rec.running FAQ, part 1 of 8


Ozzie Gontang

Archive-name: running-faq/part1
Last-modified: 10 March 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to rec.running plus interesting &
useful information for runners. If known, author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie
Gontang <[email protected]> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper info of sources or
holder's of copyright.

Part 1 of 8 What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group Runner or Jogger Avoiding
Dogs Books and Magazines Winter Running Gear Clothes (Winter/Summer) Rules For Winter Running
Clothing Layers Dressing for Winter Clothing Materials Microfibers Polyolefin Nylon Wool Gortex
60/40 Cloth Breathability of Materials Breathable options Linings Maintenance
General Information Running Mailing Lists Terminology ( overpronation,
oversupination) Calorie/energy count Calories burned by running Muscle fuels
used during exercise Part 2 of 8 Fat burning primer Conversion chart Fluid
replacement Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries Second Wind Soda Pop Computer
software Hashing Interval training Legs Sore Knees Leg Massage Part 3 of 8 Mail
Order Addresses Marathon Increasing your mileage Major Marathons (e.g. Boston,
LA, New York) Part 4 of 8 Miscellaneous Medical /Injuries Achilles tendinitis
(incomplete) Shin splints Side stitches Lactic Acid Loose bowels Diabetes &
running Nutrition and Food Part 5 of 8 Nutrition primer Powerbar Recipe
Orienteering Predicting times Running Clubs & Organizations Part 6 of 8 Shoes
Stretching Sweat Tredmill Running Weather (cold, hot, wind, rain, altitude) Part
7 of 8 Pregnancy & Running Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People
Hints for the Successful Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours) Part 8 of 8 Running
Related Internet Sites


What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group

Read news.announce.newusers and news.answers for a few weeks. Always make sure to read a newsgroup
for some time before you post to it. You'll be amazed how often the same question can be asked in
the same newsgroup. After a month you'll have a much better sense of what the readers want to see.

The difference between jogging and running is in the eye of the beholder. Partial list compiled by
Phil Margolies <[email protected]>

Jogging is spelled with a j, an o, and two g's, running is spelled with an r, a u, and two n's.
Otherwise there is no important difference that I am aware of ;-)
There is no real distinction between the two. Traditionally joggers are considered to be more casual
and slower than someone who refers to themselves as a runner. But use which ever term you prefer.
A jogger is person who worries about the difference. A runner just goes out and runs.
This issue has been beaten to death more than once, but ......

My gut feeling is: if your goal/focus is to get there in minimum time; you are racing (or race
training) if your goal/focus is on what your are doing; you are running if your focus is to
lose weight or gain fitness or whatever else (possibly indicated by wearing headphones?); you
are jogging.

Speed doesn't matter; some people race at 4:00/mile, some at 12:00/mile. No one of these three
activities is any better or nobler than any other.
When I'm tired I jog, when I'm not I run. After all, it's all relative.
Speed IMHO has nothing to do with it. Joggers are interested in the fitness benifits of the
activity. Runners are interested in the sport of racing.
The best quote I ever read on this was: The difference between a jogger and a runner is a
bib number.
A Jogger is everyone that I can pass. A Runner is everone who passes me.
There are many differences between a jogger & a runner, although both are very positive activities &
neither should be knocked. Here's a couple of differences I notice:

Jogging is a hobby. Running is a way of life. Joggers get out on a nice day. Runners get
out everyday.

Avoiding Dogs (Arnie Berger [email protected])

There are varying degrees of defense against dogs.

1- Shout "NO!" as loud and authoritatively as you can. That works more than half the time against
most dogs that consider chasing you just good sport.

2- Get away from their territory as fast as you can.

3- A water bottle squirt sometimes startles them.

If they're waiting for you in the road and all you can see are teeth then you in a heap o' trouble.
In those situations, I've turned around, slowly, not staring at the dog, and rode away.

"Halt" works pretty well, and I've used it at times. It's range is about 8 feet.

I bought a "DAZER", from Heathkit. Its a small ultrasonic sound generator that you point at the dog.
My wife and I were tandeming on a back road and used it on a mildly aggressive German Shephard. It
seemed to cause the dog to back off.

By far, without a doubt, hands down winner, is a squirt bottle full of reagent grade ammonia, fresh
out of the jug. The kind that fumes when you remove the cap. When I lived in Illinois I had a big,
mean dog that put its cross-hairs on my leg whenever I went by. After talking to the owner
(redneck), I bought a handlebar mount for a water bottle and loaded it with a lab squirt bottle of
the above mentioned fluid. Just as the dog came alongside, I squirted him on his nose, eyes and
mouth. The dog stopped dead in his tracks and started to roll around in the street. Although I
continued to see that dog on my way to and from work, he never bothered me again.

Finally, you can usually intimidate the most aggressive dog if there are more than one of you.
Stopping, *and moving towards it will often cause it to back off*. ( But not always ). My bottom
line is to always *run* routes that I'm not familiar with, with someone else.

E-Book John Lupton <[email protected]>

Gordon Pirie's book "Running Fast and Injury Free" which can be found via
. Pirie is a proponent of fore-foot striking. All I can say is Pirie works for me. As a novice,
having a pretty straightforward book on technique to read, one that is uncomplicated by jargon, is
very useful. For me, even before a novice puts on his/her running shoes for the first time, it is
worth reading this book (its *very* short). Not all of it is relevant to the recreational runner,
but the bits that are are very obvious and accessible.

Books and Magazines (Phil Cannon [email protected])


61) The Lore of Running - Tim Noakes
62) The Complete Book of Running - Fixx
63) The Runner's Handbook - Bloom
64) Long Distance Runner's Guide to Training and Racing - Sperks/Bjorklund
65) The Runner's Handbook - Glover & Shepard
66) Galloway's Book on Running - Galloway
67) Jog, Run, Race - Henderson
68) The New Aerobics - Cooper
69) Training Distance Runners- Martin and Coe
70) Any book by Dr. George Sheehan
71) The Essential Runner (John Hanc)
72) The Runner's World Complete Book of Running (Amby Burfoot)

check for books available at:The Athlete's Bookstore [email protected]

RUNNING DIALOGUE David Holt RN, Santa Barbara and 31:16 10 K.

Includes winter running advice; extensive interval (three chapters) and diet advice; marathon
chapter; three chapters on injury prevention and treatment; predicting times; plus table for paces
to train for 2 mile pace for VO2 max, and 15K pace for anaerobic threshold.

Table of contents/list of contributors - or send a blank E-
mail to [email protected]


Track and Field News (12/96-monthly $34.95 US per year) 2370 El Camino Real, Ste 606 Mountain View
CA 94040 415-948-8188 Fax: 1-415-948-9445 1-800-GET-TRAK (1-800-438-8725)

Self-proclaimed "Bible of the Sport", T&FN is the source for major meet results in T&F, road racing,
cross-country, and race walking from the high school to int'l levels. Emphasis on U.S. athletes.
though significant int'l coverage provided. Compiles annual post-season rankings of the top 10
performers in world and U.S. in every major event, men and women. Publishes list of top 50
performances in each event for the year. Also sponsors TAFNUT tours for major championships and the
Euro Circuit/GP meets. Lots of stats, good interviews.

Track Technique (quarterly; $15 in US, $16 outside) same contact info as Track & Field News.

The official USATF(formerly TAC) quarterly, each issue has important articles on technique,
training, and other practical information on all events, at all levels. Intended for coaches.

California Track News ($18/yr) 4957 East Heaton Fresno, CA 93727

Calif.'s only all track & X-county publication. Lots of attention to prep action.

Running Journal, P.O. Box 157, Greeneville, TN 37744. Covers southeastern United States monthly.
Founded 1984. Covers road races in 13 states, plus ultras, multi-sports, racewalking. Annual
subscription is $22.95.

Running Research News
P.O. Box 27041 Lansing, MI 48909 Credit card orders: 1-517-371-4897 MC/Visa accepted. e-mail:
[email protected]

12/96 $35/year $65/2 years (10 issues per year, 12-14 pages per issue.) 76 back issues, $265
(postage US 10 outside US $30)

(Add $10 for overseas airmail, except Mexico and Canada) ALL non-US customers please provide a
credit card number or money order in U.S. funds, or a check drawn on a U.S. bank (with American-bank
computer numbers).

Running Times (monthly $24.95 US per year) P.O. Box 511 Mount Morris, IL 61054-7691 1-800-877-5402

Runner's World (monthly $24 US per year) P.O. Box 7574 Red Oak, IA 51591-2574 1-800-666-2828

Masters Track & Field News (5 issues/yr; $10.50) P.O. Box 16597 North Hollywood, CA 91615

Results, rankings, age-records, schedules, stories of age 40+ athletes worldwide. "Satisfaction

"The Schedule" - A monthly magazine in California that has an extensive lists of races and other
info. Northern CA: 80 Mitchell Blvd, San Rafael CA 94903-2038 (415) 472-7223; 472-7233 FAX Southern
CA: 549 Highland Dr, San Luis Obispo, CA 93405-1116 (805) 541-2833

Winter Running Gear Curt Peterson <[email protected]>

13 Nov 1996 Just wear the same things for running as for cross country skiing.

Suggestions- Wind briefs -available in both womens and mens. Underlayer turtleneck. Underlayer long
underwear Tights ( thin or thicker cross country ski tights which are thicker wt.) Wicking socks
vest or sweatshirt, but if long long run I use a Thermax sweatshirt Shell for wind hat and neck
gator if really cold. You can run in virtually all weather. Our run group in Michigan runs every
Monday night all year no matter what the conditions are. I think -4 F is our record.

Clothes (Winter/Summer) (Mike Gilson [email protected])

Disclaimer What I have to say here is *my* opinion only.
Preference on amount of clothing required for winter running varies widely among runners. A couple
of runners that I see wear shorts, long sleeved T's and gloves at 30F! Experiment with how much
clothing at various temp's.

Rules for Winter Running

Rule 1: Dress in layers. Outer layers can be added/shed easily. Rule 2: Stay dry. When clothes get
wet,they don't performance - & you get cold. Rule 3: Hydrate. You may not sweat as much, but fluid
replacement still needed.

Clothing Layers Inner layer. The layer closest to the skin should be a tight, lightweight fabric
that wicks water away from the skin. Shirts should be long-sleeved, skin-tight (without chafing),
and may be turtle-necked (my preference). There are a variety of fabrics that are effective in
wicking water; I have had a lot of success with polypro, but it is not machine washable. These are
readily available at running specialty shops and mail order. For pants, lycra running tights work
very well. Outer layer. The next layer should be a looser, mediumweight fabric that wicks water. A
zipper at the neck is convenient for temperature control. I prefer a shirt that is slightly longer
than waist-length so that I have the option of tucking it into the pants. I've had more success in
finding these in cycling stores than anywhere else. Two layers of lycra tights if very cold.

Shell. A water-proof or water resistant shell that is breathable is useful in the coldest
conditions. These are usually sold as suits, but tops are available separately at a higher cost. Gore-
tex is considered the best fabric, but there are cheaper alternatives. You can get these suits made
to your measurements or buy them off the rack. I have a Burley jacket, which I purchased at a
cycling shop. It's chief advantage over the running suits is the venting and extra zippers for
temperature control. There are zippers under each arm, starting at mid chest going up to the armpit
and travelling down the arm to about mid forearm.

Tights. Tights have been mentioned above as inner/outer layers. Many people run in sweats, but
sweats have two disadvantages: they're heavy and they get heavier when wet. Lycra is lightweight and
warm, but costs more and shows off body (im)perfections more than sweats.

Gloves. Any cotton glove works. Polyproplyene or other microbfiber materials.

Hat. A lot of heat is lost through the scalp, so a hat is a must for most people. Cotton hats get
too heavy with sweat. Balaclavas are more versatile than hats, and allow you to cover you neck/face
if requires. Both hats and balaclavas are available in wicking fabrics.

Socks. A wicking sock will seem less heavy and your feet will be drier than a conventional sock.
Coolmax socks are my preference, worn in a single layer. You can also find other fabrics, such as
capilene or polypro socks, which are considerably more expensive.

Running shoes. Runner's World (anyone know which issue?) had some tips from Alaskan runners on how
to put (short) screws into the sole of the shoe for better traction on the ice. I haven't tried it,
but you obviously have to be careful not to puncture the midsole, air/gel chambers, etc.

Dressing for Winter Running

Temp range Number of layers (degrees F) Inner Outer Shell Tights Gloves Hat Socks
50-55 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 40-45 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 30-35 1 1 0 1-2 1 1 1 20-25 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 -15 1 1
1/pants 1 1 1

Clothing Materials compiled by Ozzie Gontang <[email protected]> (see

MICROFIBERS Man-made: available in acrylic, nylon, polyester and rayon.

* Washable, dry cleanable Shrink-resistant
* High strength (except Rayon) Insulates well against wind, rain, cold Major End Uses:
sportswear, activewear,swimwear, outerwear, rainwear.

Micro-fibers is not a fiber unto itself. It is a technology developed to produce an ultra-fine
fiber, and then weave it or knit it into a very high quality fabric constructions. DuPont
introduced the first microfiber in 1989, a polyester microfiber. Today in addition to polyester
microfibers, there are also nylon microfibers that have become important in the pantyhose market,
rayon microfibers, and acrylic microfibers.

An important characteristic of microfiber fabrics: they can be woven so tightly so the fabric can't
be penetrated by wind, rain, or cold. For this reason, raincoat manufacturers have become big users
of polyester microfibers. Microfibers also have a wicking ability, which allows perspiration to pass
through. So they're comfortable to wear.

Nov. '96 RW (pp.48-52) evaluted 12 underlayer shirts for keeping you comfortable wicking away
sweat to the exterior surface of the fabric. Polyester has been treated (hydrophillic chemical)
and altered (electrostatic evaporation process, differing inner/outer surfaces) to enhance its
wicking ability.

Some names: Capilene, BiPolar 100 polyester, BiPolar 200 polyester, Dri-F.I.T. Dacron is the
trademark name for Dupont polyester. Woven fabric made from dacron is similar to nylon ripstop or
taffeta, but not as stretchy. Many of the better clothing insulations are made from dacron. They
are usually referred to by more specific trademark names, like quallofil, hollofil, polarguard, and


* Lightweight, lightest fiber, it floats
* Strong
* Abrasion resistant, resilient
* Stain-, static-, sunlight-, and odor-resistant
* High insulation characteristics
* Resists deterioration from chemicals, mildew, sweat, rot and weather
* Fast drying
* High wickability
* Static and pilling can be a problem
* Ironing, washing/drying need to be done at low temperature
* Non-allergenic Major End Uses: Apparel - activewear, sportswear, jeans, socks,
underwear, lining fabrics.

Of all fibers, this is probably least familiarto you. Developed in 1961, polyolefin has been used
exclusively in the home furnishings and high performance activewear market: backpacking, canoeing,
mountain climbing apparel. In 1996 producers of olefin began to make in-roads into the mainstream
apparel market. It is being blended with cotton in the denim market. It's being tested in the
swimwear market. Asics Japan has developed a swimsuit made of polyolefin and Lycra for the
Japanese Olympic Swim Team. Polyolefin is the least absorbent of all the man-made fibers, and the
only fiber that floats. (Swimmers will do anything to cut a milli-second off their times!)


* Lightweight * Exceptional strength
* Good drapeability * Abrasion resistant
* Easy to wash * Resists shrinkage and wrinkling
* Fast drying, low moisture absorbency
* Resistant to damage from oil and many chemicals
* Static and pilling can be a problem
* Poor resistance to continuous sunlight Major End Uses:
* Apparel - swimwear, activewear, foundation garments, hosiery, blouses, dresses,
sportswear, raincoats, ski and snow apparel, windbreakers, childrenswear.
* Other-Luggage/back packets/life vests/umbrellas/sleeping bags,tents.

Nylon is one of the strongest of all fibers, and for this reason it's used in garments that take a
great deal of hard wear, like panty hose, swimwear, tents.

