolate baking chips 4 ounces paraffin or 3/4
    cup (3/4 lb.) butter or margarine

    Spread oats in a 10- by 15-inch baking pan. Bake in a 300 degree oven until oats are toasted, about
    25 minutes. Stir frequently to prevent scorching.

    Meanwhile, place sesame seed in a 10- to 12-inch frying pan over medium heat. Shake often or stir
    until seeds are golden, about 7 minutes.

    Pour into a large bowl. Add apricots, raisins, coconut, almonds, dry milk, and wheat germ; mix well.
    Mix hot oats into dried fruit mixture.

    Butter the hot backing pan; set aside.

    In the frying pan, combine corn syrup and sugar; bring to a rolling boil over medium high heat and
    quickly stir in the peanut butter, orange extract, and orange peel.

    At once, pour over the oatmeal mixture and mix well. Quickly spread in buttered pan an press into an
    even layer. Then cover and chill until firm, at least 4 hours or until next day.

    Cut into bars about 1 1/4 by 2 1/2 inches.

    Combine chocolate chips and paraffin in to top of a double boiler. Place over simmering water until
    melted; stir often. Turn heat to low.

    Using tongs, dip 1 bar at a time into chocolate, hold over pan until it stops dripping (with
    paraffin, the coating firms very quickly), then place on wire racks set above waxed paper.

    When firm and cool (bars with butter in the chocolate coating may need to be chilled), serve bars,
    or wrap individually in foil. Store in the refrigerator up to 4 weeks; freeze to store longer. Makes
    about 4 dozen bars, about 1 ounce each.

    Per piece: 188 cal.; 4.4 g protein; 29 g carbo.; 9.8 g fat; 0.6 mg chol.; 40 mg sodium.

    =============================================================

    Orienteering (Matt Mahoney [email protected]) updated

    Orienteering is called the "thinking sport" because it involves two skills -- running and map
    reading. The object is to run to a series of markers in the woods, along any route you want. The
    hard part is finding the markers with the aid of a map and a compass.

    There are 6 courses to choose from, called White, Yellow, Orange, Green, Red and Blue. This has
    nothing to do with the colors of the markers (which are orange and white and look like lanterns
    hanging from trees). It has to do with level of difficulty, like belts in karate. The white course
    is the easiest, about a mile, with the markers clearly visible from roads or trails. Blue is the
    hardest, about 4-5 miles, and involves mostly cross-country running with emphasis on successful
    navigation using terrain features. Each marker has a 2-letter code (to distinguish it from markers
    on other trails) which you match up with a code sheet that you carry with your map. There, you
    stamp your card in the appropriate numbered spot. Each stamp produced a distinct pattern of holes
    in the card.

    Orienteering now has its very own news group, rec.sport.orienteering. The BAOC newsletter is run by
    Wyatt Riley out of Stanford ([email protected] stanford.edu). Subscription requests should be sent to:
    [email protected] with the following line in the text: subscribe baoc your name e.g.
    subscribe baoc Bill Clinton BAOC home pg:http://www-leland.stanford.edu/group/orienteer/baoc.html.
    ============================================================= Predicting
    times (10k-marathon) (Tim [email protected])

    In `Training Distance Runners' Coe and Martin come up with three sets of formulas for determining
    equivalent race performances over several distances when the performance for one distance is known.
    They have three tables to counter problems of athlete specificity.

    For long distance specialists (i.e 10k/15km) : Marathon = 4.76Y : 10k = Y
    : 5k = 0.48Y 3k = 0.28Y
    : 1.5k = 0.13Y

    For 3k/5k runners : 10k = 2.1Y
    : 5k = Y 3k = 0.58Y
    : 1.5k = 0.27Y 800m = 0.13Y 400m = 0.06Y

    For `real' middle distance: 5k = 3.63Y
    : 3k = 2.15Y
    : 1.5k = Y 800m = 0.48Y 400m = 0.22Y

    =============================================================

    Running Clubs & Organizations (John Berkery [email protected])

    ARFA - American Running and Fitness Association 9310 Old Georgetown Rd Bathesda MD 20814
    301-897-0917

    ARRA - Association of Road Racing Athletes (professionals) 807 Paulsen Bldg Spokane WA 99201
    509-838-8784

    Clydesdale Runners Association (heavyweights) 1809 Gold Mine Rd Brookville Md 20833 310-774-2493

    NWAA - National Wheel Chair Athletic Association 3617 Betty Dr, suite S Colorado Springs CO 80907
    719-597-8330

    RRCA - Road Runners Clubs of America 629 S. Washington St Alexandria VA 22314 703-768-0545

    Special Olympics (handicapped) 1350 New York Ave, NW, suite 500 Washington DC 20005 202-628-3630

    TAC - The Athletics Congress of the USA (IAAF member) 1 Hoosier Dome, suite 140 Indianapolis IN
    46225 317-261-0500

    USABA - U.S. Association for Blind Athletes 33 N. Institute St Brown Hall, suite 015 Colorado
    Springs CO 80903 719-630-0422

    USCAA - U.S. Corporate Athletics Association (company teams) 401 North Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL,
    60611-4267
    (5) 644-6610, fax (312) 527-6658 WWW site - http://www.geocities.com/Coloseum/1297/uscahome.html

    BACAA - Bay Area Corporate Athletics Assn. northern California affiliate of the USCAA Brian
    Schonfeld, Sun Microsystems, (415) 786-7801, [email protected] Mal Murphy, Rocje
    Bioscience, (415) 960-5583, [email protected] WWW site -
    http://members.aol.com/annmbou/bacahome.htlm

    USCPAA - U.S. Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association 34518 Warren Rd, suite 264 Westland MI 48185
    313-425-8961

    USOC - U.S. Olympic Committee 1750 E. Boulder St Colorado Springs CO 80909-5760 719-632-5551

    Achilles Track Club (handicapped)
    c/o New York RRC 9 East 89th St New York NY 10128 212-860-4455

    Other running organizations Many road runners clubs are not affiliated with RRCA. Information about
    these independent clubs may be found at local sporting goods stores or at athletic shoe stores.
    Local YMCA/YWCA organizations may also be able to supply a contact address or phone number.
     
  4. Archive-name: running-faq/part4
    Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    ===============================================

    Medical / Injuries

    -------------------------------- Achilles tendonitis (sorry, forgot the author)

    General advice:

    1. Warm up before you stretch. This could be in the form of a slow jog as you start your run. When
    I feel it necessary, I stop for a few minutes and stretch during the early stages of a run.

    2. Stretch after your run. This has proven the best solution for me. Whenever I skip this part, I
    end up stiff the next day. The muscles are nice and warm after a run and respond well to
    stretching. My flexibility has improved as a result of this practice, too.

    3. With regards to an injury, you've got to be tough and rest it in order for it to heal. This
    might be a good time to concentrate on strength training with weights.

    --------------

    The good news: since this seems to be your first injury, and your training load is light, your
    tendinitis is probably due to the most simple cause - leg length imbalance. Get someone to mark how
    far you can bend to each side, if these are different heights then you might find a heel raiser
    under the bad leg will both even out the side-bend _and_ speed up the recovery.

    The bad news: achilles is notoriously slow to heal even with the correct treatment. And the chances
    of recurrence are quite high. However the condition you describe shouldn't prevent your training, as
    long as you promote healing with stretching, massage (calf/inner thigh/groin), ice, etc...

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Shin splints (Harry Y Xu [email protected]) (Doug Poirier [email protected] .ibm.com)
    (Rodney Sanders [email protected])

    Excerpts from _The SprotsMedicine Book_ G. Mirkin, MD. and M. Hoffman:

    ``Shin splints are....condition that can result from muscle imbalance. They are characterized by
    generalized pain in front of the lower leg and are particularly comon in runners and running
    backs.... The most common cause is a muscle imbalance where the calf muscles--which pull the
    forefoot down--overpower the shin muscles--which pull the forefoot up. As the athlete continues to
    train, the calf muscle usually becomes proportionately much stronger than the shin muscles.

    The treatment for shin splints is to strengthen the weaker muscles (shins) and stretch the stronger
    muscles (calves).

    To strengthen the shins, run up stairs. To stretch the calves,...(do stretching exercises for the
    calves, et. the wall push-ups)'' *end of exerpts.

    _________________________________________

    In my experience, I have found that stretching is the real key to avoiding shin-splints. I believe
    there's a book with stretches by Bob Anderson that you may want to check. Also, back issues of
    running magazines sometimes have helpful information. Basically, I do the standard "lean on the wall
    stretch" and a stretch by standing flat-footed on one leg and bending at the knee to stretch the
    achilles. I then top these off with a few toe raises (no weights!) before I head out to run... If
    you're having trouble, I'd recommend stretching 2-3 times a day until you get over the problem.
    Start slowly!

    Also, you probably should avoid hills and extremely hard surfaces until the situation improves. I've
    known several people who've had shin splints and gotten over them by stretching. (Of course, you
    should be careful in case the shin splints are the result of a more severe problem...)

    ------------------------

    Help with shin splints.

    4. Try picking up marbles with your toes and holding onto them for a few seconds.

    1A. While recovering from shin splints, it may help to use a wedge in the heel of your shoes. By
    raising the heel, you are reducing the pull on the muscles and tendons on the front.

    5. Stand on the stairs with your heels out over the edge. Lower your heels as far as they will go
    without undue discomfort, and hold for 15 seconds. Slowly raise yourself up on your toes. Repeat
    5 million times. (Sherwood Botsford [email protected])

    6. If you can, rig something with either surgical tubing or a large rubberband. For example: put
    the tubing around one of the back legs of your desk in some sort of a loop. Reach under the
    tubing with your toes, with your heel as a pivot pull the tubing toward you. This will work the
    muscle in the front of the shins. Repeat 6 million times. It's easier than the stair exercise

    7. Run on different terrain, preferably grass. It'll absorb the shock.

    8. This normally affects knees, but it might affect shins. Don't run on the same side of the road
    all of the time. It is sloped left or right to let the water run off. Running on the same slope
    for long periods of time will cause adverse effects to the ankles, shins...etc.... If you are
    running on a track, alternate your direction of travel, as the lean when you are going around
    the corners is at least as bad as the crown slope of a road. This is especially true of small
    indoor tracks.

    9. Strenghening the front muscles: Make a training weight by tying a strip of cloth to a pop
    bottle. Sit on the kitchen counter top, hang bottle from toes, and raise it up and down by
    flexing your ankle. Weight can be adjusted by adding water or sand to the bottle. (Sherwood
    Botsford [email protected])

    10. Scatter a few chunks of 2x4 around the house where you tend to stand, say kitchen and bathroom.
    Now everytime you are at the stove or at the bathroom (in front of either fixture) stand on 2x4
    and rest your heels on the floor. One in front of the TV and used during every commercial will
    either stretch you, or stop you from watching TV. [email protected]

    ------------------------------ Side stitches (Jack Berkery [email protected])

    The Latest Word on Stitches

    In the May-June 1992 issue of Running Research News there is an article by
    Dr. Gordon Quick about the causes of and cures for stitches. To summarize:

    1) Stitches are a muscle spasm of the diaphragm. The cause of the spasm is that the organs below it
    are jouncing up and down and pulling down as it wants to pull up. The liver being the largest
    organ is the biggest culprit which is why most stitches are on the right side. A stomach full of
    food may also contribute to the problem for the same reason. Stitches also occur more often when
    running downhill or in cold weather.

    2) The cure seems almost too simple. Breathe out when your left foot strikes the ground instead of
    when the right foot strikes so that the organs on the right side of the abdomen are jouncing up
    when the diaphragm is going up. The organs attached to the bottom of the diaphragm on the left
    aren't as big, so exert less downward pulling strain. If this is not enough to get rid of it,
    stop and raise you arms above your head until the pain goes away and when you resume, be a left
    foot breather. (Conversely, if your stitch occurs on the left side, switch your breathing to
    exhale on the right foot.)

    3) Do not eat anything for an hour before running if you are prone to stitches, BUT PLEASE DO DRINK
    WATER. Water empties from the stomach faster than solids and the risk of complications from
    dehydration far exceed the problems one may have with a stitch.

    4) In the long term, exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles will help prevent stitches
    because tighter abs will allow less movement of those internal organs. Practice belly breathing
    instead of chest breathing as recommended by Noakes. For the most part, stitches diminish over
    time. While they are not strictly a novice runner's problem (about 1/3 of all runners get them
    from time to time) they usually will go away after a few weeks of conditioning.

    --------------

    By Tim Noakes Oxford Uni. Press, 1985. Quoted from "Lore of Running"

    Proper breathing prevents the development of the `stitch'. The stitch is a condition that occurs
    only during exercise and which causes severe pain usually on the right side of the abdomen,
    immediately below the rib margin. Frequently the pain is also perceived in the right shoulder joint,
    where it feels as if an ice-pick were being driven into the joint. The pain is exacerbated by down-
    hill running and by fast, sustained running as in a short road race or time trial. For various
    complex anatomical reasons, the fact that the stitch causes pain to be felt in the shoulder joint
    suggests that the diaphragm is the source of the pain.

    It has been suggested that when breathing with the chest too much air is drawn into the lungs, and
    not all is exhaled. This causes a gradual and progressive accumulation of air in the lungs, causing
    them to expand which in turn causes the diaphragm to be stretched and to encroach on the abdominal
    contents below it. During running, the over-stretched diaphragm becomes sandwiched between an over-
    expanded chest above, and a jolting intestine pounding it from below. It revolts by going into
    spasm, and the pain of this spasm is recognized as the stitch.

    Although there is really not a shred of scientific evidence for this belief, I have found that
    diaphragm spasm is almost certainly involved in the stitch and that belly-breathing can frequently
    relieve the pain.

    The runner who wishes to learn how to belly-breath should lie on the floor and place one or more
    large books on his stomach. He should concentrate on making the books rise when he breathes in and
    fall when he exhales. As it takes about two months to learn to do the movement whilst running fast,
    it is important to start practicing well before an important race.

    A change in breathing pattern may help relieve the stitch. Within a short period of starting
    running, breathing becomes synchronized with footfall. Thus one automatically breaths in on one leg
    and out when landing either on the same leg - that is 2, 3 or 4 full strides later - or on the
    opposite leg - that is 1 1/2, 2 1/2, or 3 1/2 strides later. Thus the ratio of stride to breathing
    may be 2:1, 3:1, 4:1; or 1.5:1, 2.5:1, 3.5:1.

    This phenomenon was first reported by Bramble and Carrier (1983). Of particular interest was their
    finding that most runners are `footed', that is the beginning and end of a respiratory cycle occurs
    on the same foot, usually in a stride to breathing ratio of either 4:1 whilst jogging or 2:1 whilst
    running faster. Runners then become habituated to breathing out on the same let, day after day. This
    produces asymmetrical stresses on the body and could be a factor in both the stitch and in certain
    running injuries. I am `left-footed' and have also suffered my major running injuries only on my
    left side. If changes in breathing patterns do not prevent the stitch then the last step is to
    increase abdominal muscle strength. The correct way to strengthen the abdominal muscles is to do bent-
    knee sit ups with the feet unsupported.

    --------------

    EDITORS NOTE: Readers response to "Belly Breathing" definition above. "Belly Breathing" (Lamont
    Granquist [email protected])

    While I wasn't breathing with my chest, I wasn't really "Belly Breathing". When I exhaled, what I
    was doing was pulling my stomach muscles in. I found out that this is *not* the way to "Belly
    Breathe". The idea is to throw your gut out as much as possible -- try and look as fat & ugly as you
    can when you run. For the suggestion in the FAQ of lying on your back and lifting a book, it should
    probably be noted that when exhaling you want to try to keep the book lifted up (of course
    naturally, you don't want to try to do this all so hard that it becomes difficult to exhale -- the
    idea is that breathing this way should be comfortable).

    --------------
    Stitches continued (Sunil Dixit [email protected])

    5. Since it is a cramp, I try not to drink or eat too soon before my runs, and I try to limit my
    intake during runs.

    6. I stretch my abs extensively before a run. Putting my arm over my head and leaning to the
    opposite side until I'm pulling on the side of my abdominals works well.

    7. I regulate my breathing by breathing in through my nose, and out through my mouth. This sounds
    like zen-crap, but believe me, it works amazingly well in eliminating all types of cramping.
    When you first do it, it'll feel like you're not getting enough oxygen, but if you persist the
    technique will become very comfortable.

    8. I run with my back fairly straight, even up hills. This keeps the lungs from bending over in my
    body, and makes it much easier to breathe.

    9. If none of these work, I keep going anyway. After about 3 miles, it usually goes away . . . if
    you're lucky.

    ------------------ Lactic Acid (Rob Loszewski [email protected])

    "Lactic acid buildup (technically called acidosis) can cause burning pain, especially in untrained
    muscles. Lactic acid accumulation can lead to muscle exhaustion withing seconds if the blood cannot
    clear it away. A strategy for dealing with lactic acid buildup is to relax the muscles at every
    opportunity, so that the circulating blood can carry the lactic acid away and bring oxygen to
    support aerobic metabolism. ...much of the lactic acid is routed to the liver, where it is converted
    to glucose. A little lactic acid remains in muscle tissue, where it is completely oxidized when the
    oxygen supply is once again sufficient." Understanding Nutrition, 5th ed., Whitney, Hamilton,
    Rolfes., West Pub. Comp. 1990, pg402- 403.

    ------------------ Loose Bowels (Rodney Sanders [email protected])

    Some general advice to take care of loose bowels.

    (10) Look for offending foods in your diet. For example, many people have a lactose intolerance
    which can cause all sorts of fun if you had a triple cheese pizza the night before the run...

    (11) If you run in the morning, eat lightly and early the night before... I try to make sure I eat
    the least problematic foods close to my workouts... I've personally found baked chicken/fish,
    baked potatoes, and pasta with light sauces (no alfredo!), to be pretty good...

    (12) I read that Bill Rodgers drinks a cup of coffee in the morning before heading out...The
    caffeine stimulates one to take care of things completely before getting out...This has helped
    me when I run in the morning....

    (13) Carry a wad of toilet paper with you!

    I suspect that if you monitor your diet closely, you'll probably find something that makes the
    problem worse than at other times and you can avoid that food...

    Some other advice: (Sanjay Manandhar [email protected]) 1. Less fiber in the diet 2.
    Run repeats on small loops.
    14. Note all the washrooms along the route. 4. Time of day. For me, mornings are bad. In the evening
    runs the problem is infrequent. 5. A primer run. If I have to run in the mornings, I run 1 mile
    of primer run so that the bowels can be taken care of. Then I start my real run.

    ----- Diabetes & Running (Timothy Law Snyder [email protected])

    Oops, here is what makes virutually every person with diabetes bristle: MYTHS of diabetes!

    Not to flame Jay, but diabetics can (and do) eat as much sugar, drink as much booze, and run as many
    marathons as anybody else. The challenge is that they must manage the delicate balance between
    insulin (which lowers blood sugar), food (which raises it), and exercise (which, because it stokes
    up the metabolism and makes the insulin "rage") lowers blood sugar. Timing is important, and
    sometimes, due to the millions of factors that are at play (and _not_ due to negligence), the blood
    sugar will go too high or too low.

    Before a run, a person with diabetes (nobody in the know calls them "diabetics" any more) must make
    sure that the blood sugar is somewhat higher than normal. This gives a "pad" so that exercise does
    not result in a low-sugar crisis. Often the runner will take less insulin the day of the run. Before
    (and for long runs, during) the run some food must be eaten. For short runs, carbos will do, but
    proteins and fats are also necessary for the longer hauls.

    For a marathon, one must take some sort of food during the run. A high- carbo source like a soda
    works well, for the sugar is taken up immediately and, since the beverage is concentrated, it is
    easily digested (relative to, say, the caloric equivalent in whole wheat : ).

    Sugar does absolutely _no_ harm to the person with diabetes (provided, they do not ignore insulin
    requirements). That's right: The person could knock off twelve sodas, an entire chocolate cake, and
    a bag of M&Ms, and be as "fine" as anybody else (quotes intended---yuk!).