Although nylon is a very strong fiber, one of it's unfavorable characteristics is that it has poor
resistance to prolonged exposure to the sun. In addition, the Lycra (or spandex) breaks down from
exposure to chlorine in pool water. Lycra is used for its stretch.

Supplex has a feel of cotton,comfortable, breathable and water repellent/ NOT water proof). Absorbs
a small amount of water if it is getting drenched.

WOOL Natural, Animal fiber

* Comfortable * Luxurious, soft hand
* Versatile * Lightweight
* Good insulator * Washable
* Wrinkle-resistant * Absorbent Major End Uses:
* Apparel - sweaters, dresses, coats, suits, jackets, pants, skirts, childrenswear,
loungewear, blouses, shirts, hosiery, scarves.

GORETEX A teflon based membrane with microscopic holes. Gortex's claim to fame is that it will let
water vapor (from perspiration) through, but not liquid water (rain). It blocks wind fairly well
too. The membrane is delicate, so it always comes laminated between 2 layers of other material. It
does not breathe enough. There are less expensive alternatives.

POLYPROPYLENE/THERMAX Does not wick very well. Can be uncomfortable. Troublesome to care for
(e.g. can pill badly) Will keep you fairly warm if soaked. Not very wind resistant. Shrinks under
heat from dryers. Thermax is an improvement on Polypropylene. The big advantage is that
Thermax isheat resistance so you can put it in the dryer. Balance that against the extra cost.

60/40 CLOTH This is a cloth with nylon threads running one direction, cotton in the other. It was
the standard wind parka material before Goretex came along, and is considerably less expensive.
Good wind resistance, fairly breathable. Somewhat water resistant, especially if you spray it
with Scotchguard, but won't hold up to a heavy rain.

Breathability of Materials summarized from Clive Tully UK Outdoor/Travel Writer
[email protected]

Breathability in waterproof clothing is one of the most misunderstood and misrepresented technical
aspects of outdoors clothing and equipment. It's all very well listing the technical merits of a
particular fabric, coating or membrane. Too often, the design of the finished garment either makes
or breaks the fabric manufacturer's claim. E.g., a walking jacket with a permanently vented shoulder
flap might as well be made of non-breathable PU. It can't maintain the partial pressure which makes
the fabric work. The exception is Gore-Tex fabric. Garment manufacturers using their fabrics have to
submit sample products for Gore to check they meet their laid down standards of manufacture. Not
many fabric manufacturers do that, but then, not many have such a tight grip on their markets.

The Breathable options

Breathable waterproof fabrics operate by one of two ways.They're microporous, with microscopic pores
which permit the passage of water vapour but not water liquid, or they're hydrophilic, a solid
barrier but capable of absorbing moisture vapour and passing it through its structure. Either may
come as coatings applied directly to a fabric, or membranes which are glued to the fabric which
carries it. Then there are microfibre fabrics and cotton fabrics.

The top end of the market is dominated by Gore-Tex, and like some of the other laminates on offer,
it comes in a variety of forms. The original, and still the best for durability, is 3-layer, where
the breathable waterproof membrane is sandwiched between a facing and lining fabric. Garments made
of this tend to be good value, too, because the manufacturing processes aren't so complex. 2-layer
is softer, with the membrane glued to the underside of the facing fabric, and a loose lining. Not so
durable, but usually more breathable, and more expensive. Other varieties, laminate the membrane to
a lining fabric with loose outer - nice for fashion garments, and sometimes the waterproof lining
has loose outer and lining on either side - again, more complex constructions generally adding up to
more expensive garments. And the outside pockets will let in water...

A coating is a coating, or is it? Breathable PU nylon doesn't really mean an awful lot. Individual
coatings can have their chemistry tinkered with to make them more breathable or more waterproof.
Cheaper coatings may be applied in one pass over the fabric, more expensive performance coatings may
be made up of several thinner applications.

You'd expect breathable waterproof fabric to work reasonably well in dry conditions, provided you're
not working so hard as to overload its capability to transport moisture. The real crunch is when
it's raining. How much does it breathe after 5 hours in pouring rain? Tests showed that all fabrics
lose an element of breathability in wet conditions. The various configurations of Gore-Tex lost
between 34 and 43% of their breathability, Sympatex 31% on a Z-liner construction, 70% in a double
layer. Helly-Tech's decline was just short of 75%, but perhaps the biggest surprise was Lowe
Alpine's Triple Point Ceramic 1200, losing just 15%.

Whatever the coating or laminate, the facing fabric and its water-repellent surface treatment is
absolutely critical. It's fair to say that the coarse texturised facing fabrics will fare less well
than smooth ones because of a larger surface area to grab water when the water repellent treatment
wears off.


It is a misconception that a lining is an aid to breathability. It isn't. It won't make any
improvement. As an extra layer of insulation, it will make condensation inside the jacket MORE
likely. What it does is improve the comfort factor by putting a layer between you and any
condensation which may form on the shiny underside of your coating or membrane. 2-layer Gore-Tex
would be just too fragile without a loose lining to protect it. In other instances, it's used to
mask what's going on (or rather, not) at the point of greatest resistance!

A mesh lining can achieve the same effect with less resistance to the passage of water vapour -
looks nice too, even if it is a bit of a pain with Velcro - but the best functional designs will
still employ a smooth lining fabric down the arms to avoid drag over your fleece. But if the mesh is
to do the same job for a poor breathable coating or membrane as a close weave lining fabric, it has
to be made from an absorbent or wicking fibre, otherwise, there's not much point in having the
lining at all.

Maintenance Whether you have an expensive membrane or an inexpensive coating lurking behind the face
fabric of your jacket, the moment the fabric "wets out", you're in danger of anything from
drastically reducing performance to turning your jacket into something with the breathability of a
bin liner. It's easy to see when this happens. The water no longer beads up and rolls off the
surface of the fabric, and you'll see it soaking into the material in patches. The fabric is still
waterproof (apart from pressure points - see above), but its breathability will be greatly impaired.
The answer is to keep your jacket clean, following any washing instructions to the letter, and
maintain the water repellent finish on the outside.

General Information

Running Mailing Lists

T & F Mailing List For details send email to: (Derrick Peterman)[email protected]

The Track and Field Mailing List is a world wide network of athletes, coaches, sports scientists,
officials, and track and field enthusiasts. Many national class athletes from several nations
subscribe. The list provides rapid dissemination of results, discussion of track and field topics,
and a source for inquiry about track and field events.

Terminology: Pronation/Supination (Tom Page [email protected])

"Over" pronation describes a minor misalignment of the leg's forward swing that causes the
footstrike to be skewed to the inside of the heel.

"Over" supination is the reverse - impact is shifted toward the outside of the heel. (Jim Horalek)

Pronation and supination describe natural and normal motions of the foot during the walking or
running stride. In a normal stride, the outside portion of the heal strikes the ground first. The
foot pronates to absorbe shock. That is, it rolls inward. At the end of the stride, the foot re-
supinates -- rolls outward-- on push-off.

What the previous writer (Jim Horalek [email protected]) is defining is `over pronation', and
`over supination'. These are excesses of the normal motions. Note that over pronation is fairly
common and many shoes are designed to counteract this. Over supination is very rare. Most people who
think they over supinate probably just under pronate. Some people who think they over pronate may in
fact pronate a normal amount, but fail to re-supinate sufficiently at the end of the stride.

Calorie/Energy Count (Kenrick J. Mock [email protected])

Here is a little table adapted from "Beyond Diet...Exercise Your Way to Fitness and Heart Health" by
Lenore R. Zohman, M.D.

Energy Range = Approx. Calories Per Hour

Energy Range Activity Conditioning Benefits

72-84 Sitting, Conversing None

120-150 Strolling, 1 mph Not strenuous enough to produce endurance unless Walking, 2 mph your
exercise capacity is very low

150-240 Golf, power cart. Not sufficiently taxing or continuous to promote endurance.

240-300 Cleaning windows Adequate for conditioning if carried out Mopping floor continuously for
vacuuming 20-30 minutes Bowling Too intermittent for endurance Walking, 3mph Adequate dynamic
exercise if Cycling, 6mph your capacity is low Golf, pulling cart Useful if you walk briskly,if cart
is heavy isometrics may be involved.

300-360 Scrubbing floors Adequate if done in at least 2 minute stints Walking, 3.5 mph Usually good
dynamic aerobic exercise Cycling, 8 mph Ping Pong Vigorous continuous play can Badminton have
endurance benefits. May aid skill. Volleyball Tennis, doubles Not beneficial unless there is
continuous play for at least 2 minutes at a time. Aids skill.

360-420 Walking, 4mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial. Cycling, 10mph Skating Should be continuous

420-480 Walking, 5mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial. Cycling, 11mph Tennis, singles Benefit if played
30 minutes or more with an attempt to keep moving Water Skiing Total isometrics

480-600 Jogging, 5 mph Dynamic, aerobic, endurance Cycling, 12mph building exercise. Downhill skiing
Usually too short to help endurance significantly. Paddleball Not sufficiently continuous for
aerobic benefits.

600-660 Running, 5.5 mph Excellent conditioner. Cycling, 13 mph

Over 660 Running, 6+ mph Excellent conditioner Handball, Squash Conditioning benefit if played 30
min or more. Swimming (wide Good conditioning exercise caloric range)
Calories burned by running (Rob Lingelbach [email protected])

Here is a table I clipped from Runner's World; the source listed is "Exercise & Physiology" (Lea &
Febiger, 1986). At 70% of max.

Pace (minutes per mile)
12:00 10:43 9:41 8:46 8:02 7:26 6:54 6:26 6:02 Wt(lbs) Calories burned per hour running 100
400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 119 432 486 540 594 648 702 756 810 864 128 464 522
580 638 696 754 812 870 928 137 496 558 620 682 744 806 868 930 992 146 528 594 660 726
792 858 924 990 1056 154 560 630 700 770 840 910 980 1050 1120 163 592 666 740 814 888
962 1036 1110 1184 172 624 702 780 858 936 1014 1092 1170 1248 181 656 738 820 902 984
1066 1148 1230 1312 190 688 774 860 946 1032 1118 1204 1290 1376 199 720 810 900 990
1080 1170 1260 1350 1440 207 752 846 940 1034 1128 1222 1316 1410 1504 216 784 882 980
1078 1176 1274 1372 1470 1568 225 816 918 1020 1122 1224 1326 1428 1530 1632 234 848 954
1060 1166 1272 1378 1484 1590 1696
Muscle Fuels Used During Exercise Stuart Phillips([email protected])

There are 3 main fuels used during exercise by the contracting muscle: 1) Protein; 2)
Carbohydrate; 3) Fat.

PROTEIN: A majority of text books written will not acknowledge protein as a major fuel, and
it likely is not. It should be pointed out that protein requirements of someone who is
running/exercising on a regular basis are GREATER than those of a sedentary population. Is
this something to worry about? Most "North American" diets contain more protein than is
needed. So the bottom line is you get more than you need so don't worry. Vegetarians? Again
the answer is likely yes, they also get enough protein. Even when consuming a pure protein
diet there is enough protein to more than cover the needs of a person who regularly
runs/exercises. Moreover, most vegetarians are aware of what they eat and plan their diets
very well.

FUELS: Fats and carbohydrates (CHOs are then the major fuel sources for the exercising
person. The balance of the use of these fuels is dependant upon exercise intensity and
duration (the two are inversly related). The general rule is that the lower the intensity
the greater the energy cost of exercise can be covered by fat. Hence, the greater the
exercise duration the more fat will be burned, usually because the intensity of one's
workout will decrease - FATIGUE! The flip side then, is that during higher intensity
exercise (>70% of max), one relies heavily on CHOs.

Ozzie Gontang

Archive-name: running-faq/part2
Last-modified: 13 Dec 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

SOURCES: Fats are stored as adipose, body fat, and muscle fat (triglycerides). CHOs are
stored as muscle and liver glycogen (long chains of glucose) and blood glucose. During a
workout the early phases are characterized by a reliance on CHOs, both muscle glycogen and
blood glucose. The blood glucose comes from the breakdown of liver glycogen. Again this is
dependent upon intensity (see above). However, the muscle can also use fat as a fuel, The
sources of this are from the inside of the muscle or from the outside -
i.e. from adipose tissue. The problem is that levels of fats from adipose take a while to reach high
enough levels for their use to become significant. Their concentration in the blood only
reaches very high levels when the intensity of the exercise is low (i.e. 50% of max or less)
and if the duration is sufficient (1 hour or more). However, when the concentration of fats
from outside of the muscle is high enough the muscle can use these instead of glycogen and
delay the use of glycogen, this is critical at times since muscle glycogen is a "rate-limiting"
fuel for muscle. That is when muscle glycogen runs out, or gets very low, then you feel
terrible - you've BONKED or HIT THE WALL (see below).

BONKING/HITTING THE WALL: Lots of people talk about the phenomenon of bonking. It hits some
people harder than others, I don't know why and have never seen any good information why?
However, bonking is a combination of two processes. The first is a lack of muscle glycogen
(see above). The second is low blood glucose. When muscle glycogen is low the muscle runs
into a fuel crisis. It cannot burn fats at a rate high enough to sustain the muscle's
maximal output. The consequence is that your muscle switches to burning more fats and so
you have to slow down. The crappy feeling that you experience at the same time, often
characterized by nausea and disorientation, is likely a consequence of low blood
sugar/glucose (hypoglycemia).

The trick then is to alleviate/delay the onset of these symptoms by consuming sugar solutions, or
simply by becoming so well trained that you don't have to worry (see TRAINING below). Why is low
blood sugar bad? Because your brain, eye tissue, and others are able to burn only glucose. That is
when the levels of glucose are low your brain runs out of fuel, so you feel awful. Your vision might
become impaired also.

FATS vs. CHOs: However, as I've said above your muscle can burn fats and if given the
chance your muscle will burn whatever fuel it has in the greatest abundance, even lactate!
So, if supplied with enough fat muscle can burn fat and hence, "spare" muscle glycogen.
This is the idea behind many runners drinking caffeine/coffee before a race. The caffeine
has effects that cause release of fats from adipose tissue and the level of fats in the
blood increases. The end result is that for the early phases of the race the runner's
muscle's can use fat and delay the use of muscle glycogen, hence, sparing that glycogen
for later use.

One should be cautioned, however, that this mechanism for increasing fat usage has only been shown
with some very high doses of caffeine that are not achievable without taking caffeine pills. It also
critically dependent upon the person's habitual caffeine intake ("big" coffee drinker appear not to
derive as great of a benefit as non-habitual users). There are other ways to maximize the use of
muscle glycogen, however.

CHO LOADING: CHO loading is a practice that many athletes use before a longer duration
event to "supercompensate" their muscles with glycogen, delay it's running out (see above).
The practice is of little use when the duration of the event is less than 60 minutes, since
muscle glycogen will usually be able to meet the demands of such a duration. However, it
should be noted that repeated bouts of high intensity exercise will also deplete one's
muscles of glycogen (for example wrestling 3-4 bouts in one day).

There are two basic protocols for CHO loading, one is just as good as the other. However, they
involve an initial bout of exercise to deplete the muscle's glycogen (under normal dietary
conditions), followed by a period of high CHO diet (i.e. 70% or more of one's total calories from
CHO). This period should be the 4-5 days prior to the event and should be a time when the athlete
tapers their training, so as not to deplete muscle glycogen too much. The result is an overload of
glycogen in one's muscles.

Two notes: 1) This procedure will result, if done correctly, in most people gaining 2-5 pounds.
Why? Because muscle and liver glycogen is stored with water and increasing glycogen will increase
water content -
i.f. increased weight is water. 2) Preliminary evidence indicates that this procedure is less
effective in women. That is to say that if a female runner were to increase her CHOs to 70% (or
>) of her caloric intake she may not have an increase in muscle glycogen. Why? It may relate to
a gender difference in the ability to store muscle glycogen or in the amount of CHOs that 70%
of the female athlete's diet represents (i.e. 70% of a 2000 calorie diet would be 1400 Cal from
CHO, eating this may not be enough to increase muscle glycogen content). Stay tuned for more
info here!