    While I am at it, here are a couple of other myth corrections: There is no clear evidence that
    diabetes is hereditary. Diabetes has _nothing_ to do with how much sugar the person ate before
    acquiring the condition. People with diabetes can (and do) drink as much alcohol as anybody else.
    (Alcohol lowers the blood sugar a tiny bit, so one must be careful to not forget to eat [and too
    many cocktails tend to...].)

    Hope this helps. Oh, by the way, NO, the taste of something sweet does not cause the release of
    insulin (save a possible [and rare] placebo effect).

    ===========================================================================

    Nutrition and Food (Bruce Hildenbrand [email protected]) [Ed.
    note: Originally appeared in rec.bicycles]

    Oh well, I have been promising to do this for a while and given the present discussions on
    nutrition, it is about the right time. This article was written in 1980 for Bicycling Magazine. It
    has been reprinted in over 30 publications, been the basis for a chapter in a book and cited
    numerous other times. I guess somebody besides me thinks its OK. If you disagree with any points,
    that's fine, I just don't want to see people take exception based on their own personal experiences
    because everyone is different and psychological factors play a big role(much bigger than you would
    think) on how one perceives his/her own nutritional requirements. Remember that good nutrition is a
    LONG TERM process that is not really affected by short term events(drinking poison would be an
    exception). If it works for you then do it!!! Don't preach!!!!
     
  5. Archive-name: running-faq/part3
    Last-modified: 16 Jul 2002
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    ============================================================
    Mail Order Addresses

    The addresse/phone of some popular running mail order outfits (Directory assistance at 1-800-555-
    1212 for mail order outfits not listed):

    Road Runner Sports 6150 Nancy Ridge Road 1-800-551-5558 (Orders) [email protected] San Diego, CA 92121
    1-800-662-8896 (Cust Serv) Fax: 1-619-455-6470

    California Best 970 Broadway 1-800-CAL-BEST Chula Vista, CA 91911-1798 1-800-225-2378

    Tel-a-Runner 80 Speedwell Ave [email protected] Morristown, NJ 07970 1-800-835-2786

    Hoy's Sports 1632 Haight St San Francisco, 94117 1-800-873-4329

    Holabird Sports 9008 Yellow Brick Rd Baltimore, Md 21237 1-410-687-6400 Fax: 1-410-687-7311

    =================================
    Marathon

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Increasing your mileage (Jack Berkery [email protected])

    There are many good, professional, books and articles on how to train for whatever distance you
    choose. More for the marathon than others I think. Get one or two and mull them over. The following
    recommendations are a distillation of having read and digested most of these and more than a decade
    of experience.

    Let's suppose you are beginning with a base load of about 20 miles per week over a long period.
    First I DO NOT recommend that anyone who has been running for less than 3 years should run a
    marathon. Running is a long-term game and it takes time for your body to become adjusted physically
    to the demands, not only of the marathon itself, but also of the heavy training mileage required to
    build up to it.

    Next, you should always keep in mind that your build-up should not exceed 10% per week. 10% doesn't
    sound like much but it's actually a big adjustment for your system to make. Not only muscles, but
    bones and connective tissues must be strengthened to take the increased load and running marathon
    mileage is a lot of pounding. Remember 10%. That is not to say that if you ran 20 miles last week,
    you cannot go more than 22 next week, but over a period of 3-4 weeks the rate of increase should not
    exceed the 10% slope. After 4 weeks then, you should be doing just under 30 miles, but not more. If
    you go from 20 to 24 in the first week thereby exceeding the 10% rate, then doing 24 again the
    second week will bring you back on track. You can continue to build up mileage for about 6 weeks
    when you'll reach 35 miles. Then you MUST BACK OFF for a week or so. Drop back by about 25-30% for
    one week. Take two or three days off in a row. Get some rest to gain strength before beginning the
    climb again.

    How much mileage is enough for a marathon? I have known people to run marathons on 25 or 35 miles
    per week. Don't try it. How they got away with it is not important. It is only important to know
    that it simply ain't smart. You can get away with 40-45 per week if you are doing a regular long run
    of 15-18 each week. It is better to be doing 50 or more for 6 to 8 weeks before the marathon. This
    means you have to have the time necessary to build to 50 at that 10% rate (with 1 rest week out of
    every 6) and then sustain that 50+ mileage for 6-8 weeks as well. This is a heavy schedule. Never
    doubt that. When you listen to the mega-mileage people talk about 70 or 80 or more, they make it
    sound as if everyone should be able to do that. Well we CAN'T all do that. We all have a break-down
    point and for the great majority, it lies somewhere below 50 or 60 miles per week. You'll know where
    yours is only after repeated tries to exceed it result in an injury.

    So how do you build the mileage? Suppose you are doing an even 3 miles a day, no more, no less. You
    must begin by building the long run. In a marathon training schedule, the long run is everything.
    Start the first week of the build-up by just lengthening one run. All other days should remain the
    same. Make one, usually Sat. or Sun., a 5-6 miler to get your 10% increase. Take the next day off
    from running. Rest is important after the long run to allow your system adjustment time. The next
    week of the build-up, increase the one long run again while still holding the normal daily runs the
    same. As a rule of thumb, your long run can go to 3 times the distance of your daily average run. So
    while still doing regular 3 milers, you can build up that Sat. morning run to 9 miles. Don't do a 12
    miler though until you have made your daily run 4 miles. This means keeping the long run at 9 miles
    for a few weeks and increasing the daily runs until your average is 4 or 5 a day. Then you can
    return to increasing the long run. Toward the end of the build-up you may be doing something like
    6-8 each weekday plus an 18-20 miler on the weekend. It might also be a good idea to alternate long
    runs of 15 and 20 miles every other week.

    As you get close to the date of the marathon, run your last long run 2 weeks before. DO NOT do a
    long run one week prior to the marathon. In fact for the last week you should taper down to do only
    about half, yes half, the mileage you have been doing. DO NOT run the day before and 2 days before
    the race you might only do 3 miles just to get the legs loose and the blood flowing. You MUST be
    well rested for the big race itself.

    Now assuming you do everything right there is still no guarrantee that the marathon is going to go
    well. Many things might prevail to make it hurt, hot or humid weather, getting caught up in too hard
    a pace, not drinking enough water before or along the way (THE GREATEST SIN). You may even spend 3
    or 4 months building your training only to come down with an illness or injury a few weeks before
    the race which will set you right back to square-one. If you want certainties, you're in the wrong
    game. What matters is not that you get to do that particular marathon on that particular day 5
    months from now, but rather what you plan to do over the next 5 or 10 or 50 years. I did say running
    is a long-term game, no?

    Another note of caution. All the rules can be broken. You may get away with lower training, higher
    ramp-up rates or shorter long-runs. You might even get away with it more than once, but sooner or
    later it's gonna get ya. Take the more conservative plan and be safe. You're looking for a positive
    experience not an injury.

    ------------------Major Marathons & partial World Marathon Schedule

    http://www.coolrunning.com/marathon/list.shtml http://joedom.home.mindspring.com/evt03.htm

    Boston Marathon ================== Boston Athletic Association
    P.O. Box 1996 Hopkington, MA 01748 Tel: 508-435-6905 Fax: 508-435-6590 The Boston Marathon is held
    on Patriots day (3rd monday in April).

    Starting time: Noon Boston Marathon qualifying times.

    Age Men Women Wheelchair Divison 18-34 3:10 3:40 CLASS MEN WOMEN 35-39 3:15 3:45 1 (Quad Class) 3:00
    3:10 40-44 3:20 3:50 2-5 2:10 2:35 45-49 3:30 4:00 50-54 3:35 4:05 55-59 3:45 4:15 60-64 4:00 4:30
    65-69 4:15 4:45 70-74 4:30 5:00 75-79 4:45 5:15 80+ 5:00 5:40

    Note: Qualifying time based on age on the day of the Boston Marathon. Example: You run a qualifying
    race at the age of 44 in 3:22. You then have a birthday before the Boston Marathon, making you
    45. You qualify, because your required qualification time is 3:25.

    Chicago Marathon ========= 101 W. Grand Ave. Ste. 600 (Carey Pinkowski) Chicago, IL 60610 (312) 527-
    2200 [VOICE] (312) 527-9901 [FAX]

    London Marathon ======== PO Box 3460 London, England SE1 8RZ 44 71 620 4117 fax: 44 71 620 4208 UK
    entrants: In Oct. get *proper* form from London, fill in, enclose cheque. You should find out before
    Xmas if picked in the lottery.
    . If you've run a sub 2h40 (men) or sub 3h10 (ladies) no need for lottery as you qualify for the
    national championships (held in conjunction with London).

    Non-UK entrants: Get on "official" trips to come to the UK to run London from sports travel firms.
    If you book with sports travel firm you will definitely get an entry. Going it alone then write:

    Los Angeles Marathon March ====== 11110 W. Ohio Avenue, #100 Los Angeles, CA 90025-3329 (310) 444-
    5544 AGE 18-59 60+

    Marine Corps Marathon ======= Box 188 Quantico, VA 22134 (703)640-2225

    New York Marathon ====== NYRRC
    P.P. Box 1766 GPO New York, NY 10116 (212) 860-4455

    For U.S. residents: Send a self-addressed #10 business-size envelope (about 4" x 9.5") and
    a check or money order (no cash) for a $5.00 non-refundable handling fee. Make the check
    payable to: NYRRC. Send AFTER midnight of "set start date." All requests must be posted
    "start date" or later. The NYRRC sets a "start date" for accepting requests for
    applications, about May 15-20. Prospective applicants must send a SASE and $5, postmarked
    ON OR AFTER this date, to a PO Box in NY. They send a blank application, with no guarantee
    of anything, fairly promptly. Fill it out and return it ASAP. A caveat: You must be a
    member of UST&F, the USA's governing federation of running, to run in the NYCM. You can
    apply for entry along with your marathon application; instructions and UST&F application
    are sent with the blank NYCM application.

    Applications accepted on the following basis:

    Slots are reserved for non-USA runners (don't know how they are allocated).

    12,000+ applications are accepted "first-come, first served" basis. The NYRRC claims this is not a
    tough thing if you act promptly - i.e. send request for ap on "Opening Day", and mail back the
    completed app. within a day or two.