TRAINING: When one trains or conditions by completing endurance exercise changes occur at
many levels, including the muscle. The changes that occur at the level of the muscle
include an increased ability to utilize fats. Not surprisingly then one's endurance is
increased. How? An increased utilization of fats means less reliance on glycogen, less
reliance on glycogen means you don't run out of the fuel that allows you to maintain a high
rate of muscle contraction, and hence a high rate of running/exercising. Another adaptation
that occurs is that your muscle uses less glucose, this is important for tissues such as
brain (see above).

Conversion chart (Jack Berkery [email protected]

1 yard = .9144 meter 100 yards = 91.4400 meters 220 yards = 201.1680 meters 440 yards = 402.3360
meters 880 yards = 804.6720 meters

1 meter = 1.094 yards 100 meters = 109.400 yards 200 meters = 218.800 yards 400 meters = 437.600
yards 800 meters = 875.200 yards

1 mile = 1.609 Kilometers 1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet 1 Kilometer = .6214 miles = 1094 yards
= 3281 feet

Kilmoeters to miles Miles to Kilometers ------------------------------------------------------ 1 km
= .6214 miles 1 mile = 1.609 km 2 km = 1.2418 miles 2 miles = 3.218 km 3 km = 1.8642 miles 3 miles =
4.827 km 4 km = 2.4856 miles 4 miles = 6.436 km 5 km = 3.1070 miles 5 miles = 8.045 km 6 km = 3.7284
miles 6 miles = 9.654 km 7 km = 4.3498 miles 7 miles = 11.263 km 8 km = 4.9712 miles 8 miles =
12.872 km 9 km = 5.5926 miles 9 miles = 14.481 km 10 km = 6.2140 miles 10 miles = 16.090 km 11 km =
6.8354 miles 11 miles =
17.699 km 12 km = 7.4568 miles 12 miles = 19.308 km 13 km = 8.0782 miles 13 miles = 20.917 km 14 km
= 8.6996 miles 14 miles = 22.526 km 15 km = 9.3210 miles 15 miles = 24.135 km 20 km = 12.4280
miles 20 miles = 32.180 km 25 km
= 15.5350 miles 25 miles = 40.225 km 30 km = 18.6420 miles

1 marathon = 26 miles + 385 yards = 42.186 km

Fluid replacement (2 personal methods)

As an ultramarathoner, trail runner fluid replenishment etc. is quite important. My findings, based
on personal experience, is that in 90+ degree weather I use a liter per hour on a one hour run - and
that is carrying the water with me. If you are not running enough distance, dont be concerned about
energy type drinks, and you probably don't lose enough salts to need electrolytes. But your system
will absorb more fluid faster is it is hypotonic and cool. If you guys are always running for 45
minutes or an hour in HOT weather - I would really suggest carrying water. When you realize your
dehydrated its TOO late - and it takes longer to replenish fluids than it does to lose them. (Milt
Schol [email protected])

I prepare for a run with about 24-30 ounces of lukewarm water within 3 hours of the run. As for
after the run, if it was particularly strenuous (and in the 85+ and humid Pittsburgh weather of
late, the runs have been strenuous for me), within 10-15 minutes following the run, I take ~10-15
ounces of room-temperature, diluted Exceed (about 2 parts Exceed to 3 parts water). I follow that
with about 24-30 ounces of room-temperature water over the next hour or two. (Barbara Zayas
[email protected])

Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries (John Schwebel [email protected])

Ten Laws of Running Injuries stated therein:

The 1ST LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Running Injuries Are Not an Act of God

The 2ND LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Each Running Injury Progresses Through Four Grades

The 3RD LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Each Running Injury Indicates That the Athlete Has Reached the
Breakdown Point

The 4TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Virtually All Running Injuries Are Curable

The 5TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: X-Rays and Other Sophisticated Investigations Are Seldom Necessary
to Diagnose Running Injuries

The 6TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Treat the Cause, Not the Effect

The 7TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Rest is Seldom the Most Appropriate Treatment

The 8TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: Never Accept as a Final Opinion the Advice of a Nonrunner


The 10TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES: There Is No Definitive Scientific Evidence That Running Causes
Osteoarthritis in Runners Whose Knwees Were Normal When They Started Running

Second Wind (Newsweek July 27, '92)

If an Olympian experiences a second wind, it's probably a sign that he isn't in a great shape.
Scientists are divided over whether a second wind is purely psychological - the athlete "willing"
himself forward. But if it has a physical basis too, the sudden feeling of "I can do it!" right
after "I want to die" probably reflects a change in metabolism. The body gets energy by breaking
down glucose, which is stored in muscles. This reaction releases lactic acid, which the body must
burn in order to prevent a lactic-acid buildup that causes cramps. Burning lactic acid requires
oxygen. If the body does not breathe in enough oxygen; the runner experiences oxygen debt: the heart
beats more quickly; the lungs gasp; the legs slow. The second wind, says physicist Peter Brancazio
of Brooklyn College, may come when the body finally balances the amount of oxygen coming in with
that needed to burn the lactic acid. (When burned, lactic acid is transformed into sweat and carbon
dioxide.) Why doesn't everybody get a second wind? Couch potatoes don't push themselves past oxygen
debt; true Olympians have enough lung capacity and cardiovascular fitness to avoid oxygen debt in
the first place.

Soda Pop (Paulette Leeper [email protected])

Q: Does anyone have any opinions on Soda pop as a drink in General.

I find the CAFFEINE in soda to be irritating and DEHYDRATING, so, IMHO, drinking soda with caffeine
(regardless of whether or not it contains sugar or aspartame) defeats the purpose of quenching
thirst. It's much like drinking beer to quench thirst... it FEELS good, and TASTES good, but as a
mechanism for hydration, it does the exact opposite.

Computer Software (Jack Berkery [email protected]) (Paul Gronke, [email protected])

There is a Shareware program in the WUSTL archives available through anonymous ftp. (also on other
archive sites) Look into ../msdos/database/ I didn't exactly like it but it may suit
your style. It works with CGA/EGA/VGA graphics. Don't know how it functions under windows. []

AEROBIX.ZIP B 81246 910420 Fitness Log: Record aerobic exercise/progres JOGGR105.ZIP B 59053 920312
Runner's log and analysis database, v1.05 PT100.ARC B 175592 890914 Physical Training test
scorekeeper database RUNLOG.ZIP B 71801 900308 Runner's/bicycler's workout log

All programs are available in the DATABASE directory on Simtel, via anonymous FTP. There are a
number of Simtel mirrors, including WUARCHIVE.WUSTL.EDU (dir = mirrors/msdos/database),
OAK.OAKLAND.EDU (dir = pub/msdos/database), and a lot of non US sites.

RUNCOACH.ZIP RunCoach RunCoach helps coach people who are running, jogging or racing. It is based on
Artificial Intelligence techniques and can produce an optimum training program tailored to the
individual. If you are just starting to run, want to enter a fun run or are an expert runner and
want to improve your time then RunCoach can help. First you enter some data about yourself, then set
a goal race (or ask RunCoach to suggest one), tell RunCoach when you can train and RunCoach will
quickly generate a personalised training schedule. It will also estimate how likely you are to
succeed at your goal. Ver 0.90 was the first public release and can be found as RUNCOACH.ZIP. Ver
0.94 (RUNCO94B.ZIP) is the latest (july 95) release. It works in both miles or kms, has a better
understanding of the taper, has a built in series of running guides and has a built in sports psych,
so you can discuss any problems. It is available from a number of FTP sites but as an example try
Simtel: /SimTel/msdos/database/

Its running knowledge is extensive and includes the following:-
- internally classifies runners into five major groups

- able to select days of the week you can run, and your long run day
- provides feedback on whether you are capable of meeting your goal time
- can suggest goal's based on your individual ability
- provides a schedule even if Run Coach is sceptical you can reach your goal
- knows about VO2 max, anaerobic threshold, efficiency, long runs etc
- has many rules for minimising injury
- has a variety of individualised speedwork schedules built in
- understands periodisation & complex schedules & selects between them
- can predict race results for distances not previously run
- can produce a schedule for the complete beginner through to the elite

RUNLOG.ZIP - I found this to be a barely usable program. It was not at all clear what I needed to
enter at any of the prompts. There was no help key. There was no information telling me what format
any times, distances, etc. need to be entered as. This does have a time prediction module. The
interface is kind of nice. There are graphical displays of improvement, heart rate, etc. With a
better manual expaining what you need to enter, I would rate is usable. At present, I found the
other programs nicer. If you figure out what need to be entered where, you can use this program.

JOGGR105.ZIP - This is a program of British origin. The interface is kind of interesting. It has
most of the data entry options that you would want. It will graphically display your improvement.
You can control the menu of courses so that you don't have to reenter distance and course info each
time. Most annoying problem: everythin is in British units, so that you have to convert 100 meter
dash, 5K, 10K, etc. into milage. This might not be a drawback for some; it is a major drawback for
me. The data entry, printing is all nice. It escapes from errors well (unlike Runlog, which tends to
bomb). This is definitely usable.

RUNSTA11.ZIP - I really like this program and will continue to use it. It is by far the largest of
the programs (300K zipped, 3 times the size of the others), so you might go for another if disk
space is a problem. However, you get a full featured training / racing log for the space. What I
like about it: 1) you can make it as complex or simple as possible. Via config options, you can
enter for each race/training: shoes, weather, heart rate, health, hilliness, race surface, temp,
calories...or none of these, depending on your preference. 2) You can easily set up a menu of
courses to choose from in the race *and* training run entry 3) Race and Training are kept separate,
a very nice feature if you want to track training runs and racing in the same database. 4) Multiple
database files easily used, special configs are unique to each database file (meaning that you can
monitor bicycle, running in the same program) 5) Can display data entries (runs) in a "calendar"
format, then select the ones you wish to examine with a keystroke 6) Nice graphical displays

Drawbacks: requires more memory than the other programs. Might not run on pre-286 machines, but I
don't know. More disk space required. Not sure if it does time forecasting, I need to check.

RUNSTAT3 Ver.3.0, Jan. 1995 by Scott Diamond <[email protected]>

RunStat3 is a Windows program useful to runners The program's main window is a pace calculator. You
enter distance and time for your run and RunStat3 calculates your pace for your run and finishing
times for a large set of distances and times. E.g., if you ran a 10k run, RunStat3 would list
finishing times for 1 mile, 5k, 10k, 1/2 marathon, marathon, etc (you can add your own custom
entries). Two listing for finishing times are presented, one based on running at constant pace and a
'realistic' estimate which accounts for slowing your pace the longer you run.

RunStat3 also supports an ascii logbook in which users can keep a record of all their runs. RunStat3
includes a searching, plotting and statistics calculator so that you can search your log book and
plot all your times for a given course, or total your mileage for each pair of shoes or make other
plots. There is almost no limit to the number of entries you can place in your log file for tracking
your runs (e.g temp., wt, avg. heart rate, course, shoes, etc.)

The program is freeware. For more information, set your web-browser to:



From: Dweezil the Butt Beaker <[email protected]> Subject: Rules of Hashing (one version,
re: Rule Six) Organization: Orlando Hash House Harriers

X-Hhh: A Drinking Club With A Running Problem. X-Hhh-Motto: If you have half a mind to hash, that's
all you need. X-Hhh-Philosophy: Carpe Cerevisiam X-Oh3-Motto: We get drunk, we get naked, we give
hashing a bad name. X-O2H3-Motto: We have beer, we have cookies, we give hashing a nice name. X-Dbh3-
Motto: Daytona Beach Hash House Harriers never run out of beer. X-Dbh3-Motto: We have beer before,
during, and after the hash.

The Hash House Harriers is a running/drinking/social club which was started by bored expatriates in
Kuala Lumpuer, Malaysia in 1938. ("Hash House" is the nickname of the restaurant/bar to which they
retired for food and beer after a run.) Hashing is based on the English schoolboy game of "Hare and
Hounds"; a Hash is a non-competitive cross-country run set by one or more runners called hares. The
hares run out in advance of the other runners (the pack of hounds), and set a course marked by white
flour, toilet paper, and/or chalk marks.

Hash Rules

1. A HASHMARK is a splash of flour used to mark the trail. The pack should call out "On-On" when
they see a hashmark. Blasts on horns, whistles, and other noise makers are encouraged. Hounds
asking "RU?" (are you on trail?) of the FRB's (Front-Running Bastards) should be answered "On-
On", which means they are on trail, or "Looking", which means they`ve lost the trail.

2. ARROWs, or several closely spaced hashmarks, are used to indicate change of trail direction.
Hound should use arrows different from those used by the hares as necessary to assist hounds
further back in the pack.

3. A CHECKMARK is a large circled X, or a circle with a dot at its center (fondly known as a "Titty
Check"). Checkmarks indicate that the trail goes "SFP"; that is, the pack must search for true
trail. Hounds should call out "Checking" when they see a checkmark. (Checking IS NOT Looking!)

4. A Backtrack is three lines chalked or drawn in flour across the trail, indicating a false trail.
The pack, upon encountering a backtrack, calls out "On-Back" or "Backtrack", and goes back to
the last checkmark to find true trail. Sometimes a hound will draw an arrow with a backtrack
sign at the checkmark to identify the false trail for the rest of the pack.

A CHECKBACK is a devious variation of the checkmark/backtrack. A checkback is a CB followed by a
number. For example, a "CB 5" means to backtrack five hashmarks, then look for true trail as one
would at a check. Also known as a COUNTBACK.

A WHICHWAY is two arrows, only one of which points toward true trail; no hashmarks will be found in
the other direction.

5. Tradition requires a DOWN-DOWN (chug-a-lug) of a beer after a hasher's virgin hash, naming hash,
and other significant occasions, e.g., 25th hash, 50th hash, etc. A Down-Down is also in order
for hares, visitors, and for any other reason that can be thought up. While frowned upon as
"alcohol abuse", it is permissible for non- drinkers to pour the beer over their head; a soda
Down-Down may also be elected. The primary consideration of the Down-Down is that once the mug
leaves the drinker's lips, it is turned upside-down over the head.


Interval training ([email protected])

First off, keep in mind that the interval part of the run is the rest part. This is where your body
recovers and strengthens itself.

Secondly, say your goal is to run an 8 minute/mile 10k. Start your intervals by doing 5X400m at a
little under 2 minutes per rep. You'll see that an 8min mile is a 2min 400, so to better that, you
run a little faster, as I said. Walk or jog between the rep (this is the interval). Remember to keep
with what you started at. If you jogged to rest, don't walk during the next interval.

Intervals should be challenging, but not defeating. If you are having problems maintaining your form
during the course of the whole run, you are doing too much. You should feel good at the end of your
run, not ready to drop dead.

Remember to warmup and cool down sufficiently before and after intervals. 10 minutes of jogging is

Other things to remember: you can customize intervals to achieve different things. For example, to
increase endurance, you can decrease your interval while running the same rep. Or you can increase
the rep and still do the same interval. You can work on speed by running faster reps. There are
other variations as well, but I don't remember all of them.

Lastly, make sure you have a good aerobic base when you start, and don't do too much too fast. You
can tire your muscles out, and it will take a while to recover.

Your goal is to exercise your fast twitch muscles, those used for speed. I've been doing intervals
for about 2 months now, and it has made a difference. The first race I ran after starting intervals,
my time dropped by about 15 seconds. I have a race tomorrow, and am hoping to improve on that. I
also notice I have more pep in my regular workouts. I get out there, and once I'm warmed up, my body
wants to run fast.



Sore knees ( Elizabeth Doucette <[email protected]>)

When running (also walking, and cycling), the inner most quad. muscle (inner part of thigh) does not
get exercised as much as the other three quad. muscles of the thigh. If this inner muscle isn't
strengthened by specific exercises, an imbalance of the muscles may occur. This can cause irritation
of the underside of the kneecap (chondromalacia patellae) because the imbalance of the muscles can
pull the kneecap towards the outside of the leg.