    X,000 slots remain. Once above criteria filled, all applications received go (figuratively) into a
    big, big box. In late July or early August, NYRRC draws out the X,000 lucky envelopes. These entries
    are accepted. They draw a few hundred more, I guess, to set up a waiting list in the event of
    cancellations.
    NB: the rest of the applications are returned with refunded entry fee.

    San Francisco Marathon ==== City of San Francisco Marathon
    P.Q. Box 77148 San Francisco, CA 94107 (415) 391-2123

    Honolulu Marathon )====== Honolulu Marathon Assoc. 3435 Wailae Ave. #208 Honolulu, HI 96816
    808-734-7200

    Many tours to the large national & international marathons are organized by:

    Marathon Tours 108 Main St Charleston MA 02129 (617) 242-7845

    Marie Frances Productions 7603 New Market Dr Bethesda, MD 20817 301-320-3363

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Miscellaneous

    Pulled this chart out of Marathoning by Manfred Steffny. ( pub 1977). (Robert Davidson
    [email protected])

    Max. possible Realistic 10Km marathon time marathon time ------ ------------- -------------
    27:00 2:05:00 2:08:30
    28:00 2:10:00 2:14:00
    29:00 2:15:00 2:19:30
    30:00 2:20:00 2:25:00
    31:00 2:25:00 2:30:30
    32:00 2:30:00 2:36:00
    33:00 2:35:00 2:43:00
    34:00 2:40:00 2:49:00
    35:00 2:45:00 2:55:00
    36:00 2:50:00 3:00:00
    37:00 2:55:00 3:07:00
    38:00 3:00:00 3:15:00
    39:00 3:05:00 3:20:00
    40:00 3:10:00 3:25:00
    41:30 3:22:00 3:42:30
    42:00 3:35:00 4:00:00
    43:30 3:47:30 4:20:00
    44:00 4:00:00 4:40:00
    --
    Austin "Ozzie" Gontang, Ph.D. TEC International 2903 29th St San Diego, CA 92104-4912

    hm/off. 619-281-7447 fax 619-281-9468 email <[email protected]>

    Chief Executives Working Together http://www.teconline.com
     
  6. Archive-name: running-faq/part8
    Last-modified: 21 March 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    (Sites are being rechecked and new ones added by Arthur Bamps <[email protected]> . He continues to
    update the info. Ozzie) Part 8 of the FAQ had been subdivided into 3 areas Part 1 deals with the WWW
    pages Part 2 deals with mail-based discussion lists Part 3 deals with Usenet discussion groups

    Part I

    General

    http://www.waddleon.com/ The Internet Guide to Becoming an Athlete http://run-down.com/ Run Down
    Running Portal - Dan Kaplan (+10000 links) http://www.ontherun.com Serves runners/walkers/multi-
    sport athletes-Denny Brooks http://www.womensmultisport.com/ Women's Multisport Online
    http://www.runnersweb.com/running.html Runnersweb http://www.runnerswebuk.com/index.html Runners Web
    UK http://www.coolrunning.com/home.htm Cool Running http://www.letsrun.com/ Lets Run
    http://www.jeffgalloway.com/ Jeff Galloway http://teamoregon.com/ Team Oregon
    http://dir.yahoo.com/Recreation/Sports/Running/ Yahoo-Recreation:Sports:Running
    http://www.nederland.org/atletiek/ Remko's T&F Page http://www.athletics-online.co.uk/index.htm
    Sportscreen - Athletics online http://www.tflinks.com/index.shtml The World of Running and Track &
    Field http://www.track-and-field.net/ Athletics (Track & Field) Links http://www.runningonline.com/
    Running Online http://running.about.com/ Running (About.com) http://www.onrunning.com/index.asp
    Onrunning.com (UK) http://dmoz.org/Sports/Running/Trail_Running/ Trail Running links on DMOZ
    http://www.mountainrunning.com/kgbroad/index.html MountainRunning.com
    http://www3.nbnet.nb.ca/ATREE/weblinksCCRR.htm CCRR Running Weblinks http://www.runstopshop.com/
    RunStopShop.com was Joe's Running Links http://www.rnib.org.uk/youhelp/teamrnib/tm_tips.htm Tips for
    Blind and Partially Sighted Runners http://www.sarasanctuary.org/runningdog.html Running with your
    Dog http://www.backward-running-backward.com/ Backward running http://www.runningbarefoot.com/
    http://www.unshod.org/ Barefoot running http://www.cybernude.com/nuderuns/ Nude Running Events

    Organizations & Associations

    International http://www.iaaf.org/index.asp IAAF International Amateur Athletic Federation
    http://www.olympic.org/ International Olympic Committee http://www.aims-association.org/ Association
    of International Marathons and Road Races http://www.wava.org/ World Association of Veteran Athletes
    USA http://www.americanrunning.org/ American Running Association http://www.usatf.org/ USA Track &
    Field http://usatfnj.org/ USA TF New Jersey http://www.rrca.org/ Road Runners Club of America
    http://www.americanultra.org/index.html American UltraRunning Association Canada
    http://www.canoe.ca/Athcan/ Athletics Canada Australia http://www.athletics.org.au/ Athletics
    Australia http://www.ausport.gov.au/ Australian Sports Commission New Zealand
    http://www.athletics.org.nz/index.html Athletics New Zealand Europe http://www.eaa-athletics.ch/
    European Athletic Association UK http://www.ukathletics.org/ UK Athletics http://www.saf.org.uk/
    Scottish Athletics Federation http://www.welshathletics.org/ Athletics Association of Wales
    http://www.niathletics.org/ Northern Ireland Athletic Federation Asia http://www.asianathletics.org/
    Asian Amateur Athletic Association Hong Kong http://www.hkaaa.com/index.html Hong Kong Amateur
    Athletic Association

    Running Clubs

    World http://www.tflinks.com/lclubs/index.shtml http://www.gthhh.com/ Canada
    http://www.canadianmarathoning.bc.ca/links.htm http://www.bcathletics.org/links.htm
    http://www.ontarioroadrunners.com/clublist.html USA http://www.gbtc.org/whatelse.html
    http://www.nyrrc.org/race/linksclb.htm http://rrca.org/ 50 States Marathon Club
    http://hometown.aol.com/fiftydc/index.html Australia http://www.coolrunning.com.au/clubs.shtml
    Europe Netherlands http://www.ra.nl/atl/ Belgium http://www.val.be/val/verenigingen/1_2.htm
    http://www.jogging.org/ http://gallery.uunet.be/BAV/links.html UK http://www.british-
    athletics.co.uk/ http://www.roadrunnersclub.org.uk/ http://www.runtrackdir.com/ukclubs/
    http://www.serpentine.org.uk/links/links.htm http://www.windmilers.org.uk/links.htm
    http://www.lescroupiersrunningclub.org.uk/links.html Ireland http://www.iol.ie/~imra/links.html
    Switzerland http://www.running.ch/club/

    Running events

    World http://www.trackcoach.com/Links_competition_calendars_index.htm Links to different Competition
    Calendars http://users.chello.be/cr32000/frame1e.htm Marathon Calendar (over 650 worldwide) USA
    http://www.rrca.org/ http://kicksports.com/calendar/index.shtml
    http://www.runningclubnorth.org/lnk_rgeo.htm http://www.active.com/running/
    http://www.theschedule.com/calendar/index.htm http://www.run-2-3.com/ Canada
    http://www.runningclubnorth.org/lnk_rgeo.htm http://www.wi.bc.ca/ UK http://www.british-
    athletics.co.uk/ http://www.roadraces.co.uk/
    http://www.realrunner.com/ukandeurope/racesdiarypage.htm http://www.gbrathletics.com/ South Africa
    http://www.runner.co.za/ http://www.runnersguide.co.za/ France http://www.courirenfrance.com/
    Extreme http://www.guetali.fr/grandraid/ Reunion-Grand Raid http://home.mweb.co.za/sa/sabike/ South
    African Augrabies http://www.aoicimbaly.com/ http://www.sandmarathon.com/ Sand Marathon-Marathon des
    Sables http://spartathlon.webvista.net/index.html Spartathlon

    Athletics Statistics

    http://www.hkkk.fi/~niininen/athl.html Global and Local Athletic Records

    Medical corner

    http://www.med.uiuc.edu/m1/anatomy/LE/lecture_text.html Anatomy - Lower Extremity
    http://www.recnet.ca/anatomy101/ Muscles and Joints http://www.sportsinjuryclinic.net/ Virtual
    Sports Injury Clinic http://www.sover.net/~sstryker/itbs.html Iliotibial Band Causes and Solutions
    http://www.clark.net/pub/pribut/spsport.html
    http://www.csuchico.edu/phed/atc/Projects/ITband/ITBFS.html
    Dr. Pribut Sports Page http://www.rice.edu/~jenky/mednav.html The SportsMed Web
    http://www.footandankle.com/ Foot & Ankle Web Index http://home.hia.no/~stephens/ Masters
    Physiology & Performance http://spot.Colorado.EDU/~collinsj/ Sport and Exercise Psychology
    http://www.zunis.org/index.html Zunis Foundation

    Coaching & Training

    http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/index.htm Brian Mackenzie on all aspects of it
    http://www.marathontraining.com Marathon Training http://www.halhigdon.com/ Hal Higdon
    http://www.doitsports.com/virtualtraining/ Do It Sports Virtual Training http://www-
    rohan.sdsu.edu/dept/coachsci/index.htm Coaching Science Abstracts
    http://www.chirunning.com/Chi/Running/index.html ChiRunning http://dstc.edu.au/TU/staff/timbomb/ab/
    Abdominal Training http://www.stretching.com/ Stretching

    Ultra running

    http://www.he.net/~mmahoney/ultra/ Matt Mahoney http://www.run100s.com/ Stan Jensen
    http://www.ultraned.org/ UltraNed /Fox.nstn.ca:/~dblaikie/">http://Fox.nstn.ca:/~dblaikie/ David
    Blaikie http://www.fred.net/ultrunr/ Kevin Sayers Resource

    The press

    http://www.runningnetwork.com/ The Running Network http://www.stevenscreek.com/books Athlete's
    Bookstore http://www.raceplace.com Southern California Running/Tri/Bike Calendar
    http://www.runnersworld.com/ Runner's World http://www.marathonandbeyond.com/learn.htm for
    marathoners/ultradistance runners http://www.runningstats.com/ 42 times per year newsletter
    http://www.siteworks.co.uk/pperf/index.html Peak Performance http://www.rrnews.com Running Research
    Newsletter http://home.sprynet.com/~holtrun/homepage.htm David Holt - Running Dialogue
    http://www.trifind.com/books/run.html Running Books at TriFind.com

    Equipment

    http://users.chello.be/cr32000/commerce.htm Running gear - all brands
    http://www.roadrunnersports.com/roadrunner/ Shoes and sports gear

    Software

    http://www.lin-mark.com/ Lin-Mark timing systems http://www.pccoach.com/ PC Coach Training Software
    http://pegasussoftware.com/ Stevens Creek Software http://www.stevenscreek.com/ Athlete's Diary
    http://www.fitwise.com/default.asp FitWise.Com http://www.science-sportsware.dk/ Science Sportsware

    Measurement

    http://website.lineone.net/~athletics/coursemeasurement/ Road Running Race Course Measurement
    http://www.moloney.freeserve.co.uk/measurement.htm Obtaining a Course Measurement Certificate http://www.rrtc.net/jones-
    history.html http://www.geol.binghamton.edu/faculty/jones/jones.html
    http://www.horsforth.harriers.btinternet.co.uk/jones.htm The Jones Counter

    PART II

    E-mail lists are the easiest way to obtain information on running. However, the mail volume can
    become increasingly large and your mail-box becomes clogged when you are subscribed to a number of
    these toys. The tone is sometimes informal to more scientifically oriented in other lists.