The kneecap (which has two convex faces on the back) rides in a broad indentation on the femur.
Weak inner quadriceps (M. Vastus medialis) can pull the kneecap slightly out of its "track"; and
it is theorized that this is what causes chondromalacia (which I believe is called patellofemoral
pain syndrome these days). [edited for correctness 2/19/95 by [email protected]
(Lucie Melahn)]

I had chondromalacia patellae for a long time (and many of my running friends did too) but I haven't
had problems since I've been doing specific exercises for my inner quad. muscle. It is tedious and
boring but it works. I haven't had knee problems for about 3 years now :). I should do this every
day, whether I work out or not, but I don't always. If I feel any discomfort at all in my knees, I
make sure I'm more diligent with this exercise and the discomfort always disappears. I'm always able
to prevent a problem now.

The exercise is just a leg raise with the foot flexed and pointing away from the body. With this
exercise make sure that your back is supported. As your quad. muscles fatigue, there is a tendency
to help out with your back muscles. You may not realize that you're doing this until you notice
later that your back is a little sore.

Sitting on the floor, bend one leg (like you're going to do a sit-up), bringing the knee towards the
chest. The other leg is straight. Place your hands behind you on the floor to support your back. You
can vary this by leaning against a wall and hugging your knee to your chest with both arms. YOUR

For ease of explanation, start with your right leg being straight and flex your foot (bring your
toes towards your head, as opposed to pointing them away from you). Turn your leg to the right, so
that your toes and knee are pointing to the right as far as possible. The position of the foot is
important because it helps to isolate the inner quad. muscle. Now, do leg raises. When I started I
could only do 10 or 20 before I needed to rest. Don't do the leg raises too quickly because
technique is more important than speed. I now do three sets, each leg of 60 repetitions (alternating
legs after each set) for a total of 180 per leg. It takes me about 10 minutes.

You can tell if your muscle is getting fatigued because it will start to quiver. Don't push it,
change legs. Keep note of how many repetitions you do before you get fatigued and try to increase
the repetitions next time. Compare you to you, not to others.

Leg presses used to bother my knees. Now that I'm doing leg raises, the leg press doesn't bother me
any more. Technique is important when doing leg presses. (Technique is probably more important than
the fact that I'm doing leg raises). Make sure that the seat is forward far enough, so that when you
press you cannot lock your knee. This makes the initial position feel too cramped. My knees feel too
close to my chest. But it works for me and for others (both men and women) that I work out with.
Nautilus equipment uses a cam system, such that there is less resistance on your knees in the
initial, starting position, so there is less chance of injury.


Leg Massage (John Boone [email protected])

(From Bicycling magazine, pp.76-77, July 1992, Reproduced without permission)


7. Full Muscle Flush

This surface stroke prepares the muscles for deeper work. It loosens the fibers and increases the
blood flow to wash out lactic acid and other toxins. Begin with the calves. Place the palms flat
against the bottom of the muscle and stroke toward the heart in a continuous movement. Always stroke
toward the heart so the blood containing the toxins isn't traveling back into the muscles. After a
few of these, knead the muscle during the stroke by working the bottom of the palms in and out. End
with the original flat stroke.

8. Broad Cross-Fiber Stroke

After each muscle group has been flushed, use the same palm position at the center of the muscles,
but work sideways. Press harder than the flush. The hands are moving acros the muscle fibers,
separating them and making them pliable so the massage can go deeper with the next type of stroke.
This is a great supplement to stretching. It makes muscle fibers less likely to tear. End with
more flushing.

9. Deep Muscle Spress

"Spress" is a Swedish term. This technique is also known as muscle stripping. Use fingers, knuckles,
or even elbows to penetrate the muscle. [Press deep into the leg where previously rubbing the
surface.] Apply pressure until the comfort limit is passed. If there's pain, work slower, or do a
few palm strokes before spressing again. Knuckles and thumbs work best. Concentrate on specific
areas, instead of stroking the whole muscle. But remember to work toward the heart.


Initial Strokes

Self-massage uses the same sequence of strokes as assisted massage, and the same order of muscles --
calf, quads, hamstrings, glutes. But it's usually less effective because self-massagers get tired or
bored quicker. The most common mistake is skipping the full-muscle flush or cross-fiber stroke to
concentrate on the spress in the sorest areas. If you don't prepare the muscles, you won't be able
to penetrate deep enough. [...] Be sure you're applying pressure with both hands. Sometimes one side
of the leg gets shortchanged.

Going Deeper

The advantage of self-massage is that you know exactly where it hurts and can key on these areas.
You also know when your muscles are loose enough for deeper penetration. [...] Amateurs usually
don't go [deep enough] in assisted massage, or do so too quickly and it hurts. You can find that
perfect balance. [...] It's best to use both [hands], but fatigue is a problem in self-massage.

Austin "Ozzie" Gontang, Ph.D. TEC International 2903 29th St San Diego, CA 92104-4912

hm/off. 619-281-7447 fax 619-281-9468 email <[email protected]>

Chief Executives Working Together

Ozzie Gontang

Archive-name: running-faq/part5
Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days


Nutrition in athletics is a very controversial topic. However, for an athlete to have confidence
that his/her diet is beneficial he/she must understand the role each food component plays in the
body's overall makeup. Conversely, it is important to identify and understand the nutritional
demands on the physiological processes of the body that occur as a result of racing and training so
that these needs can be satisfied in the athlete's diet.

For the above reasons, a basic nutrition primer should help the athlete determine the right
ingredients of his/her diet which fit training and racing schedules and existing eating habits. The
body requires three basic components from foods: 1) water; 2) energy; and 3)nutrients.


Water is essential for life and without a doubt the most important component in our diet. Proper
hydrations not only allows the body to maintain structural and biochemical integrity, but it also
prevents overheating, through sensible heat loss(perspiration). Many *runners* have experienced the
affects of acute fluid deficiency on a hot day, better known as heat exhaustion. Dehydration can be
a long term problem, especially at altitude, but this does not seem to be a widespread problem among
*runners* and is only mentioned here as a reminder (but an important one).


Energy is required for metabolic processes, growth and to support physical activity. The Food and
Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences has procrastinated in establishing a Recommended
Daily Allowance(RDA) for energy the reasoning being that such a daily requirement could lead to
overeating. A moderately active 70kg(155lb) man burns about 2700 kcal/day and a moderately active
58kg(128lb) woman burns about 2500 kcal/day.

while *running* (this is obviously dependent on the level of exertion).

these as calories) to the daily energy demand of the *runner*. Nutritional studies indicate that
there is no significant increase in the vitamin requirement of the athlete as a result of this
energy expenditure.

In order to meet this extra demand, the *runner* must increase his/her intake of food. This may come
before, during or after a *run* but most likely it will be a combination of all of the above. If for
some reason extra nutrients are required because of this extra energy demand, they will most likely
be replenished through the increased food intake. Carbohydrates and fats are the body's energy
sources and will be discussed shortly.


This is a broad term and refers to vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, fiber and a
host of other substances. The body is a very complex product of evolution. It can manufacture many
of the resources it needs to survive. However, vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids(the
building blocks of proteins) and fatty acids cannot be manufactured, hence they must be supplied in
our food to support proper health.

Vitamins and Minerals

No explanation needed here except that there are established RDA's for most vitamins and minerals
and that a well balanced diet, especially when supplemented by a daily multivitamin and mineral
tablet should meet all the requirements of the cyclist.

Proper electrolyte replacement(sodium and potassium salts) should be emphasized, especially during
and after long, hot rides. Commercially available preparations such as Exceed, Body Fuel and Isostar
help replenish electrolytes lost while *running*.


Food proteins are necessary for the synthesis of the body's skeletal(muscle, skin, etc.) and
biochemical(enzymes, hormones, etc.)proteins. Contrary to popular belief, proteins are not a good
source of energy in fact they produce many toxic substances when they are converted to the simple
sugars needed for the body's energy demand.

Americans traditionally eat enough proteins to satisfy their body's requirement. All indications are
that increased levels of exercise do not cause a significant increase in the body's daily protein
requirement which has been estimated to be 0.8gm protein/kg body weight.


Carbohydrates are divided into two groups, simple and complex, and serve as one of the body's two
main sources of energy.

Simple carbohydrates are better known as sugars, examples being fructose, glucose(also called
dextrose), sucrose(table sugar) and lactose(milk sugar).

The complex carbohydrates include starches and pectins which are multi-linked chains of glucose.
Breads and pastas are rich sources of complex carbohydrates.

The brain requires glucose for proper functioning which necessitates a carbohydrate source. The
simple sugars are quite easily broken down to help satisfy energy and brain demands and for this
reason they are an ideal food during racing and training. The complex sugars require a substantially
longer time for breakdown into their glucose sub units and are more suited before and after riding
to help meet the body's energy requirements.


Fats represent the body's other major energy source. Fats are twice as dense in calories as
carbohydrates(9 kcal/gm vs 4 kcal/gm) but they are more slowly retrieved from their storage
units(triglycerides) than carbohydrates(glycogen). Recent studies indicate that caffeine may help
speed up the retrieval of fats which would be of benefit on long rides.

Fats are either saturated or unsaturated and most nutritional experts agree that unsaturated, plant-
based varieties are healthier. Animal fats are saturated(and may contain cholesterol), while plant
based fats such as corn and soybean oils are unsaturated. Unsaturated fats are necessary to supply
essential fatty acids and should be included in the diet to represent about 25% of the total caloric
intake. Most of this amount we don't really realize we ingest, so it is not necessary to heap on the
margarine as a balanced diet provides adequate amounts.


Now that we have somewhat of an understanding of the role each food component plays in the body's
processes let's relate the nutritional demands that occur during *running* in an attempt to develop
an adequate diet. Basically our bodies need to function in three separate areas which require
somewhat different nutritional considerations. These areas are: 1) building; 2) recovery; and 3)


Building refers to increasing the body's ability to perform physiological processes, one example
being the gearing up of enzyme systems necessary for protein synthesis, which results in an
increase in muscle mass, oxygen transport, etc. These systems require amino acids, the building
blocks of proteins. Hence, it is important to eat a diet that contains quality proteins (expressed
as a balance of the essential amino acid sub units present)fish, red meat, milk and eggs being
excellent sources.

As always, the RDA's for vitamins and minerals must also be met but, as with the protein
requirement, they are satisfied in a well balanced diet.


This phase may overlap the building process and the nutritional requirements are complimentary.
Training and racing depletes the body of its energy reserves as well as loss of electrolytes through
sweat. Replacing the energy reserves is accomplished through an increased intake of complex carbohydrates(60-
70% of total calories) and to a lesser extent fat(25%). Replenishing lost electrolytes is easily
accomplished through the use of the commercial preparations already mentioned.


Because the performance phase(which includes both training *runs* and racing)spans at most 5-7 hours
whereas the building and recovery phases are ongoing processes, its requirements are totally
different from the other two. Good nutrition is a long term proposition meaning the effects of a
vitamin or mineral deficiency take weeks to manifest themselves. This is evidenced by the fact that
it took many months for scurvy to show in sailors on a vitamin C deficient diet. What this means is
that during the performance phase, the primary concern is energy replacement (fighting off the
dreaded "bonk") while the vitamin and mineral demands can be overlooked.

Simple sugars such a sucrose, glucose and fructose are the quickest sources of energy and in
moderate quantities of about 100gm/hr(too much can delay fluid absorption in the stomach) are
helpful in providing fuel for the body and the brain. Proteins and fats are not recommended because
of their slow and energy intensive digestion mechanism.

Short, *runs* or races of up to one hour in length usually require no special nutritional
considerations provided the body's short term energy stores (glycogen) are not depleted which may be
the case during *long* events.

Because psychological as well as physiological factors determine performance most *runners* tend to
eat and drink whatever makes them feel "good" during a *run*. This is all right as long as energy
considerations are being met and the stomach is not overloaded trying to digest any fatty or protein
containing foods. If the vitamin and mineral requirements are being satisfied during the building
and recovery phases no additional intake during the performance phase is necessary.


Basically, what all this means is that good nutrition for the *runner* is not hard to come by once
we understand our body's nutrient and energy requirements. If a balanced diet meets the RDA's for
protein, vitamins and minerals as well as carbohydrate and fat intake for energy then everything
should be OK nutritionally. It should be remembered that the problems associated with nutrient
deficiencies take a long time to occur. Because of this it is not necessary to eat "right" at
every meal which explains why weekend racing junkets can be quite successful on a diet of tortilla
chips and soft drinks. However, bear in mind that over time, the body's nutritional demands must
be satisfied. To play it safe many *runners* take a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement
tablet which has no adverse affects and something I personally recommend. Mega vitamin
doses(levels five times or more of the RDA) have not been proven to be beneficial and may cause
some toxicity problems.


"Good" nutrition is not black and white. As we have seen, the body's requirements are different
depending on the phase it is in. While the building and recovery phases occur somewhat
simultaneously the performance phase stands by itself. For this reason, some foods are beneficial
during one phase but not during another. A good example is the much maligned twinkie. In the
performance phase it is a very quick source of energy and quite helpful. However, during the
building phase it is not necessary and could be converted to unwanted fat stores. To complicate
matters, the twinkie may help replenish energy stores during the recovery phase however, complex
carbohydrates are probably more beneficial. So, "one man's meat may be another man's poison."


This term refers to the quantity of nutrients in a food for its accompanying caloric(energy) value.
A twinkie contains much energy but few vitamins and minerals so has a low nutrient density. Liver,
on the other hand, has a moderate amount of calories but is rich in vitamins and minerals and is
considered a high nutrient density food.

Basically, one must meet his/her nutrient requirements within the constraints of his/her energy
demands. Persons with a low daily activity level have a low energy demand and in order to maintain
their body weight must eat high nutrient density foods. As already mentioned, a *runner* has an
increased energy demand but no significant increase in nutrient requirements. Because of this he/she
can eat foods with a lower nutrient density than the average person. This means that a *runner* can
be less choosy about the foods that are eaten provided he/she realizes his/her specific nutrient and
energy requirements that must be met.


Now, the definition of that nebulous phrase, "a balanced diet". Taking into consideration all of the
above, a diet emphasizing fruits and vegetables (fresh if possible), whole grain breads, pasta,
cereals, milk, eggs, fish and red meat(if so desired) will satisfy long term nutritional demands.
These foods need to be combined in such a way that during the building and recovery phase, about 60-
70% of the total calories are coming from carbohydrate sources, 25% from fats and the
remainder(about 15%) from proteins.

It is not necessary to get 100% of the RDA for all vitamins and minerals at every meal. It may be
helpful to determine which nutritional requirements you wish to satisfy at each meal. Personally, I
use breakfast to satisfy part of my energy requirement by eating toast and cereal. During lunch I
meet some of the energy, protein and to a lesser extent vitamin and mineral requirements with such
foods as yogurt, fruit, and peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. Dinner is a big meal satisfying
energy, protein, vitamin and mineral requirements with salads, vegetables, pasta, meat and milk.
Between meal snacking is useful to help meet the body's energy requirement.


All this jiberish may not seem to be telling you anything you couldn't figure out for yourself. The
point is that "good" nutrition is not hard to achieve once one understands the reasons behind
his/her dietary habits. Such habits can easily be modified to accommodate the nutritional demands of
*running* without placing any strict demands on one's lifestyle.

------------------------ Powerbars (John McClintic [email protected])

I submit "power bar" recipe originated by Bill Paterson from Portland Oregon.

The odd ingredient in the bar, paraffin, is widely used in chocolate manufacture to improve
smoothness and flowability, raise the melting point, and retard deterioration of texture and flavor.
Butter can be used instead, but a butter-chocolate mixture doesn't cover as thinly or smoothly.


1 cup regular rolled oats
1/2 cup sesame seed 1 1/2 cups dried apricots, finely chopped 1 1/2 cups raisins 1 cup shredded
unsweetened dry coconut 1 cup blanched almonds, chopped
2/2 cup nonfat dry milk
3/2 cup toasted wheat germ 2 teaspoons butter or margarine 1 cup light corn syrup
4/4 cup sugar 1 1/4 cups chunk-style peanut butter 1 teaspoon orange extract 2 teaspoons grated
orange peel 1 package (12 oz.) or 2 cups semisweet chocolate baking chips 4 ounces paraffin or 3/4
cup (3/4 lb.) butter or margarine

Spread oats in a 10- by 15-inch baking pan. Bake in a 300 degree oven until oats are toasted, about
25 minutes. Stir frequently to prevent scorching.