    E-mail lists normally have two addresses, one to subscribe and one to send contributions to

    You can find a LISTSERV user's guide on http://listserv.dartmouth.edu/scripts/wa.exe

    Running related E-mail lists
    ============================
    UK Running e-mail list Join over 200 participants in a discussion of all aspects of running in the
    UK. Send a blank email to : [email protected] And there are more at
    http://groups.yahoo.com/

    Dead Runners Society The Dead Runners Society is a discussion group for people who like to talk
    about running. The group is informal and social and all members try to encourage each other in their
    running programs. Traffic is heavy. Write to [email protected] and, in the text of
    your message (not the subject line), write: subscribe drs firstname lastname list-owner: Christopher
    Mark Conn <[email protected]> To obtain the FAQ via e-mail, send the message : send drs faq to :
    [email protected] Archives : http://listserv.dartmouth.edu/archives/drs.html Webpage :
    http://storm.cadcam.iupui.edu/drs/

    Dead Runners Mind Offshoot of DRS discusses the philosophical/psychological aspects of running. Send
    : subscribe drm firstname lastname in the text of your message(not the subject line) To:
    [email protected]

    DRS Sublists There also exist many regional mailing lists (in Cleveland, for example, they have the
    DRNEO - Dead Runners of NorthEast Ohio list, and DRS-Nl for Dutch-deads) which cover local running
    scenes. These regional groups, or mini-lists, are generally used to contact dead runners in a
    specific area of the world. Check the DRS FAQ on these groups.

    Clydesdale Virtual Racing Team CVRT is a mailing list for 'heavy' runners. It is for men over 195
    pounds and women over 140 pounds. To subscribe to cvrt, compose a message addressed to
    [email protected] with the text subscribe clydesdale as the only message in the body.
    List'owner': Tim Bergstresser <[email protected]>

    Orienteering This mailing list discusses the sport of orienteering. send a message to: orienteering-
    [email protected]

    Hash-l This list covers the hashing scene. To: [email protected] Send: subscribe hash-l
    FirstName LastName

    Don't Stop Moving http://www.teleport.com/~pmotion Don't Stop Moving is a newsletter written for
    runners by a runner with 24 years of competitive and recreational running experience. The newsletter
    comes out monthly or thereabouts, with back issues periodically sent to the list. To receive Don't
    Stop Moving, send a message: To: [email protected] Message:subscribe ds-moving (your address
    here) Listowner: Mike Van Meter <[email protected]>

    Ultra This mailing list discusses the sport of ultramarathoning. Send: subscribe ultra FirstName
    LastName To : [email protected]v.dartmouth.edu List-owner : Joe Jurzcyk ([email protected])

    Training-Nutrition mailing list. The focus is on bodybuilding and sports nutrition, athletic
    physiology and biochemistry, overall diet planning, and recipes. Low fat, high protein recipes
    preferred. Supplement discussion is discouraged. If the list sounds interesting to you, you can
    request the FAQs by sending mail to: [email protected]

    Biomechanics This list discusses aspects of biomechanics. Address to (un)subscribe :
    [email protected] Message to subscribe: sub biomch-l firstname lastname Address for list
    messages : [email protected]

    Part III

    Usenet was THE net. You only need a newsreader and server and you can subscribe to thousands of
    lists and read a zillion contributions each day. Most of the discussions are informal, especially
    the sports oriented ones. The newsgroups you can access depends also on the Usenet server which
    supports your ISP, e.g. not all nl.* groups can be read in Japan (I doubt if any). The idea is
    that if you find an interesting newsgroup, via DejaNews for instance, you ask your ISP to put it
    on the server.

    Usenet Discussion Groups
    ------------------------
    news:rec.running rec.running FAQ http://www.faqs.org/faqs/running-faq/ Maintainer FAQ Ozzie Gontang
    <[email protected]>

    news:alt.sport.uk.athletics news:uk.sport.athletics 2(?) discussion groups dedicated to athletics
    in the UK.

    news:alt.sport.track-field news:rec.sport.triathlon news:misc.fitness Related newsgroups

    23.05.96 Site created by:Wouter Gerritsma
    23.06.01 Site updated and checked by: Arthur Bamps <[email protected]> Visit Arthur's Marathon Page
    at http://users.skynet.be/arthurbamps/marathon/ .
     
  7. Archive-name: running-faq/part6
    Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    ===========================================================
    Shoes (Thomas Page [email protected])

    Here is a summary of shoe reviews gleaned from various places including manufacturers' adds, Road
    Runner Sports catalog, Runner`s World, Running Times, rec.running postings, and my own experience. I
    will post and update occasionally.

    Guide to Categories
    -------------------
    BASICS: A good quality shoe for a beginning through mid-mileage runner.

    LIGHTWEIGHT TRAINER/RACER: Typically under 10 ounces. Very light, very fast, biomechanically gifted
    runners can wear these shoes as daily trainers. Other runners may get away with using these as a
    second pair for racing in or for track workouts. These shoes usually have blown rubber soles for
    light weight so they wear out too quickly for an everyday training shoe for most of us.

    MC: (Motion Control) Made for over-pronators and heavier runners.

    STABILITY: For neutral runners and mild over-pronators. Offers some resistance to pronation and
    supination.

    RACING FLAT: Most people should race in their regular trainers or lightweight trainers. For people
    who can get away with it, racing flats might buy them a few seconds in a 10k. If that is the
    difference between 1st and 2nd, it is probably worth it. If it is the difference between 38:04 and
    38:14 it is probably not worth the risk of injury. These shoes have very little stability,
    cushioning, or durability, but they tend to weigh 2-4 oz. less than a lightweight trainer.

    Construction
    ------------
    If you remove the insole, you can tell the type of construction. Slip Lasted shoes have a sewn seam
    running the length of the shoe. Board lasted shoes have a cardboard board running the length of the
    shoe. Combination lasted shoes have cardboard in the rear half, and a seam up the front half. Slip
    lasted shoes are the most flexible. Board lasted shoes are the most stable and least flexible.
    Combination lasted shoes attempt to compromise giving a flexible forefoot and a stable rear.
    Orthotics wearers should stick to board or combination lasted shoes. True over-supinators (these are
    rare) should use flexible slip lasted shoes. Another way to look at it: if you have a rigid foot
    (tends to be high arched feet), favor flexible (slip laste) shoes. If you have a floppy foot (tends
    to have flatter feet and overpronate), favor combination or board construction.

    Last
    ----
    The last is the form the shoe is made on. Lasts vary from curved, to semi-curved, to straight.
    Straight lasts are generally the most stable shoes, while curved lasted shoes tend to be the most
    flexible. You just have to see what last from what manufacturer fits your foot.

    Stores
    ------
    A good running shoe store is essential. The sales people at the sporting goods chain stores and the
    mall shoe stores just don't know their products or how to fit runners, despite advertising to the
    contrary. A real runner's store should allow you to run in the shoe on the sidewalk outside the
    store, or at least on a tread mill in the store and watch you run. They should be able to tell you
    if you over-pronate in a particular shoe. The advice you get in a good store is worth the price
    (full retail) you pay.

    Don't be a jerk and pick the brains of a good running shoe store salesman and then buy at a discount
    place. If you value their advice, buy a pair of shoes from the specialty running store so they will
    still be in business the next time you need them. Then, if you liked the pair you bought, go ahead
    and buy it from a discount store or mail order place in the future; you don't owe the store your
    business forever. Remember though, that models change, and you will want to go back to the good
    store every few years.

    Notes:
    ------
    Weight is typically listed for mens' size 9 as quoted by manufacturer and found either in Runners
    World, Running Times, or Road Runner Sports catalog. Different sources differ in the weight they
    report, often by as much as an ounce. I have not been consistent about which source I use here so
    you may find a discrepancy with a source you consult.

    M.C. stands for Motion Control (i.e. a shoe for over-pronators).

    ************** SHOE REVIEWS *************

    Check out:

    http://www.runnersworld.com/ Runner's World Online!

    =============================================================
    Active Isolated Stretching

    Aaron Mattes' book Active Isolated Stretching. See RW, Feb/94 The book is $30 (+ Postage/handling).
    You can reach Aaron at:

    2932 Lexington St Sarasota, FL 34231-6118 941-924-0462 941-925-8530

    Aaron has video tapes of the stretches. The father/son team which has marketed themselves very well,
    were trained by Aaron Mattes in Active Isolated Stretching. They videoed their tape at Aaron's.
    Anyway, go to the source and support those people who often aren't the marketing wizs yet share so
    much great information.

    Two great little books which would be of great help to you are from a fellow who has shared a lot of
    his wisdom on rec.running.

    You can reach Paul Blakey at [email protected]

    His books are: The Muscle Book $10.99 Stretching Without Pain $14.99

    I have used them over the past several years and know that you'll find them very helpful in learning
    what you need to know about your "thinking body."