Meanwhile, place sesame seed in a 10- to 12-inch frying pan over medium heat. Shake often or stir
until seeds are golden, about 7 minutes.

Pour into a large bowl. Add apricots, raisins, coconut, almonds, dry milk, and wheat germ; mix well.
Mix hot oats into dried fruit mixture.

Butter the hot backing pan; set aside.

In the frying pan, combine corn syrup and sugar; bring to a rolling boil over medium high heat and
quickly stir in the peanut butter, orange extract, and orange peel.

At once, pour over the oatmeal mixture and mix well. Quickly spread in buttered pan an press into an
even layer. Then cover and chill until firm, at least 4 hours or until next day.

Cut into bars about 1 1/4 by 2 1/2 inches.

Combine chocolate chips and paraffin in to top of a double boiler. Place over simmering water until
melted; stir often. Turn heat to low.

Using tongs, dip 1 bar at a time into chocolate, hold over pan until it stops dripping (with
paraffin, the coating firms very quickly), then place on wire racks set above waxed paper.

When firm and cool (bars with butter in the chocolate coating may need to be chilled), serve bars,
or wrap individually in foil. Store in the refrigerator up to 4 weeks; freeze to store longer. Makes
about 4 dozen bars, about 1 ounce each.

Per piece: 188 cal.; 4.4 g protein; 29 g carbo.; 9.8 g fat; 0.6 mg chol.; 40 mg sodium.


Orienteering (Matt Mahoney [email protected]) updated

Orienteering is called the "thinking sport" because it involves two skills -- running and map
reading. The object is to run to a series of markers in the woods, along any route you want. The
hard part is finding the markers with the aid of a map and a compass.

There are 6 courses to choose from, called White, Yellow, Orange, Green, Red and Blue. This has
nothing to do with the colors of the markers (which are orange and white and look like lanterns
hanging from trees). It has to do with level of difficulty, like belts in karate. The white course
is the easiest, about a mile, with the markers clearly visible from roads or trails. Blue is the
hardest, about 4-5 miles, and involves mostly cross-country running with emphasis on successful
navigation using terrain features. Each marker has a 2-letter code (to distinguish it from markers
on other trails) which you match up with a code sheet that you carry with your map. There, you
stamp your card in the appropriate numbered spot. Each stamp produced a distinct pattern of holes
in the card.

Orienteering now has its very own news group, The BAOC newsletter is run by
Wyatt Riley out of Stanford ([email protected] Subscription requests should be sent to:
[email protected] with the following line in the text: subscribe baoc your name e.g.
subscribe baoc Bill Clinton BAOC home pg:
============================================================= Predicting
times (10k-marathon) (Tim [email protected])

In `Training Distance Runners' Coe and Martin come up with three sets of formulas for determining
equivalent race performances over several distances when the performance for one distance is known.
They have three tables to counter problems of athlete specificity.

For long distance specialists (i.e 10k/15km) : Marathon = 4.76Y : 10k = Y
: 5k = 0.48Y 3k = 0.28Y
: 1.5k = 0.13Y

For 3k/5k runners : 10k = 2.1Y
: 5k = Y 3k = 0.58Y
: 1.5k = 0.27Y 800m = 0.13Y 400m = 0.06Y

For `real' middle distance: 5k = 3.63Y
: 3k = 2.15Y
: 1.5k = Y 800m = 0.48Y 400m = 0.22Y


Running Clubs & Organizations (John Berkery [email protected])

ARFA - American Running and Fitness Association 9310 Old Georgetown Rd Bathesda MD 20814

ARRA - Association of Road Racing Athletes (professionals) 807 Paulsen Bldg Spokane WA 99201

Clydesdale Runners Association (heavyweights) 1809 Gold Mine Rd Brookville Md 20833 310-774-2493

NWAA - National Wheel Chair Athletic Association 3617 Betty Dr, suite S Colorado Springs CO 80907

RRCA - Road Runners Clubs of America 629 S. Washington St Alexandria VA 22314 703-768-0545

Special Olympics (handicapped) 1350 New York Ave, NW, suite 500 Washington DC 20005 202-628-3630

TAC - The Athletics Congress of the USA (IAAF member) 1 Hoosier Dome, suite 140 Indianapolis IN
46225 317-261-0500

USABA - U.S. Association for Blind Athletes 33 N. Institute St Brown Hall, suite 015 Colorado
Springs CO 80903 719-630-0422

USCAA - U.S. Corporate Athletics Association (company teams) 401 North Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL,
(5) 644-6610, fax (312) 527-6658 WWW site -

BACAA - Bay Area Corporate Athletics Assn. northern California affiliate of the USCAA Brian
Schonfeld, Sun Microsystems, (415) 786-7801, [email protected] Mal Murphy, Rocje
Bioscience, (415) 960-5583, [email protected] WWW site -

USCPAA - U.S. Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association 34518 Warren Rd, suite 264 Westland MI 48185

USOC - U.S. Olympic Committee 1750 E. Boulder St Colorado Springs CO 80909-5760 719-632-5551

Achilles Track Club (handicapped)
c/o New York RRC 9 East 89th St New York NY 10128 212-860-4455

Other running organizations Many road runners clubs are not affiliated with RRCA. Information about
these independent clubs may be found at local sporting goods stores or at athletic shoe stores.
Local YMCA/YWCA organizations may also be able to supply a contact address or phone number.

Ozzie Gontang

Archive-name: running-faq/part4
Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days


Medical / Injuries

-------------------------------- Achilles tendonitis (sorry, forgot the author)

General advice:

1. Warm up before you stretch. This could be in the form of a slow jog as you start your run. When
I feel it necessary, I stop for a few minutes and stretch during the early stages of a run.

2. Stretch after your run. This has proven the best solution for me. Whenever I skip this part, I
end up stiff the next day. The muscles are nice and warm after a run and respond well to
stretching. My flexibility has improved as a result of this practice, too.

3. With regards to an injury, you've got to be tough and rest it in order for it to heal. This
might be a good time to concentrate on strength training with weights.


The good news: since this seems to be your first injury, and your training load is light, your
tendinitis is probably due to the most simple cause - leg length imbalance. Get someone to mark how
far you can bend to each side, if these are different heights then you might find a heel raiser
under the bad leg will both even out the side-bend _and_ speed up the recovery.

The bad news: achilles is notoriously slow to heal even with the correct treatment. And the chances
of recurrence are quite high. However the condition you describe shouldn't prevent your training, as
long as you promote healing with stretching, massage (calf/inner thigh/groin), ice, etc...

Shin splints (Harry Y Xu [email protected]) (Doug Poirier [email protected]
(Rodney Sanders [email protected])

Excerpts from _The SprotsMedicine Book_ G. Mirkin, MD. and M. Hoffman:

``Shin splints are....condition that can result from muscle imbalance. They are characterized by
generalized pain in front of the lower leg and are particularly comon in runners and running
backs.... The most common cause is a muscle imbalance where the calf muscles--which pull the
forefoot down--overpower the shin muscles--which pull the forefoot up. As the athlete continues to
train, the calf muscle usually becomes proportionately much stronger than the shin muscles.

The treatment for shin splints is to strengthen the weaker muscles (shins) and stretch the stronger
muscles (calves).

To strengthen the shins, run up stairs. To stretch the calves,...(do stretching exercises for the
calves, et. the wall push-ups)'' *end of exerpts.


In my experience, I have found that stretching is the real key to avoiding shin-splints. I believe
there's a book with stretches by Bob Anderson that you may want to check. Also, back issues of
running magazines sometimes have helpful information. Basically, I do the standard "lean on the wall
stretch" and a stretch by standing flat-footed on one leg and bending at the knee to stretch the
achilles. I then top these off with a few toe raises (no weights!) before I head out to run... If
you're having trouble, I'd recommend stretching 2-3 times a day until you get over the problem.
Start slowly!

Also, you probably should avoid hills and extremely hard surfaces until the situation improves. I've
known several people who've had shin splints and gotten over them by stretching. (Of course, you
should be careful in case the shin splints are the result of a more severe problem...)


Help with shin splints.

4. Try picking up marbles with your toes and holding onto them for a few seconds.

1A. While recovering from shin splints, it may help to use a wedge in the heel of your shoes. By
raising the heel, you are reducing the pull on the muscles and tendons on the front.

5. Stand on the stairs with your heels out over the edge. Lower your heels as far as they will go
without undue discomfort, and hold for 15 seconds. Slowly raise yourself up on your toes. Repeat
5 million times. (Sherwood Botsford [email protected])

6. If you can, rig something with either surgical tubing or a large rubberband. For example: put
the tubing around one of the back legs of your desk in some sort of a loop. Reach under the
tubing with your toes, with your heel as a pivot pull the tubing toward you. This will work the
muscle in the front of the shins. Repeat 6 million times. It's easier than the stair exercise

7. Run on different terrain, preferably grass. It'll absorb the shock.

8. This normally affects knees, but it might affect shins. Don't run on the same side of the road
all of the time. It is sloped left or right to let the water run off. Running on the same slope
for long periods of time will cause adverse effects to the ankles, shins...etc.... If you are
running on a track, alternate your direction of travel, as the lean when you are going around
the corners is at least as bad as the crown slope of a road. This is especially true of small
indoor tracks.

9. Strenghening the front muscles: Make a training weight by tying a strip of cloth to a pop
bottle. Sit on the kitchen counter top, hang bottle from toes, and raise it up and down by
flexing your ankle. Weight can be adjusted by adding water or sand to the bottle. (Sherwood
Botsford [email protected])

10. Scatter a few chunks of 2x4 around the house where you tend to stand, say kitchen and bathroom.
Now everytime you are at the stove or at the bathroom (in front of either fixture) stand on 2x4
and rest your heels on the floor. One in front of the TV and used during every commercial will
either stretch you, or stop you from watching TV. [email protected]

------------------------------ Side stitches (Jack Berkery [email protected])

The Latest Word on Stitches

In the May-June 1992 issue of Running Research News there is an article by
Dr. Gordon Quick about the causes of and cures for stitches. To summarize:

1) Stitches are a muscle spasm of the diaphragm. The cause of the spasm is that the organs below it
are jouncing up and down and pulling down as it wants to pull up. The liver being the largest
organ is the biggest culprit which is why most stitches are on the right side. A stomach full of
food may also contribute to the problem for the same reason. Stitches also occur more often when
running downhill or in cold weather.

2) The cure seems almost too simple. Breathe out when your left foot strikes the ground instead of
when the right foot strikes so that the organs on the right side of the abdomen are jouncing up
when the diaphragm is going up. The organs attached to the bottom of the diaphragm on the left
aren't as big, so exert less downward pulling strain. If this is not enough to get rid of it,
stop and raise you arms above your head until the pain goes away and when you resume, be a left
foot breather. (Conversely, if your stitch occurs on the left side, switch your breathing to
exhale on the right foot.)

3) Do not eat anything for an hour before running if you are prone to stitches, BUT PLEASE DO DRINK
WATER. Water empties from the stomach faster than solids and the risk of complications from
dehydration far exceed the problems one may have with a stitch.

4) In the long term, exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles will help prevent stitches
because tighter abs will allow less movement of those internal organs. Practice belly breathing
instead of chest breathing as recommended by Noakes. For the most part, stitches diminish over
time. While they are not strictly a novice runner's problem (about 1/3 of all runners get them
from time to time) they usually will go away after a few weeks of conditioning.


By Tim Noakes Oxford Uni. Press, 1985. Quoted from "Lore of Running"

Proper breathing prevents the development of the `stitch'. The stitch is a condition that occurs
only during exercise and which causes severe pain usually on the right side of the abdomen,
immediately below the rib margin. Frequently the pain is also perceived in the right shoulder joint,
where it feels as if an ice-pick were being driven into the joint. The pain is exacerbated by down-
hill running and by fast, sustained running as in a short road race or time trial. For various
complex anatomical reasons, the fact that the stitch causes pain to be felt in the shoulder joint
suggests that the diaphragm is the source of the pain.

It has been suggested that when breathing with the chest too much air is drawn into the lungs, and
not all is exhaled. This causes a gradual and progressive accumulation of air in the lungs, causing
them to expand which in turn causes the diaphragm to be stretched and to encroach on the abdominal
contents below it. During running, the over-stretched diaphragm becomes sandwiched between an over-
expanded chest above, and a jolting intestine pounding it from below. It revolts by going into
spasm, and the pain of this spasm is recognized as the stitch.

Although there is really not a shred of scientific evidence for this belief, I have found that
diaphragm spasm is almost certainly involved in the stitch and that belly-breathing can frequently
relieve the pain.

The runner who wishes to learn how to belly-breath should lie on the floor and place one or more
large books on his stomach. He should concentrate on making the books rise when he breathes in and
fall when he exhales. As it takes about two months to learn to do the movement whilst running fast,
it is important to start practicing well before an important race.

A change in breathing pattern may help relieve the stitch. Within a short period of starting
running, breathing becomes synchronized with footfall. Thus one automatically breaths in on one leg
and out when landing either on the same leg - that is 2, 3 or 4 full strides later - or on the
opposite leg - that is 1 1/2, 2 1/2, or 3 1/2 strides later. Thus the ratio of stride to breathing
may be 2:1, 3:1, 4:1; or 1.5:1, 2.5:1, 3.5:1.

This phenomenon was first reported by Bramble and Carrier (1983). Of particular interest was their
finding that most runners are `footed', that is the beginning and end of a respiratory cycle occurs
on the same foot, usually in a stride to breathing ratio of either 4:1 whilst jogging or 2:1 whilst
running faster. Runners then become habituated to breathing out on the same let, day after day. This
produces asymmetrical stresses on the body and could be a factor in both the stitch and in certain
running injuries. I am `left-footed' and have also suffered my major running injuries only on my
left side. If changes in breathing patterns do not prevent the stitch then the last step is to
increase abdominal muscle strength. The correct way to strengthen the abdominal muscles is to do bent-
knee sit ups with the feet unsupported.


EDITORS NOTE: Readers response to "Belly Breathing" definition above. "Belly Breathing" (Lamont
Granquist [email protected])

While I wasn't breathing with my chest, I wasn't really "Belly Breathing". When I exhaled, what I
was doing was pulling my stomach muscles in. I found out that this is *not* the way to "Belly
Breathe". The idea is to throw your gut out as much as possible -- try and look as fat & ugly as you
can when you run. For the suggestion in the FAQ of lying on your back and lifting a book, it should
probably be noted that when exhaling you want to try to keep the book lifted up (of course
naturally, you don't want to try to do this all so hard that it becomes difficult to exhale -- the
idea is that breathing this way should be comfortable).

Stitches continued (Sunil Dixit [email protected])

5. Since it is a cramp, I try not to drink or eat too soon before my runs, and I try to limit my
intake during runs.

6. I stretch my abs extensively before a run. Putting my arm over my head and leaning to the
opposite side until I'm pulling on the side of my abdominals works well.

7. I regulate my breathing by breathing in through my nose, and out through my mouth. This sounds
like zen-****, but believe me, it works amazingly well in eliminating all types of cramping.
When you first do it, it'll feel like you're not getting enough oxygen, but if you persist the
technique will become very comfortable.

8. I run with my back fairly straight, even up hills. This keeps the lungs from bending over in my
body, and makes it much easier to breathe.

9. If none of these work, I keep going anyway. After about 3 miles, it usually goes away . . . if
you're lucky.

------------------ Lactic Acid (Rob Loszewski [email protected])

"Lactic acid buildup (technically called acidosis) can cause burning pain, especially in untrained
muscles. Lactic acid accumulation can lead to muscle exhaustion withing seconds if the blood cannot
clear it away. A strategy for dealing with lactic acid buildup is to relax the muscles at every
opportunity, so that the circulating blood can carry the lactic acid away and bring oxygen to
support aerobic metabolism. ...much of the lactic acid is routed to the liver, where it is converted
to glucose. A little lactic acid remains in muscle tissue, where it is completely oxidized when the
oxygen supply is once again sufficient." Understanding Nutrition, 5th ed., Whitney, Hamilton,
Rolfes., West Pub. Comp. 1990, pg402- 403.

------------------ Loose Bowels (Rodney Sanders [email protected])

Some general advice to take care of loose bowels.

(10) Look for offending foods in your diet. For example, many people have a lactose intolerance
which can cause all sorts of fun if you had a triple cheese pizza the night before the run...

(11) If you run in the morning, eat lightly and early the night before... I try to make sure I eat
the least problematic foods close to my workouts... I've personally found baked chicken/fish,
baked potatoes, and pasta with light sauces (no alfredo!), to be pretty good...

(12) I read that Bill Rodgers drinks a cup of coffee in the morning before heading out...The
caffeine stimulates one to take care of things completely before getting out...This has helped
me when I run in the morning....

(13) Carry a wad of toilet paper with you!

I suspect that if you monitor your diet closely, you'll probably find something that makes the
problem worse than at other times and you can avoid that food...

Some other advice: (Sanjay Manandhar [email protected]) 1. Less fiber in the diet 2.
Run repeats on small loops.
14. Note all the washrooms along the route. 4. Time of day. For me, mornings are bad. In the evening
runs the problem is infrequent. 5. A primer run. If I have to run in the mornings, I run 1 mile
of primer run so that the bowels can be taken care of. Then I start my real run.

----- Diabetes & Running (Timothy Law Snyder [email protected])

Oops, here is what makes virutually every person with diabetes bristle: MYTHS of diabetes!

Not to flame Jay, but diabetics can (and do) eat as much sugar, drink as much booze, and run as many
marathons as anybody else. The challenge is that they must manage the delicate balance between
insulin (which lowers blood sugar), food (which raises it), and exercise (which, because it stokes
up the metabolism and makes the insulin "rage") lowers blood sugar. Timing is important, and
sometimes, due to the millions of factors that are at play (and _not_ due to negligence), the blood
sugar will go too high or too low.

Before a run, a person with diabetes (nobody in the know calls them "diabetics" any more) must make
sure that the blood sugar is somewhat higher than normal. This gives a "pad" so that exercise does
not result in a low-sugar crisis. Often the runner will take less insulin the day of the run. Before
(and for long runs, during) the run some food must be eaten. For short runs, carbos will do, but
proteins and fats are also necessary for the longer hauls.

For a marathon, one must take some sort of food during the run. A high- carbo source like a soda
works well, for the sugar is taken up immediately and, since the beverage is concentrated, it is
easily digested (relative to, say, the caloric equivalent in whole wheat : ).

Sugar does absolutely _no_ harm to the person with diabetes (provided, they do not ignore insulin
requirements). That's right: The person could knock off twelve sodas, an entire chocolate cake, and
a bag of M&Ms, and be as "fine" as anybody else (quotes intended---yuk!).

While I am at it, here are a couple of other myth corrections: There is no clear evidence that
diabetes is hereditary. Diabetes has _nothing_ to do with how much sugar the person ate before
acquiring the condition. People with diabetes can (and do) drink as much alcohol as anybody else.
(Alcohol lowers the blood sugar a tiny bit, so one must be careful to not forget to eat [and too
many cocktails tend to...].)

Hope this helps. Oh, by the way, NO, the taste of something sweet does not cause the release of
insulin (save a possible [and rare] placebo effect).


Nutrition and Food (Bruce Hildenbrand [email protected]) [Ed.
note: Originally appeared in rec.bicycles]

Oh well, I have been promising to do this for a while and given the present discussions on
nutrition, it is about the right time. This article was written in 1980 for Bicycling Magazine. It
has been reprinted in over 30 publications, been the basis for a chapter in a book and cited
numerous other times. I guess somebody besides me thinks its OK. If you disagree with any points,
that's fine, I just don't want to see people take exception based on their own personal experiences
because everyone is different and psychological factors play a big role(much bigger than you would
think) on how one perceives his/her own nutritional requirements. Remember that good nutrition is a
LONG TERM process that is not really affected by short term events(drinking poison would be an
exception). If it works for you then do it!!! Don't preach!!!!

Ozzie Gontang

Archive-name: running-faq/part3
Last-modified: 16 Jul 2002
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

Mail Order Addresses

The addresse/phone of some popular running mail order outfits (Directory assistance at 1-800-555-
1212 for mail order outfits not listed):

Road Runner Sports 6150 Nancy Ridge Road 1-800-551-5558 (Orders) [email protected] San Diego, CA 92121
1-800-662-8896 (Cust Serv) Fax: 1-619-455-6470

California Best 970 Broadway 1-800-CAL-BEST Chula Vista, CA 91911-1798 1-800-225-2378

Tel-a-Runner 80 Speedwell Ave [email protected] Morristown, NJ 07970 1-800-835-2786

Hoy's Sports 1632 Haight St San Francisco, 94117 1-800-873-4329

Holabird Sports 9008 Yellow Brick Rd Baltimore, Md 21237 1-410-687-6400 Fax: 1-410-687-7311


Increasing your mileage (Jack Berkery [email protected])

There are many good, professional, books and articles on how to train for whatever distance you
choose. More for the marathon than others I think. Get one or two and mull them over. The following
recommendations are a distillation of having read and digested most of these and more than a decade
of experience.

Let's suppose you are beginning with a base load of about 20 miles per week over a long period.
First I DO NOT recommend that anyone who has been running for less than 3 years should run a
marathon. Running is a long-term game and it takes time for your body to become adjusted physically
to the demands, not only of the marathon itself, but also of the heavy training mileage required to
build up to it.

Next, you should always keep in mind that your build-up should not exceed 10% per week. 10% doesn't
sound like much but it's actually a big adjustment for your system to make. Not only muscles, but
bones and connective tissues must be strengthened to take the increased load and running marathon
mileage is a lot of pounding. Remember 10%. That is not to say that if you ran 20 miles last week,
you cannot go more than 22 next week, but over a period of 3-4 weeks the rate of increase should not
exceed the 10% slope. After 4 weeks then, you should be doing just under 30 miles, but not more. If
you go from 20 to 24 in the first week thereby exceeding the 10% rate, then doing 24 again the
second week will bring you back on track. You can continue to build up mileage for about 6 weeks
when you'll reach 35 miles. Then you MUST BACK OFF for a week or so. Drop back by about 25-30% for
one week. Take two or three days off in a row. Get some rest to gain strength before beginning the
climb again.

How much mileage is enough for a marathon? I have known people to run marathons on 25 or 35 miles
per week. Don't try it. How they got away with it is not important. It is only important to know
that it simply ain't smart. You can get away with 40-45 per week if you are doing a regular long run
of 15-18 each week. It is better to be doing 50 or more for 6 to 8 weeks before the marathon. This
means you have to have the time necessary to build to 50 at that 10% rate (with 1 rest week out of
every 6) and then sustain that 50+ mileage for 6-8 weeks as well. This is a heavy schedule. Never
doubt that. When you listen to the mega-mileage people talk about 70 or 80 or more, they make it
sound as if everyone should be able to do that. Well we CAN'T all do that. We all have a break-down
point and for the great majority, it lies somewhere below 50 or 60 miles per week. You'll know where
yours is only after repeated tries to exceed it result in an injury.

So how do you build the mileage? Suppose you are doing an even 3 miles a day, no more, no less. You
must begin by building the long run. In a marathon training schedule, the long run is everything.
Start the first week of the build-up by just lengthening one run. All other days should remain the
same. Make one, usually Sat. or Sun., a 5-6 miler to get your 10% increase. Take the next day off
from running. Rest is important after the long run to allow your system adjustment time. The next
week of the build-up, increase the one long run again while still holding the normal daily runs the
same. As a rule of thumb, your long run can go to 3 times the distance of your daily average run. So
while still doing regular 3 milers, you can build up that Sat. morning run to 9 miles. Don't do a 12
miler though until you have made your daily run 4 miles. This means keeping the long run at 9 miles
for a few weeks and increasing the daily runs until your average is 4 or 5 a day. Then you can
return to increasing the long run. Toward the end of the build-up you may be doing something like
6-8 each weekday plus an 18-20 miler on the weekend. It might also be a good idea to alternate long
runs of 15 and 20 miles every other week.

As you get close to the date of the marathon, run your last long run 2 weeks before. DO NOT do a
long run one week prior to the marathon. In fact for the last week you should taper down to do only
about half, yes half, the mileage you have been doing. DO NOT run the day before and 2 days before
the race you might only do 3 miles just to get the legs loose and the blood flowing. You MUST be
well rested for the big race itself.

Now assuming you do everything right there is still no guarrantee that the marathon is going to go
well. Many things might prevail to make it hurt, hot or humid weather, getting caught up in too hard
a pace, not drinking enough water before or along the way (THE GREATEST SIN). You may even spend 3
or 4 months building your training only to come down with an illness or injury a few weeks before
the race which will set you right back to square-one. If you want certainties, you're in the wrong
game. What matters is not that you get to do that particular marathon on that particular day 5
months from now, but rather what you plan to do over the next 5 or 10 or 50 years. I did say running
is a long-term game, no?

Another note of caution. All the rules can be broken. You may get away with lower training, higher
ramp-up rates or shorter long-runs. You might even get away with it more than once, but sooner or
later it's gonna get ya. Take the more conservative plan and be safe. You're looking for a positive
experience not an injury.

------------------Major Marathons & partial World Marathon Schedule

Boston Marathon ================== Boston Athletic Association
P.O. Box 1996 Hopkington, MA 01748 Tel: 508-435-6905 Fax: 508-435-6590 The Boston Marathon is held
on Patriots day (3rd monday in April).

Starting time: Noon Boston Marathon qualifying times.

Age Men Women Wheelchair Divison 18-34 3:10 3:40 CLASS MEN WOMEN 35-39 3:15 3:45 1 (Quad Class) 3:00
3:10 40-44 3:20 3:50 2-5 2:10 2:35 45-49 3:30 4:00 50-54 3:35 4:05 55-59 3:45 4:15 60-64 4:00 4:30
65-69 4:15 4:45 70-74 4:30 5:00 75-79 4:45 5:15 80+ 5:00 5:40

Note: Qualifying time based on age on the day of the Boston Marathon. Example: You run a qualifying
race at the age of 44 in 3:22. You then have a birthday before the Boston Marathon, making you
45. You qualify, because your required qualification time is 3:25.

Chicago Marathon ========= 101 W. Grand Ave. Ste. 600 (Carey Pinkowski) Chicago, IL 60610 (312) 527-
2200 [VOICE] (312) 527-9901 [FAX]

London Marathon ======== PO Box 3460 London, England SE1 8RZ 44 71 620 4117 fax: 44 71 620 4208 UK
entrants: In Oct. get *proper* form from London, fill in, enclose cheque. You should find out before
Xmas if picked in the lottery.
. If you've run a sub 2h40 (men) or sub 3h10 (ladies) no need for lottery as you qualify for the
national championships (held in conjunction with London).

Non-UK entrants: Get on "official" trips to come to the UK to run London from sports travel firms.
If you book with sports travel firm you will definitely get an entry. Going it alone then write:

Los Angeles Marathon March ====== 11110 W. Ohio Avenue, #100 Los Angeles, CA 90025-3329 (310) 444-
5544 AGE 18-59 60+

Marine Corps Marathon ======= Box 188 Quantico, VA 22134 (703)640-2225

New York Marathon ====== NYRRC
P.P. Box 1766 GPO New York, NY 10116 (212) 860-4455

For U.S. residents: Send a self-addressed #10 business-size envelope (about 4" x 9.5") and
a check or money order (no cash) for a $5.00 non-refundable handling fee. Make the check
payable to: NYRRC. Send AFTER midnight of "set start date." All requests must be posted
"start date" or later. The NYRRC sets a "start date" for accepting requests for
applications, about May 15-20. Prospective applicants must send a SASE and $5, postmarked
ON OR AFTER this date, to a PO Box in NY. They send a blank application, with no guarantee
of anything, fairly promptly. Fill it out and return it ASAP. A caveat: You must be a
member of UST&F, the USA's governing federation of running, to run in the NYCM. You can
apply for entry along with your marathon application; instructions and UST&F application
are sent with the blank NYCM application.

Applications accepted on the following basis:

Slots are reserved for non-USA runners (don't know how they are allocated).

12,000+ applications are accepted "first-come, first served" basis. The NYRRC claims this is not a
tough thing if you act promptly - i.e. send request for ap on "Opening Day", and mail back the
completed app. within a day or two.

X,000 slots remain. Once above criteria filled, all applications received go (figuratively) into a
big, big box. In late July or early August, NYRRC draws out the X,000 lucky envelopes. These entries
are accepted. They draw a few hundred more, I guess, to set up a waiting list in the event of
NB: the rest of the applications are returned with refunded entry fee.

San Francisco Marathon ==== City of San Francisco Marathon
P.Q. Box 77148 San Francisco, CA 94107 (415) 391-2123

Honolulu Marathon )====== Honolulu Marathon Assoc. 3435 Wailae Ave. #208 Honolulu, HI 96816

Many tours to the large national & international marathons are organized by:

Marathon Tours 108 Main St Charleston MA 02129 (617) 242-7845

Marie Frances Productions 7603 New Market Dr Bethesda, MD 20817 301-320-3363


Pulled this chart out of Marathoning by Manfred Steffny. ( pub 1977). (Robert Davidson
[email protected])

Max. possible Realistic 10Km marathon time marathon time ------ ------------- -------------
27:00 2:05:00 2:08:30
28:00 2:10:00 2:14:00
29:00 2:15:00 2:19:30
30:00 2:20:00 2:25:00
31:00 2:25:00 2:30:30
32:00 2:30:00 2:36:00
33:00 2:35:00 2:43:00
34:00 2:40:00 2:49:00
35:00 2:45:00 2:55:00
36:00 2:50:00 3:00:00
37:00 2:55:00 3:07:00
38:00 3:00:00 3:15:00
39:00 3:05:00 3:20:00
40:00 3:10:00 3:25:00
41:30 3:22:00 3:42:30
42:00 3:35:00 4:00:00
43:30 3:47:30 4:20:00
44:00 4:00:00 4:40:00
Austin "Ozzie" Gontang, Ph.D. TEC International 2903 29th St San Diego, CA 92104-4912

hm/off. 619-281-7447 fax 619-281-9468 email <[email protected]>

Chief Executives Working Together

Ozzie Gontang

Archive-name: running-faq/part8
Last-modified: 21 March 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

(Sites are being rechecked and new ones added by Arthur Bamps <[email protected]> . He continues to
update the info. Ozzie) Part 8 of the FAQ had been subdivided into 3 areas Part 1 deals with the WWW
pages Part 2 deals with mail-based discussion lists Part 3 deals with Usenet discussion groups

Part I

General The Internet Guide to Becoming an Athlete Run Down
Running Portal - Dan Kaplan (+10000 links) Serves runners/walkers/multi-
sport athletes-Denny Brooks Women's Multisport Online Runnersweb Runners Web
UK Cool Running Lets Run Jeff Galloway Team Oregon Yahoo-Recreation:Sports:Running Remko's T&F Page
Sportscreen - Athletics online The World of Running and Track &
Field Athletics (Track & Field) Links
Running Online Running ( (UK) Trail Running links on DMOZ CCRR Running Weblinks was Joe's Running Links Tips for
Blind and Partially Sighted Runners Running with your
Dog Backward running Barefoot running Nude Running Events

Organizations & Associations

International IAAF International Amateur Athletic Federation International Olympic Committee Association
of International Marathons and Road Races World Association of Veteran Athletes
USA American Running Association USA Track &
Field USA TF New Jersey Road Runners Club of America American UltraRunning Association Canada Athletics Canada Australia Athletics
Australia Australian Sports Commission New Zealand Athletics New Zealand Europe
European Athletic Association UK UK Athletics
Scottish Athletics Federation Athletics Association of Wales Northern Ireland Athletic Federation Asia
Asian Amateur Athletic Association Hong Kong Hong Kong Amateur
Athletic Association

Running Clubs

World Canada USA 50 States Marathon Club Australia
Europe Netherlands Belgium UK http://www.british- Ireland

Running events

World Links to different Competition
Calendars Marathon Calendar (over 650 worldwide) USA Canada UK http://www.british- South Africa France
Extreme Reunion-Grand Raid South
African Augrabies Sand Marathon-Marathon des
Sables Spartathlon

Athletics Statistics Global and Local Athletic Records

Medical corner Anatomy - Lower Extremity Muscles and Joints Virtual
Sports Injury Clinic Iliotibial Band Causes and Solutions
Dr. Pribut Sports Page The SportsMed Web Foot & Ankle Web Index Masters
Physiology & Performance http://spot.Colorado.EDU/~collinsj/ Sport and Exercise Psychology Zunis Foundation

Coaching & Training Brian Mackenzie on all aspects of it Marathon Training Hal Higdon Do It Sports Virtual Training http://www- Coaching Science Abstracts ChiRunning
Abdominal Training Stretching

Ultra running Matt Mahoney Stan Jensen UltraNed /"> David
Blaikie Kevin Sayers Resource

The press The Running Network Athlete's
Bookstore Southern California Running/Tri/Bike Calendar Runner's World for
marathoners/ultradistance runners 42 times per year newsletter Peak Performance Running Research
Newsletter David Holt - Running Dialogue Running Books at

Equipment Running gear - all brands Shoes and sports gear

Software Lin-Mark timing systems PC Coach Training Software Stevens Creek Software Athlete's Diary FitWise.Com Science Sportsware

Measurement Road Running Race Course Measurement Obtaining a Course Measurement Certificate
history.html The Jones Counter


E-mail lists are the easiest way to obtain information on running. However, the mail volume can
become increasingly large and your mail-box becomes clogged when you are subscribed to a number of
these toys. The tone is sometimes informal to more scientifically oriented in other lists.