    Tell them Ozzie sent you. I don't receive any financial compensation, just want to support people
    who, I believe, care about helping people learn to take care of themselves plus get some good info
    out to the world.

    =============================================================

    [email protected])

    OVERVIEW

    When stretching, stretch the muscle until your feel a slight tightness, then hold for 20-30 seconds.
    Repeat, this time stretching the muscle a little more. Thus it should take 1-1.5 minutes/stretch (a
    total of 15-20 minutes)

    CHEST

    Place your hand on the wall, with the front of your elbow as well on the wall Now turn so that you
    can feel a stretch in your chest - try to keep your elbow on the wall - your hand should be shoulder
    height or higheer.

    HAMSTRING

    Stretch your hamstrings by lying on your back, with 1 knee bent. Then bring your other leg up to
    vertical, keeping your knee straight and your back against the floor. This is a much better stretch
    for your hamstrings than is the bent over stretch.

    QUADS

    Stand erect, grab one leg and pull your foot towards your but. Remember to keep your stomach tight -
    don't let your stomach relax - do this for both legs.

    Another quad stretch is to sit on your feet and bend (lean your upper torso) backwards, keeping your
    knees on the ground.

    ILLIOTIBIAL BAND (I.T. Band)

    Stand erect with your feet shoulder width apart. Now take your left leg and put it behind your right
    leg and put your left foot about 12" to the right of your right foot. Now lean your torso so that is
    upright again (take your right hand and run it down your right leg until your feel the stretch).
    Repeat with the other leg.

    FREQUENCY

    Try to stretch 1/2 - 1 hour/day - this includes pre-training stretching, but at least 1 stretching
    session/day that is outside of training.

    TRICEPS

    Take your left hand, and put it behind your head, palm facing the same way as your face. Now,
    slide your hand down your spine, until you feel a stretch. Now take your right hand and grab your
    left elbow, and pull your left elbow towards your right hip (over and down). This should stretch
    the tricep.

    LATS

    First, sit on your feet, with your arms outstretched in front of you. Now, place your left hand on
    top of your right hand. Now, lean back and twist your body towards your right side (you want to try
    to put your right armpit on the ground). If this is not stretching, move your hands further out in
    front of you.

    UPPER BACK

    This is for your upper back and is easy to do - take your left elbow in your right hand, and pull it
    across the front of your chest - try pulling your left elbow all the way over to your right pec
    muscle - it may be easier if your put your left forearm in your right armpit.

    BICYCLE SITUP

    Lie on your back, and put your legs in the crunch position (90 deg bend in your legs and your hips)
    Now, pedal your legs from bent to almost straight, and at the same time bend at the waist bringing
    your elbows to your knees. It is a killer (mainly because of the co-ordination that it takes)

    It is like a leg lift on the starting part, then changes to a crunch situp from that point on.
    Fingers interlaced behind head and pedal while you are crunching.

    GLUTEOUS MAXIMUS --THE BUTT

    Sit down with your legs out in front of you. Now bend your left leg and put your left foot on the
    outside of your right leg, between your right cheek and your right knee- pull your left foot as
    close to your right cheek as possible. Now, pull your left knee in towards your chest. If you
    don't feel much, grab your left shin, and give your left leg a little twist (ie pull your shin
    closer to your chest). Your should feel this. Another one is to lie on your back, put both feet in
    the air, then bend your left leg again, but this time bring your left shin in front of your roght
    quad. Now pull your right leg towards your chest - you should feel this in your buttocks. If you
    don't, push your left knee away from your chest, while maintaining the distance between your right
    leg and your chest.

    ANKLES (Mike Dotseth [email protected])

    Stand with feet in normal standing position. Place a hand on a wall or a railing for a little
    balance. Now, 'roll' your feet around on their 'outer edges'. Repeat 50 times. ('Rolling on the
    outer edges' means to tilt your feet as far outward and inward (supination and pronationtween rock
    forward on your the balls of your feet and back on your heels.) The major benefit is the stretching
    and strengthening on the muscles and tendons which keep your foot stable as you run.

    A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about stretching and flexibility by Brad Appleton can
    be found on:

    Ftp-site: cs.huji.ac.il:/pub/doc/faq/rec/martial.arts WWW-URL:
    http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/papers/rma/stretching_toc.html

    ========================================== Sweat (Sam Henry
    [email protected])

    Question: I sweat more than I can replace during a long run, ride, or triathlon. What can I
    do about it?

    It's hard to say what to do without knowing what you do now. None of us can replace as much as we
    lose while we are losing it. The trick is to keep from going into deficit.

    Do you hydrate yourself every day, all day long? Min 2 qts/day.

    Do you hydrate yourself extra before the ride (like a qt an hour for 2 hrs or so before the start).

    Do you use sports drinks to help with trace element losses? I use Exceed at 25% solution for the 1st
    half of long rides, orange juice at 25% for med rides, and plain water for short rides.

    What is your consumption rate during rides? I start drinking 30 mins into the ride and drink a
    qt an hour whether I am thirsty or not. If you are thirsty, it is probably getting pretty close
    to too late.

    Do you eat while you ride? Things like bananas, oranges, and pears provide fuel *and* coolant, along
    with some nifty minerals and such that your body needs to make the cooling system work right. I eat
    fig newtons and such right as I start and eat every 20-30 mins after the first hour. Pears,
    particularly, are an easy-to-eat thirst slacker.

    What kind of hydration regimen do you use *afterwards*? I immediately start drinking at the end of
    a ride, starting with a quart of water followed by a quart of full-strength sports drink (Exceed
    for me). I also find something to eat that is high in complex carbohydrates. All this within the
    *first hour* after the workout. The eating and drinking are intertwined. Then I drink another quart
    of something that sounds appealing. Then I go back to my drinking all day long to get my "normal"
    two quarts.

    I might have thought I would slosh, but I never have. And most of my riding is done at temps above
    80 degs and in high humidity. If you are urinating infrequently and the urine is a dark color, you
    are underhydrated, whether you have exercised or not. No matter how much you sweat.

    ============================================================
    Treadmills--(contributed by Steve Pachuta, [email protected])

    The January, 1996 _Consumer Reports_ has a treadmill review which features both motorized and
    nonmotorized models, together with some useful criteria for evaluation.

    Why use a treadmill?

    There are many advantages to treadmills, including (1) The most obvious--weather is not a
    factor in your training schedule. (2) Training is possible any time of day--darkness is not a
    factor. (3) No danger of getting hit by a car or tripping on a curb. (4) No stoplights, no
    rabid dogs (presumably), no hecklers (presumably)! (5) Controlled hill workouts are possible
    with adjustable incline. (6) Precise interval training is possible. This is a big advantage;
    you just need to set your speed and stay on the treadmill to run your goal pace exactly.

    Is treadmill running the same as outdoor running?

    I think the consensus in the various posts in rec.running is that treadmill running is very
    similar to outdoor running. The physiological effects of a person moving relative to the ground
    vs. the ground moving relative to a person are not greatly different. Certainly there are some
    biomechanical issues involved, notably the tendency for the treadmill belt to slow down
    momentarily during each footstrike. Many treadmills have compensatory schemes to minimize this
    effect, including large flywheels and microsensors which constantly adjust the belt speed. Some
    differences between treadmill running and outdoor running are the absence of wind and visual
    motion cues on a treadmill. The lack of wind makes sweat generation a serious issue, and a
    strong fan blowing directly into your face is almost a necessity for serious training. The
    absence of a headwind also gives a slight speed advantage to treadmills, and it is often
    suggested that an incline of 1 to 2% on the treadmill will compensate for the lack of headwind.
    The lack of visual motion cues on a treadmill can be disconcerting initially, but this is
    something you get used to. It may contribute to the feeling that you are working harder at a
    given pace than you would outdoors.

    What features are important in a treadmill? Here are some things to consider:

    (1) Motorized vs. nonmotorized. If your goal is to bring your outdoor running indoors, then a
    motorized treadmill is what you want. Nonmotorized treadmills will certainly give you a
    workout, but they do not simulate true outdoor running since you are driving a belt as
    well as your body. Many nonmotorized treadmills only work at an incline, and pace is not
    constant as on a motorized treadmill (although in this respect they are similar to
    outdoor running).
    (2) Ruggedness. If you are really going to run on your treadmill, you need something more than
    the $299 specials you see at various discounters. Some things to look for: welded frame,
    large rollers (consider that some club models have rollers on the order of 8 inches in
    diameter), large motor
    (3.5 horsepower minimum, with 2.0 or up preferable). THE HEAVIER AND FASTER YOU ARE, AND THE LONGER
    YOUR WORKOUTS, THE MORE IMPORTANT THESE THINGS BECOME. Most treadmills are not built for people
    weighing more than 250 pounds.
    (4) WARRANTY AND QUALITY OF SERVICE ARE OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE. I wouldn't settle for
    anything less than a full 1-year warranty. Treadmills are like cars; they will almost
    certainly need some work at some point.
    (5) Maximum speed of 10 mph or more. This is 6:00 mile pace, which will do for most people.
    There are treadmills which can achieve 12 mph (5:00 pace); I haven't heard of any which go
    faster, but they probably exist. Personally, the consequences of a misstep while running
    indoors at 5:00 pace scare the hell out of me!
    (6) Method of belt lubrication. Running belts can get quite warm and wear faster if not
    properly lubricated. Some models are self-lubricating; others require periodic
    lubrication/waxing.
    (7) Ability to simulate actual running. Various mechanisms have been developed to make
    treadmill running feel more natural. Without putting in a plug for any particular
    manufacturer, I would recommend trying out several different makes. It is surprising how a
    treadmill that feels so natural can suddenly feel terrible after you try a different one.
    (8) Manual vs. motorized height adjustment. I've used both, and I strongly recommend
    motorized. If you want to run courses that simulate real outdoor runs you don't want to be
    cranking a handle all the time, especially if you're running fast.
    (9) Noise level. This can vary considerably, but note that "quiet" does not necessarily
    mean "better."
    (10) Programmability. It should be a given that speed and incline are adjustable during a
    workout. It is also very desirable to be able to PROGRAM both speed and incline to create
    your own custom courses. Many manufacturers include their own preprogrammed courses in
    their electronics, but it is less common for them to give the user the ability to do this.
    (11) Low price? Realistically treadmills for serious runners are going to cost more than $1000,
    and they can be a lot more than this.
    (12) Incline range. Most treadmills have inclines ranging from 0 to 10%. There are some
    which can produce a decline (-2% for example). See below for conversion between %
    incline and degrees.
    (13) Board and belt type. Some treadmills have shock-absorbing boards and/or soft belts to
    provide a more forgiving workout than can be obtained on hard pavement.

    Any disadvantages or other considerations?

    The lack of wind is definitely a problem, and as mentioned above a fan is a necessity.
    Another problem with treadmills is boredom. I am always amazed at how much faster an hour
    passes when running outside than when running inside. I don't think you can expect to read
    while running on a treadmill, but you can watch television or listen to music. I generally
    prefer loud music over television, but this is obviously a matter of personal preference.
    Another thing to be aware of is the tendency to set the treadmill at a fixed speed and
    incline and run an entire workout at these settings. I would recommend varying both speed and
    incline to give your muscles some variety and minimize the possibility of injury. Some
    treadmills interfere with heart rate monitors and prevent their use, though there are
    treadmills which come with built-in heart rate monitors. Safety is of some concern, and many
    treadmills come with protective devices which stop the belt in case you slip or fall off.
    Treadmill manufacturers always recommend plenty of clearance between the treadmill and the
    walls of a room. Treadmills can draw a lot of electrical current, and 30-amp circuits are
    recommended for some heavy duty models.

    How do I convert between % incline and degrees?

    Remember your trigonometry. Grade (or incline) = rise/run, opposite/ adjacent, height/length,
    or whatever you want to call it. For percent grade, multiply this by 100.

    degrees = arctan((percent grade)/100) percent grade = tan(degrees) * 100

    Thus, 1% incline is a mere .57 degrees, 5% incline is 2.9 degrees, 10% incline is 5.7 degrees, and
    15% incline is 8.5 degrees.

    Where can I get more information on treadmills?

    Start with back issues of _Runner's World_, _Running Times_, etc. They usually have articles on
    treadmills as winter approaches. The December, 1993 _Runner's World_ contains a list of
    manufacturers, a chart to convert between treadmill running at various inclines and outdoor
    running, and some sample workouts. The January, 1996 _Runner's World_ contains brief
    evaluations of many different treadmills (mainly high-end models).

    ===========================================================
    Weather ("The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer Guide)

    COLD-WEATHER

    Cold weather does not present any serious problems for you, especially if you are in reasonably good
    condition. If you have heart problems, consult a doctor first. High wind-chill factors are the
    greatest threats to you in cold weather, since you can suffer frostbite if you are not adequately
    protected from the wind. You must remember that when you run, your own motion against the wind
    increases the windchill factor and increases the risk of frostbite. Be sure all normally exposed
    areas of skin are covered: head, face, ears, and hands. The important thing to remember is that you
    must dress in layers in order to create your own insulation.

    When you run in cold weather, beware of ice on the road, and remember to taper off your run
    slowly so you will not catch a chill. When you arrive home, change out of your damp, sweaty
    clothes right away.

    HOT-WEATHER

    When you run in hot weather, your blood pressure can drop dangerously or you could suffer heat
    exhaustion. If you start feeling dizzy and dehydrated while jogging and your pulse and breathing
    grow very rpid, you could very well be on your way to heat exhaustion. Stop exercising immediately.
    Get out of the sun, drink fluids (tepid, not cold), and rest.

    Running in heat also slows down the blood circulation, placing a greater burden on your heart. And
    of course, you will sweat a lot more so your body loses more water that usual. To replace it, drink
    a full glass of water before you start and one every 15 or 20 minutes during your run. A few pinches
    of salt dissolved in the water will help. But if your stomach is empty, omit the salt or it will
    probably cause stomach cramps.

    An important thing to remember about heat is that it takes your body about two weeks to adjust.

    WIND

    If you run in a strong wind, you are going to be expending six percent more oxygen that you would
    under ordinary condtitions. So, if you are running in a stiff breeze slow down and you will get the
    same benefits as you would from a faster run. When you set out on a windy day, start with the wind
    in front of you at the beginning of your workout; then at the end, when you are more tired, you will
    have it at your back, helping to push you along.

    RAIN

    Rain need not be a deterrent unless you're afraid of melting, but you will need some protection.
    Wear waterproof outer clothes, of course, and as many layers as you need to keep warm. Don't linger
    in them after the run but get into dry things as soon as you get home.

    HIGH ALTITUDES

    High altitudes are a source of special problems. When you get to 5000 feet above sea level and
    beyond, it takes a lot more time for oxygen to be absorbed into your blood and travel throughout
    your body. So your heart has to work a lot harder at its job. Plan on taking at least four to six
    weeks to get adjusted to a new high altitude, and adapt your jogging routine accordingly. Most
    runners recommend cutting your program by about 50% at the beginning.

    Running on cold, rainy days (Brendan Leitch [email protected])

    TWO RULES:
    14) Dress in layers
    15) Keep DRY, this is done by putting the wicking layers closest to the SKIN.

    What works for us: (us = the running club I belong to)

    Top: 1st LIFA or some similar 'wicking' material against skin 2nd turtle neck or long sleeve t-
    shirt(repeat if needed) 3rd Shell jacket, Goretex is best, but any layered Nylon one will do the job

    Bottom: 1st LIFA or some similar 'wicking' material against skin 2nd long tights 3rd wind
    pants(preferably goretex again, but nylon will do)

    Head: 1st Bella Clava(a thin hat that goes around head like old fashioned ski mask) 2nd Your shell
    jacket hat over the Bella-Clava

    Hands: 1st light thin wicking material gloves 2nd heavier glove

    Feet: your normal socks/shoes - just make sure your bottom clothes cover ankles etc.

    ==========================================================

    QUESTIONS

    (16) Is it better to run in the morning or evening? "The Running Book" By the Editors of
    Consumer Guide

    It's' important to establish a routine for yourself, geared to your own disposition and living
    habits. Some runners prefer to run early in the morning, some even before daybreak. They seem to
    like the solitude available at that hour, when the streets are still empty of traffic and people.

    Some runners are shrewd, enough to kill two birds with one stone. They get their exercise in while
    "commuting" to work. Issues to consider: Are showers available at work? How far is it to work? What
    kind of work do you do? Do you work outside or inside?

    People who do their running in the morning say that it sets them up for the day. They are more alert
    and less likely to become upset by the pressures and frustrations of their work, and at the end of
    the day they fell less fatigued.

    Other runners wait to run after work, put their jobs behind them, and headed home. A run at this
    time provides a nice transition for them, a time to work off some of the tensions that may have
    built during the day so that they don't carry them into family life. ...you should end your run at
    least an hour before you retire. Otherwise you may find it difficult to fall asleep.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    (17) Should I run when I have a cold/fever? "The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer Guide

    Recommended schedules should be followed as faithfully as possible, but not blindly. There are
    certain times when you have no business running. If, for example, you have the flu, a cold, or some
    other ailment, don't overexert yourself and possibly harm your body by trying to run. If you feel a
    cold coming on, however, running may help you get rid of it. But if you try this cure, follow Dr.
    Kostrubala's recommendations. He suggests that you dress warmly, take two aspirin in a glass of
    milk, and then go out for a run. Jog slowly and see how you feel. Continue jogging until your body
    grows warm, even hot, Then try to keep your temperature at that level.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    (18) How often should I run? "The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer Guide

    Most running programs, ask you to run three times a week as a minimum requirement. This helps
    reinforce the habit of running, but its main purpose is to develop cardiovascular conditioning
    through frequent running. But more is not necessarily better. Experts in physical fitness tend to
    agree that running days should alternate with days of rest, since rest for the body is as much a
    part of developing fitness as exercise.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    (19) Which of the 8 lanes on a US track is actually the '1/4 mile' one?

    (Lori Moffitt [email protected]) writes: The long and short of it, pun intended, is that US 1/4 mile
    tracks are typically 400 meter tracks, and the runner needs to compensate for the difference by
    running a few yards extra, about 10 yards. The 400 meter distance seemed to be measured 12'' from
    the inside curb of the track. Opinions vary about this and the compensation distance.

    (Art Overholser [email protected]) A perfect 400-m track, measured 12" from the inside
    curb as specified by TAC, is 437.4 US yards long, or 7'8'' shy of 440 yards. So you only need to
    run 8 feet (not 10 yards) extra to get the 1/4 mi. To get one mile out of 4 laps you have to add
    about 10 yards.

    If his figures are correct, to change this lap to a quarter mile, move out an additional 15 inches
    when going around the bends. (Sherwood Botsford [email protected])

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    (20) I have started running after having my baby and I am curious to know if any one has some
    stomach exercises?

    If you had your baby less than 6 weeks ago, it is likely that your uterus hasn't returned to its
    normal size, and this could cause the cramps. Remember, too, that your stomach muscles separated
    during pregnancy and it takes time for them to meld together again.

    The important thing to remember when returning to running after a layoff is to ease back into
    running, paying scrupulous attention to how it feels. The old adage, "listen to your body," applies
    here. If your stomach is cramping, slow down, ease up.

    STRETCHES (Paulette Leeper [email protected]) To stretch your abdominals, lay on your
    back with your knees bent and the soles of your feet on the floor. Let your knees drop to one side,
    as you lay your arms toward the other...hold for about 30 seconds and gently switch sides.
    >From this same position, you can begin to strengthen your abdominals by
    pressing your lower back toward the floor...holding it for increasing increments of time. Your
    ability to hold your lower back to the floor will give you a good sense of what kind of shape your
    abdominals are in at this time.

    Many of the abdominal exercises recommended during pregnancy are good to begin with post-partum. One
    of my favorites is to sit up with knees bent and do a sort of "reverse sit-up." Instead of coming up
    from the floor, move your torso toward the floor with your arms stretched out in front of you.

    ==========================================================
     
  8. Archive-name: running-faq/part7
    Last-modified: 10 March 2003
    Posting-Frequency: 14 days

    ===========================================================

    Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

    This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to rec.running plus interesting &
    useful information for runners. If known, author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie
    Gontang <[email protected]> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper info of sources or
    holder's of copyright.