E-mail lists normally have two addresses, one to subscribe and one to send contributions to

You can find a LISTSERV user's guide on

Running related E-mail lists
UK Running e-mail list Join over 200 participants in a discussion of all aspects of running in the
UK. Send a blank email to : [email protected] And there are more at

Dead Runners Society The Dead Runners Society is a discussion group for people who like to talk
about running. The group is informal and social and all members try to encourage each other in their
running programs. Traffic is heavy. Write to [email protected] and, in the text of
your message (not the subject line), write: subscribe drs firstname lastname list-owner: Christopher
Mark Conn <[email protected]> To obtain the FAQ via e-mail, send the message : send drs faq to :
[email protected] Archives : Webpage :

Dead Runners Mind Offshoot of DRS discusses the philosophical/psychological aspects of running. Send
: subscribe drm firstname lastname in the text of your message(not the subject line) To:
[email protected]

DRS Sublists There also exist many regional mailing lists (in Cleveland, for example, they have the
DRNEO - Dead Runners of NorthEast Ohio list, and DRS-Nl for Dutch-deads) which cover local running
scenes. These regional groups, or mini-lists, are generally used to contact dead runners in a
specific area of the world. Check the DRS FAQ on these groups.

Clydesdale Virtual Racing Team CVRT is a mailing list for 'heavy' runners. It is for men over 195
pounds and women over 140 pounds. To subscribe to cvrt, compose a message addressed to
[email protected] with the text subscribe clydesdale as the only message in the body.
List'owner': Tim Bergstresser <[email protected]>

Orienteering This mailing list discusses the sport of orienteering. send a message to: orienteering-
[email protected]

Hash-l This list covers the hashing scene. To: [email protected] Send: subscribe hash-l
FirstName LastName

Don't Stop Moving Don't Stop Moving is a newsletter written for
runners by a runner with 24 years of competitive and recreational running experience. The newsletter
comes out monthly or thereabouts, with back issues periodically sent to the list. To receive Don't
Stop Moving, send a message: To: [email protected] Message:subscribe ds-moving (your address
here) Listowner: Mike Van Meter <[email protected]>

Ultra This mailing list discusses the sport of ultramarathoning. Send: subscribe ultra FirstName
LastName To : [email protected] List-owner : Joe Jurzcyk ([email protected])

Training-Nutrition mailing list. The focus is on bodybuilding and sports nutrition, athletic
physiology and biochemistry, overall diet planning, and recipes. Low fat, high protein recipes
preferred. Supplement discussion is discouraged. If the list sounds interesting to you, you can
request the FAQs by sending mail to: [email protected]

Biomechanics This list discusses aspects of biomechanics. Address to (un)subscribe :
[email protected] Message to subscribe: sub biomch-l firstname lastname Address for list
messages : [email protected]

Part III

Usenet was THE net. You only need a newsreader and server and you can subscribe to thousands of
lists and read a zillion contributions each day. Most of the discussions are informal, especially
the sports oriented ones. The newsgroups you can access depends also on the Usenet server which
supports your ISP, e.g. not all nl.* groups can be read in Japan (I doubt if any). The idea is
that if you find an interesting newsgroup, via DejaNews for instance, you ask your ISP to put it
on the server.

Usenet Discussion Groups
news:rec.running rec.running FAQ Maintainer FAQ Ozzie Gontang
<[email protected]> 2(?) discussion groups dedicated to athletics
in the UK. Related newsgroups

23.05.96 Site created by:Wouter Gerritsma
23.06.01 Site updated and checked by: Arthur Bamps <[email protected]> Visit Arthur's Marathon Page
at .

Ozzie Gontang

Archive-name: running-faq/part6
Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

Shoes (Thomas Page [email protected])

Here is a summary of shoe reviews gleaned from various places including manufacturers' adds, Road
Runner Sports catalog, Runner`s World, Running Times, rec.running postings, and my own experience. I
will post and update occasionally.

Guide to Categories
BASICS: A good quality shoe for a beginning through mid-mileage runner.

LIGHTWEIGHT TRAINER/RACER: Typically under 10 ounces. Very light, very fast, biomechanically gifted
runners can wear these shoes as daily trainers. Other runners may get away with using these as a
second pair for racing in or for track workouts. These shoes usually have blown rubber soles for
light weight so they wear out too quickly for an everyday training shoe for most of us.

MC: (Motion Control) Made for over-pronators and heavier runners.

STABILITY: For neutral runners and mild over-pronators. Offers some resistance to pronation and

RACING FLAT: Most people should race in their regular trainers or lightweight trainers. For people
who can get away with it, racing flats might buy them a few seconds in a 10k. If that is the
difference between 1st and 2nd, it is probably worth it. If it is the difference between 38:04 and
38:14 it is probably not worth the risk of injury. These shoes have very little stability,
cushioning, or durability, but they tend to weigh 2-4 oz. less than a lightweight trainer.

If you remove the insole, you can tell the type of construction. Slip Lasted shoes have a sewn seam
running the length of the shoe. Board lasted shoes have a cardboard board running the length of the
shoe. Combination lasted shoes have cardboard in the rear half, and a seam up the front half. Slip
lasted shoes are the most flexible. Board lasted shoes are the most stable and least flexible.
Combination lasted shoes attempt to compromise giving a flexible forefoot and a stable rear.
Orthotics wearers should stick to board or combination lasted shoes. True over-supinators (these are
rare) should use flexible slip lasted shoes. Another way to look at it: if you have a rigid foot
(tends to be high arched feet), favor flexible (slip laste) shoes. If you have a floppy foot (tends
to have flatter feet and overpronate), favor combination or board construction.

The last is the form the shoe is made on. Lasts vary from curved, to semi-curved, to straight.
Straight lasts are generally the most stable shoes, while curved lasted shoes tend to be the most
flexible. You just have to see what last from what manufacturer fits your foot.

A good running shoe store is essential. The sales people at the sporting goods chain stores and the
mall shoe stores just don't know their products or how to fit runners, despite advertising to the
contrary. A real runner's store should allow you to run in the shoe on the sidewalk outside the
store, or at least on a tread mill in the store and watch you run. They should be able to tell you
if you over-pronate in a particular shoe. The advice you get in a good store is worth the price
(full retail) you pay.

Don't be a jerk and pick the brains of a good running shoe store salesman and then buy at a discount
place. If you value their advice, buy a pair of shoes from the specialty running store so they will
still be in business the next time you need them. Then, if you liked the pair you bought, go ahead
and buy it from a discount store or mail order place in the future; you don't owe the store your
business forever. Remember though, that models change, and you will want to go back to the good
store every few years.

Weight is typically listed for mens' size 9 as quoted by manufacturer and found either in Runners
World, Running Times, or Road Runner Sports catalog. Different sources differ in the weight they
report, often by as much as an ounce. I have not been consistent about which source I use here so
you may find a discrepancy with a source you consult.

M.C. stands for Motion Control (i.e. a shoe for over-pronators).

************** SHOE REVIEWS *************

Check out: Runner's World Online!

Active Isolated Stretching

Aaron Mattes' book Active Isolated Stretching. See RW, Feb/94 The book is $30 (+ Postage/handling).
You can reach Aaron at:

2932 Lexington St Sarasota, FL 34231-6118 941-924-0462 941-925-8530

Aaron has video tapes of the stretches. The father/son team which has marketed themselves very well,
were trained by Aaron Mattes in Active Isolated Stretching. They videoed their tape at Aaron's.
Anyway, go to the source and support those people who often aren't the marketing wizs yet share so
much great information.

Two great little books which would be of great help to you are from a fellow who has shared a lot of
his wisdom on rec.running.

You can reach Paul Blakey at [email protected]

His books are: The Muscle Book $10.99 Stretching Without Pain $14.99

I have used them over the past several years and know that you'll find them very helpful in learning
what you need to know about your "thinking body."

Tell them Ozzie sent you. I don't receive any financial compensation, just want to support people
who, I believe, care about helping people learn to take care of themselves plus get some good info
out to the world.


[email protected])


When stretching, stretch the muscle until your feel a slight tightness, then hold for 20-30 seconds.
Repeat, this time stretching the muscle a little more. Thus it should take 1-1.5 minutes/stretch (a
total of 15-20 minutes)


Place your hand on the wall, with the front of your elbow as well on the wall Now turn so that you
can feel a stretch in your chest - try to keep your elbow on the wall - your hand should be shoulder
height or higheer.


Stretch your hamstrings by lying on your back, with 1 knee bent. Then bring your other leg up to
vertical, keeping your knee straight and your back against the floor. This is a much better stretch
for your hamstrings than is the bent over stretch.


Stand erect, grab one leg and pull your foot towards your but. Remember to keep your stomach tight -
don't let your stomach relax - do this for both legs.

Another quad stretch is to sit on your feet and bend (lean your upper torso) backwards, keeping your
knees on the ground.


Stand erect with your feet shoulder width apart. Now take your left leg and put it behind your right
leg and put your left foot about 12" to the right of your right foot. Now lean your torso so that is
upright again (take your right hand and run it down your right leg until your feel the stretch).
Repeat with the other leg.


Try to stretch 1/2 - 1 hour/day - this includes pre-training stretching, but at least 1 stretching
session/day that is outside of training.


Take your left hand, and put it behind your head, palm facing the same way as your face. Now,
slide your hand down your spine, until you feel a stretch. Now take your right hand and grab your
left elbow, and pull your left elbow towards your right hip (over and down). This should stretch
the tricep.


First, sit on your feet, with your arms outstretched in front of you. Now, place your left hand on
top of your right hand. Now, lean back and twist your body towards your right side (you want to try
to put your right armpit on the ground). If this is not stretching, move your hands further out in
front of you.


This is for your upper back and is easy to do - take your left elbow in your right hand, and pull it
across the front of your chest - try pulling your left elbow all the way over to your right pec
muscle - it may be easier if your put your left forearm in your right armpit.


Lie on your back, and put your legs in the crunch position (90 deg bend in your legs and your hips)
Now, pedal your legs from bent to almost straight, and at the same time bend at the waist bringing
your elbows to your knees. It is a killer (mainly because of the co-ordination that it takes)

It is like a leg lift on the starting part, then changes to a crunch situp from that point on.
Fingers interlaced behind head and pedal while you are crunching.


Sit down with your legs out in front of you. Now bend your left leg and put your left foot on the
outside of your right leg, between your right cheek and your right knee- pull your left foot as
close to your right cheek as possible. Now, pull your left knee in towards your chest. If you
don't feel much, grab your left shin, and give your left leg a little twist (ie pull your shin
closer to your chest). Your should feel this. Another one is to lie on your back, put both feet in
the air, then bend your left leg again, but this time bring your left shin in front of your roght
quad. Now pull your right leg towards your chest - you should feel this in your buttocks. If you
don't, push your left knee away from your chest, while maintaining the distance between your right
leg and your chest.

ANKLES (Mike Dotseth [email protected])

Stand with feet in normal standing position. Place a hand on a wall or a railing for a little
balance. Now, 'roll' your feet around on their 'outer edges'. Repeat 50 times. ('Rolling on the
outer edges' means to tilt your feet as far outward and inward (supination and pronationtween rock
forward on your the balls of your feet and back on your heels.) The major benefit is the stretching
and strengthening on the muscles and tendons which keep your foot stable as you run.

A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about stretching and flexibility by Brad Appleton can
be found on:

Ftp-site: WWW-URL:

========================================== Sweat (Sam Henry
[email protected])

Question: I sweat more than I can replace during a long run, ride, or triathlon. What can I
do about it?

It's hard to say what to do without knowing what you do now. None of us can replace as much as we
lose while we are losing it. The trick is to keep from going into deficit.

Do you hydrate yourself every day, all day long? Min 2 qts/day.

Do you hydrate yourself extra before the ride (like a qt an hour for 2 hrs or so before the start).

Do you use sports drinks to help with trace element losses? I use Exceed at 25% solution for the 1st
half of long rides, orange juice at 25% for med rides, and plain water for short rides.

What is your consumption rate during rides? I start drinking 30 mins into the ride and drink a
qt an hour whether I am thirsty or not. If you are thirsty, it is probably getting pretty close
to too late.

Do you eat while you ride? Things like bananas, oranges, and pears provide fuel *and* coolant, along
with some nifty minerals and such that your body needs to make the cooling system work right. I eat
fig newtons and such right as I start and eat every 20-30 mins after the first hour. Pears,
particularly, are an easy-to-eat thirst slacker.

What kind of hydration regimen do you use *afterwards*? I immediately start drinking at the end of
a ride, starting with a quart of water followed by a quart of full-strength sports drink (Exceed
for me). I also find something to eat that is high in complex carbohydrates. All this within the
*first hour* after the workout. The eating and drinking are intertwined. Then I drink another quart
of something that sounds appealing. Then I go back to my drinking all day long to get my "normal"
two quarts.

I might have thought I would slosh, but I never have. And most of my riding is done at temps above
80 degs and in high humidity. If you are urinating infrequently and the urine is a dark color, you
are underhydrated, whether you have exercised or not. No matter how much you sweat.

Treadmills--(contributed by Steve Pachuta, [email protected])

The January, 1996 _Consumer Reports_ has a treadmill review which features both motorized and
nonmotorized models, together with some useful criteria for evaluation.

Why use a treadmill?

There are many advantages to treadmills, including (1) The most obvious--weather is not a
factor in your training schedule. (2) Training is possible any time of day--darkness is not a
factor. (3) No danger of getting hit by a car or tripping on a curb. (4) No stoplights, no
rabid dogs (presumably), no hecklers (presumably)! (5) Controlled hill workouts are possible
with adjustable incline. (6) Precise interval training is possible. This is a big advantage;
you just need to set your speed and stay on the treadmill to run your goal pace exactly.

Is treadmill running the same as outdoor running?