    Running and Pregnancy. Paula Vanzant-Hardick <[email protected]>

    I have been running for oh, about 11 or 12 years now and have run all the way through all of my
    pregnancies. I feel like it has made them healthier for both of us. I have never had any kind of a
    problem with low iron, high blood pressure or any real pregnancy related maladies.

    I also believe that had I not run, my recovery time after each baby was born would have been
    significantly longer than they were. Even after my second one (the C section, I could walk a couple
    of miles within about 10 days after delivery).

    Running is a FABULOUS form of stress management.

    Now to my diet, I just really maintained my normal diet, the only thing is I may have been a little
    heavier on the fresh fruits (trying to avoid that refined sugar you know) and I usually drink at
    least 10 8oz glasses of water a day (you notice I say at least). The water I think also helps to
    keep the yuckies away.

    I am planning to continue my training regime as usual with this pregnancy as I have with the others.
    I guess the only thing that I may do a bit differently during pregnancy is if I really feel like I
    need to walk during any of my runs, I will, it may only be a few feet or it may be 1/2 mile but if I
    have a feeling that I don't think should be there I don't hesitate to walk it off.

    Any of these other women who have run while pregnant may have other suggestions but I guess my
    biggest thing is to just really do what feels best for the person.

    And one last note, there were times during each of my pregnancies that I would have rather had a
    nap, but instead would drag myself out for a run, I would not only feel better after I had run, I
    would have TONS more energy (and the second, third and now fourth time that is VERY important.)

    Thanks for asking and giving me the opportunity to share my thoughts! Paula (and the thundering herd--
    Tom, Shaun, Alexa, Erin and #4)

    excerpted by Paula from UK version of Runner's World May 1995

    "Running for Two" (subtitle Good News- running during pregnancy can make you and your baby
    healthier!) By Joe Dunbar

    "There are two main issued: how will training affect the baby, and how will pregnancy affect running
    performance?....In General, the running you do when pregnant should be aimed at maintaining rather
    than developing fitness.

    The main danger to the fetus (that British spelling), according to Dr. Richard Budgett 0f the
    British Olympic Medical Centre, is from an increase in body temperature. The main effect of too
    great an increase in body temperature is damage to the fetus's central nervous system. The danger is
    especially great in the first three months, but you should be careful throughout the pregnancy.
    Budgett recommends that you limit the increase in body temperature to 38.9 Degree C (102 F).

    You are also generally recommended not to exceed a rate of 140-150bpm, but individuals vary
    enormously in their resting , maximum and training heart rates. Remember too that one effect of
    endurance training is that your body can control temperature rises more effectively ,so a runner who
    is highly trained before pregnancy should be in a slightly better position. Drinking plenty of
    fluids is essential to avoid dehydration and hyperthermia. This will also help to limit the
    temperature increase, so get into the habit of drinking regularly during training it's equally
    important to avoid hypoglycemia during and after exercise carbo drinks will help to replace
    [carbohydrates] both during and after exercise, provided that they aren't too concentrated. One
    recent project that followed two groups of 462 suburban women through their pregnancies found that
    women who had burned more calories per week (as a result of greater exercise levels) tend to give
    birth to slightly heavier babies than women who had exercised less.

    ...the bottom line? Although each individual will differ, you should bear in mind the following
    guidelines on pregnancy and running:

    o It is safe to continue moderate training throughout your pregnancy, although individual
    complications may cause limitations. o Listen to your body and run as you feel. o There is no need
    to switch to other forms of exercise unless you have specific problems. o Use your heart rate and
    check your temperature during training. Stick to sensible levels to avoid hyperthermia. o Take
    plenty of fluids to limit the risk of dehydration and assist cooling. o You can reduce lower back
    pain by strengthening the abdominal & hip flexor muscles, & stretching the muscles around the pelvis
    and spine. o Try to avoid explosive exercise during pregnancy. o Try water-running sessions: they
    are specific to running but have far less impact, and water helps to avert hyperthermia."

    As I said, I found this article very interesting, and the parts that I have included are verbatim,
    unless in parentheses. Hope you find this interesting and of some use to all those expectant mom's
    who don't want to give up their running.

    A Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People from Ozzie Gontang

    THE EMPTY BOAT from The Way of Chuang Tzu by Thomas Merton, 1965 New Direction Publishing
    Corporation

    If a man is crossing a river And an empty boat collides with his own skiff, Even though he be a bad-
    tempered man He will not become very angry.

    But if he sees a man in the boat, He will shout at him to steer clear.

    If the shout is not heard, he will shout again, And yet again, and begin cursing. And all because
    there is somebody in the boat. Yet if the boat were empty, He would not be shouting and not angry.

    If you can empty your own boat Crossing the river of the world, No one will oppose you, No one will
    seek to harm you....

    When I confronted by reckless drivers, speeding skaters or bikers, I simply avoid them and say to
    myself, "Empty boat."

    Over the years, those two words have saved me from feeding anger, aggression and violence-both mine
    and theirs.

    Hints for the Success of the Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours)

    These Hints are from a brochure for Super-Fours, i.e. those running over 4 hours in the Marathon. It
    was subtitled: "A Short Guide to the Care and Support of Four-Hour Marathoners, The Physically
    Distressed and Mentally Distracted Sub-Fours and The First Time Marathoner-Who Only Wants To finish"
    It was originally published by the International Association of Marathoners (IAM and pronounced "I
    AM") in 1988.

    The last 6 to 8 miles of the Marathon will test an individual physically but most of all mentally.
    No matter how well prepared on may be, the unknown of how one will be or how the weather conditions
    will be leaves one with some sense of discovery or travelling unfamiliar territoroes of mind/body.
    It is often for the righteous and well-trained that the fall from grace is the hardest.

    IAM Aware:

    Know that you will tell others your verbal time: "About 4 hours."

    Know that you will harbor a desired time: "I THINK I can do it, if all goes perfect, 15 to 30
    minutes faster."

    Know that you will have an ideal or fantasized time: "Wouldn't it be great to break
    3:30 in my first marathon."

    Acknowledge your desired time and Fantasy Time verbally to yourself, otherwise they will influence
    you finish time for the worse.

    Super-Four Success One:

    Set your time with a standard deviation (SD) of 15 minutes. The SD+/- (Verbal Time + 5 minutes).
    The mind/body message goes from a single second in time to a window of 30 minutes and respects
    the mind, the body and the conditions of the day.

    Super-Four Success Two:

    Starting a marathon 30 seconds to 60 seconds per mile faster than your race plan for the first 3
    to 5 miles can slow your finish time from 20 minutes to 90 minutes. That speed will burn off
    several times more glycogen in the first 3 to 5 miles than needed. You are fueled with energy
    from minimal running the 6 days before the marathon. You have also stored extra energy from
    eating and hydrating well the last three days before the marathon. Know your game plan and stick
    to it for the first 3 to 5 miles when you are so full of energy. That energy can easily give you
    the power to run those first few miles at that 30 second to 60 second per mile faster...and not
    even realize it. It will remember somewhere between miles 18 and 26.

    Super-Four Success Three:

    The jitteriness you feel the morning of the race and the day before are from your body being
    fueled and needing to expend energy. You can identify it as fear, or nervousness, or worry. Just
    remember you haven't run more than 2 to 4 miles in 3 days. You body is ready to do something-Run
    A Marathon. You now feel what it's like not to run a few days...or the feelings 3 days after
    injuring yourself. To walk and sightsee 5 to 10 miles the day before the marathon is 500 to 1000
    calories of energy plus the water to store the glycogen. You may not be able to replenish it by
    race time.

    Super-Four Success Four:

    In the past 6 months if you have moved, bought a house, changed jobs, started or ended a
    relationship, had a child (or fathered a child), have trouble at work or home that costs you
    mental energby, there is a good likelihood you will finish 30 to 60 minutes slower than you
    had planned.

    Super-Four Success Five:

    When you feel tired or unable to go on, should your mind go to the finish line, bring it back to
    the present. If your mind is at the finish, so is your body...even though it has 1 to 6 more
    miles jto go. Bring the mind to the present by saying, "I am at Mile ___ and am being drawn by a
    magnet to the finish. I hold my body up and erect and I am being pulled steadily to the finish."

    Super-Four Success Six:

    The last 10 miles push the crown of your head up and look to the horizon. By holding the head
    erect you save your shoulder muscles and balance not only the weight of your 12 to 14 pound head
    but also your breathing.

    Super-Four Success Seven:

    The last 6 miles run out from the pack and away from the curbside. You are in a trance state by
    mile 18. You will be open to and picking up visual and non-verbal cues of runners around you. If
    you are away from the curb and can see 200 to 300 yards in front of you, you will be running
    your own race. Should someone stop dead in f ront of you, do not give them any of your energy by
    getting angry or upset. Simply say as you pass them, "Don't lose your form. Even if you walk
    keep your good running form."

    Super-Four Success Eight:

    When someone running with you starts to speed up or to fall behind, or you start to pick up your
    pace or fall behind; in your mind, picture a pair of scissors in your hand cutting the cord
    between you and the other runner. Otherwise, you will be carrying that person in your mind...and
    it will only slow you down...or wear you out if they are in front of you. You can only be in one
    place physically, and that is directly above the space upon which you feet are running. Cutting
    that cord allows you to cut loose from a slower runner or free your mind from attempting to keep
    up with a faster runner.

    Super-Four Success Nine:

    When you run with someone, run shoulder to shoulder. If you run slightly behind, the mind often
    feels like it is having to catch up. If your image is that of being pulled or towed by the
    runner in front of you, then running behind is okay...unless the runner complains.

    Super-Four Success Ten:

    In a marathon to catch someone, wind them in over a mile to three miles. that way you waste no
    energy required to finish the last 1 to 6 miles.

    If you want to share your thoughts, suggestions, ideas, mantras, anecdotes, and your own Super-Four
    Success hints, please send e-mail them or send them to:

    International Association of Marathoners (IAM) Attn. Ozzie Gontang 2903 29th Street San
    Diego, CA 92104

    e-mail: Ozzie Gontang <[email protected]> ph. 619-281-7447 fax 619-281-9468 Mindful Running:
    http://www.mindfulness.com
     
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