I think the consensus in the various posts in rec.running is that treadmill running is very
similar to outdoor running. The physiological effects of a person moving relative to the ground
vs. the ground moving relative to a person are not greatly different. Certainly there are some
biomechanical issues involved, notably the tendency for the treadmill belt to slow down
momentarily during each footstrike. Many treadmills have compensatory schemes to minimize this
effect, including large flywheels and microsensors which constantly adjust the belt speed. Some
differences between treadmill running and outdoor running are the absence of wind and visual
motion cues on a treadmill. The lack of wind makes sweat generation a serious issue, and a
strong fan blowing directly into your face is almost a necessity for serious training. The
absence of a headwind also gives a slight speed advantage to treadmills, and it is often
suggested that an incline of 1 to 2% on the treadmill will compensate for the lack of headwind.
The lack of visual motion cues on a treadmill can be disconcerting initially, but this is
something you get used to. It may contribute to the feeling that you are working harder at a
given pace than you would outdoors.

What features are important in a treadmill? Here are some things to consider:

(1) Motorized vs. nonmotorized. If your goal is to bring your outdoor running indoors, then a
motorized treadmill is what you want. Nonmotorized treadmills will certainly give you a
workout, but they do not simulate true outdoor running since you are driving a belt as
well as your body. Many nonmotorized treadmills only work at an incline, and pace is not
constant as on a motorized treadmill (although in this respect they are similar to
outdoor running).
(2) Ruggedness. If you are really going to run on your treadmill, you need something more than
the $299 specials you see at various discounters. Some things to look for: welded frame,
large rollers (consider that some club models have rollers on the order of 8 inches in
diameter), large motor
(3.5 horsepower minimum, with 2.0 or up preferable). THE HEAVIER AND FASTER YOU ARE, AND THE LONGER
YOUR WORKOUTS, THE MORE IMPORTANT THESE THINGS BECOME. Most treadmills are not built for people
weighing more than 250 pounds.
anything less than a full 1-year warranty. Treadmills are like cars; they will almost
certainly need some work at some point.
(5) Maximum speed of 10 mph or more. This is 6:00 mile pace, which will do for most people.
There are treadmills which can achieve 12 mph (5:00 pace); I haven't heard of any which go
faster, but they probably exist. Personally, the consequences of a misstep while running
indoors at 5:00 pace scare the hell out of me!
(6) Method of belt lubrication. Running belts can get quite warm and wear faster if not
properly lubricated. Some models are self-lubricating; others require periodic
(7) Ability to simulate actual running. Various mechanisms have been developed to make
treadmill running feel more natural. Without putting in a plug for any particular
manufacturer, I would recommend trying out several different makes. It is surprising how a
treadmill that feels so natural can suddenly feel terrible after you try a different one.
(8) Manual vs. motorized height adjustment. I've used both, and I strongly recommend
motorized. If you want to run courses that simulate real outdoor runs you don't want to be
cranking a handle all the time, especially if you're running fast.
(9) Noise level. This can vary considerably, but note that "quiet" does not necessarily
mean "better."
(10) Programmability. It should be a given that speed and incline are adjustable during a
workout. It is also very desirable to be able to PROGRAM both speed and incline to create
your own custom courses. Many manufacturers include their own preprogrammed courses in
their electronics, but it is less common for them to give the user the ability to do this.
(11) Low price? Realistically treadmills for serious runners are going to cost more than $1000,
and they can be a lot more than this.
(12) Incline range. Most treadmills have inclines ranging from 0 to 10%. There are some
which can produce a decline (-2% for example). See below for conversion between %
incline and degrees.
(13) Board and belt type. Some treadmills have shock-absorbing boards and/or soft belts to
provide a more forgiving workout than can be obtained on hard pavement.

Any disadvantages or other considerations?

The lack of wind is definitely a problem, and as mentioned above a fan is a necessity.
Another problem with treadmills is boredom. I am always amazed at how much faster an hour
passes when running outside than when running inside. I don't think you can expect to read
while running on a treadmill, but you can watch television or listen to music. I generally
prefer loud music over television, but this is obviously a matter of personal preference.
Another thing to be aware of is the tendency to set the treadmill at a fixed speed and
incline and run an entire workout at these settings. I would recommend varying both speed and
incline to give your muscles some variety and minimize the possibility of injury. Some
treadmills interfere with heart rate monitors and prevent their use, though there are
treadmills which come with built-in heart rate monitors. Safety is of some concern, and many
treadmills come with protective devices which stop the belt in case you slip or fall off.
Treadmill manufacturers always recommend plenty of clearance between the treadmill and the
walls of a room. Treadmills can draw a lot of electrical current, and 30-amp circuits are
recommended for some heavy duty models.

How do I convert between % incline and degrees?

Remember your trigonometry. Grade (or incline) = rise/run, opposite/ adjacent, height/length,
or whatever you want to call it. For percent grade, multiply this by 100.

degrees = arctan((percent grade)/100) percent grade = tan(degrees) * 100

Thus, 1% incline is a mere .57 degrees, 5% incline is 2.9 degrees, 10% incline is 5.7 degrees, and
15% incline is 8.5 degrees.

Where can I get more information on treadmills?

Start with back issues of _Runner's World_, _Running Times_, etc. They usually have articles on
treadmills as winter approaches. The December, 1993 _Runner's World_ contains a list of
manufacturers, a chart to convert between treadmill running at various inclines and outdoor
running, and some sample workouts. The January, 1996 _Runner's World_ contains brief
evaluations of many different treadmills (mainly high-end models).

Weather ("The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer Guide)


Cold weather does not present any serious problems for you, especially if you are in reasonably good
condition. If you have heart problems, consult a doctor first. High wind-chill factors are the
greatest threats to you in cold weather, since you can suffer frostbite if you are not adequately
protected from the wind. You must remember that when you run, your own motion against the wind
increases the windchill factor and increases the risk of frostbite. Be sure all normally exposed
areas of skin are covered: head, face, ears, and hands. The important thing to remember is that you
must dress in layers in order to create your own insulation.

When you run in cold weather, beware of ice on the road, and remember to taper off your run
slowly so you will not catch a chill. When you arrive home, change out of your damp, sweaty
clothes right away.


When you run in hot weather, your blood pressure can drop dangerously or you could suffer heat
exhaustion. If you start feeling dizzy and dehydrated while jogging and your pulse and breathing
grow very rpid, you could very well be on your way to heat exhaustion. Stop exercising immediately.
Get out of the sun, drink fluids (tepid, not cold), and rest.

Running in heat also slows down the blood circulation, placing a greater burden on your heart. And
of course, you will sweat a lot more so your body loses more water that usual. To replace it, drink
a full glass of water before you start and one every 15 or 20 minutes during your run. A few pinches
of salt dissolved in the water will help. But if your stomach is empty, omit the salt or it will
probably cause stomach cramps.

An important thing to remember about heat is that it takes your body about two weeks to adjust.


If you run in a strong wind, you are going to be expending six percent more oxygen that you would
under ordinary condtitions. So, if you are running in a stiff breeze slow down and you will get the
same benefits as you would from a faster run. When you set out on a windy day, start with the wind
in front of you at the beginning of your workout; then at the end, when you are more tired, you will
have it at your back, helping to push you along.


Rain need not be a deterrent unless you're afraid of melting, but you will need some protection.
Wear waterproof outer clothes, of course, and as many layers as you need to keep warm. Don't linger
in them after the run but get into dry things as soon as you get home.


High altitudes are a source of special problems. When you get to 5000 feet above sea level and
beyond, it takes a lot more time for oxygen to be absorbed into your blood and travel throughout
your body. So your heart has to work a lot harder at its job. Plan on taking at least four to six
weeks to get adjusted to a new high altitude, and adapt your jogging routine accordingly. Most
runners recommend cutting your program by about 50% at the beginning.

Running on cold, rainy days (Brendan Leitch [email protected])

14) Dress in layers
15) Keep DRY, this is done by putting the wicking layers closest to the SKIN.

What works for us: (us = the running club I belong to)

Top: 1st LIFA or some similar 'wicking' material against skin 2nd turtle neck or long sleeve t-
shirt(repeat if needed) 3rd Shell jacket, Goretex is best, but any layered Nylon one will do the job

Bottom: 1st LIFA or some similar 'wicking' material against skin 2nd long tights 3rd wind
pants(preferably goretex again, but nylon will do)

Head: 1st Bella Clava(a thin hat that goes around head like old fashioned ski mask) 2nd Your shell
jacket hat over the Bella-Clava

Hands: 1st light thin wicking material gloves 2nd heavier glove

Feet: your normal socks/shoes - just make sure your bottom clothes cover ankles etc.



(16) Is it better to run in the morning or evening? "The Running Book" By the Editors of
Consumer Guide

It's' important to establish a routine for yourself, geared to your own disposition and living
habits. Some runners prefer to run early in the morning, some even before daybreak. They seem to
like the solitude available at that hour, when the streets are still empty of traffic and people.

Some runners are shrewd, enough to kill two birds with one stone. They get their exercise in while
"commuting" to work. Issues to consider: Are showers available at work? How far is it to work? What
kind of work do you do? Do you work outside or inside?

People who do their running in the morning say that it sets them up for the day. They are more alert
and less likely to become upset by the pressures and frustrations of their work, and at the end of
the day they fell less fatigued.

Other runners wait to run after work, put their jobs behind them, and headed home. A run at this
time provides a nice transition for them, a time to work off some of the tensions that may have
built during the day so that they don't carry them into family life. should end your run at
least an hour before you retire. Otherwise you may find it difficult to fall asleep.

(17) Should I run when I have a cold/fever? "The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer Guide

Recommended schedules should be followed as faithfully as possible, but not blindly. There are
certain times when you have no business running. If, for example, you have the flu, a cold, or some
other ailment, don't overexert yourself and possibly harm your body by trying to run. If you feel a
cold coming on, however, running may help you get rid of it. But if you try this cure, follow Dr.
Kostrubala's recommendations. He suggests that you dress warmly, take two aspirin in a glass of
milk, and then go out for a run. Jog slowly and see how you feel. Continue jogging until your body
grows warm, even hot, Then try to keep your temperature at that level.

(18) How often should I run? "The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer Guide

Most running programs, ask you to run three times a week as a minimum requirement. This helps
reinforce the habit of running, but its main purpose is to develop cardiovascular conditioning
through frequent running. But more is not necessarily better. Experts in physical fitness tend to
agree that running days should alternate with days of rest, since rest for the body is as much a
part of developing fitness as exercise.

(19) Which of the 8 lanes on a US track is actually the '1/4 mile' one?

(Lori Moffitt [email protected]) writes: The long and short of it, pun intended, is that US 1/4 mile
tracks are typically 400 meter tracks, and the runner needs to compensate for the difference by
running a few yards extra, about 10 yards. The 400 meter distance seemed to be measured 12'' from
the inside curb of the track. Opinions vary about this and the compensation distance.

(Art Overholser [email protected]) A perfect 400-m track, measured 12" from the inside
curb as specified by TAC, is 437.4 US yards long, or 7'8'' shy of 440 yards. So you only need to
run 8 feet (not 10 yards) extra to get the 1/4 mi. To get one mile out of 4 laps you have to add
about 10 yards.

If his figures are correct, to change this lap to a quarter mile, move out an additional 15 inches
when going around the bends. (Sherwood Botsford [email protected])

(20) I have started running after having my baby and I am curious to know if any one has some
stomach exercises?

If you had your baby less than 6 weeks ago, it is likely that your uterus hasn't returned to its
normal size, and this could cause the cramps. Remember, too, that your stomach muscles separated
during pregnancy and it takes time for them to meld together again.

The important thing to remember when returning to running after a layoff is to ease back into
running, paying scrupulous attention to how it feels. The old adage, "listen to your body," applies
here. If your stomach is cramping, slow down, ease up.

STRETCHES (Paulette Leeper [email protected]) To stretch your abdominals, lay on your
back with your knees bent and the soles of your feet on the floor. Let your knees drop to one side,
as you lay your arms toward the other...hold for about 30 seconds and gently switch sides.
>From this same position, you can begin to strengthen your abdominals by
pressing your lower back toward the floor...holding it for increasing increments of time. Your
ability to hold your lower back to the floor will give you a good sense of what kind of shape your
abdominals are in at this time.

Many of the abdominal exercises recommended during pregnancy are good to begin with post-partum. One
of my favorites is to sit up with knees bent and do a sort of "reverse sit-up." Instead of coming up
from the floor, move your torso toward the floor with your arms stretched out in front of you.


Ozzie Gontang

Archive-name: running-faq/part7
Last-modified: 10 March 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days


Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to rec.running plus interesting &
useful information for runners. If known, author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie
Gontang <[email protected]> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper info of sources or
holder's of copyright.

Running and Pregnancy. Paula Vanzant-Hardick <[email protected]>

I have been running for oh, about 11 or 12 years now and have run all the way through all of my
pregnancies. I feel like it has made them healthier for both of us. I have never had any kind of a
problem with low iron, high blood pressure or any real pregnancy related maladies.

I also believe that had I not run, my recovery time after each baby was born would have been
significantly longer than they were. Even after my second one (the C section, I could walk a couple
of miles within about 10 days after delivery).

Running is a FABULOUS form of stress management.

Now to my diet, I just really maintained my normal diet, the only thing is I may have been a little
heavier on the fresh fruits (trying to avoid that refined sugar you know) and I usually drink at
least 10 8oz glasses of water a day (you notice I say at least). The water I think also helps to
keep the yuckies away.

I am planning to continue my training regime as usual with this pregnancy as I have with the others.
I guess the only thing that I may do a bit differently during pregnancy is if I really feel like I
need to walk during any of my runs, I will, it may only be a few feet or it may be 1/2 mile but if I
have a feeling that I don't think should be there I don't hesitate to walk it off.

Any of these other women who have run while pregnant may have other suggestions but I guess my
biggest thing is to just really do what feels best for the person.

And one last note, there were times during each of my pregnancies that I would have rather had a
nap, but instead would drag myself out for a run, I would not only feel better after I had run, I
would have TONS more energy (and the second, third and now fourth time that is VERY important.)

Thanks for asking and giving me the opportunity to share my thoughts! Paula (and the thundering herd--
Tom, Shaun, Alexa, Erin and #4)

excerpted by Paula from UK version of Runner's World May 1995

"Running for Two" (subtitle Good News- running during pregnancy can make you and your baby
healthier!) By Joe Dunbar

"There are two main issued: how will training affect the baby, and how will pregnancy affect running
performance?....In General, the running you do when pregnant should be aimed at maintaining rather
than developing fitness.

The main danger to the fetus (that British spelling), according to Dr. Richard Budgett 0f the
British Olympic Medical Centre, is from an increase in body temperature. The main effect of too
great an increase in body temperature is damage to the fetus's central nervous system. The danger is
especially great in the first three months, but you should be careful throughout the pregnancy.
Budgett recommends that you limit the increase in body temperature to 38.9 Degree C (102 F).

You are also generally recommended not to exceed a rate of 140-150bpm, but individuals vary
enormously in their resting , maximum and training heart rates. Remember too that one effect of
endurance training is that your body can control temperature rises more effectively ,so a runner who
is highly trained before pregnancy should be in a slightly better position. Drinking plenty of
fluids is essential to avoid dehydration and hyperthermia. This will also help to limit the
temperature increase, so get into the habit of drinking regularly during training it's equally
important to avoid hypoglycemia during and after exercise carbo drinks will help to replace
[carbohydrates] both during and after exercise, provided that they aren't too concentrated. One
recent project that followed two groups of 462 suburban women through their pregnancies found that
women who had burned more calories per week (as a result of greater exercise levels) tend to give
birth to slightly heavier babies than women who had exercised less.

...the bottom line? Although each individual will differ, you should bear in mind the following
guidelines on pregnancy and running:

o It is safe to continue moderate training throughout your pregnancy, although individual
complications may cause limitations. o Listen to your body and run as you feel. o There is no need
to switch to other forms of exercise unless you have specific problems. o Use your heart rate and
check your temperature during training. Stick to sensible levels to avoid hyperthermia. o Take
plenty of fluids to limit the risk of dehydration and assist cooling. o You can reduce lower back
pain by strengthening the abdominal & hip flexor muscles, & stretching the muscles around the pelvis
and spine. o Try to avoid explosive exercise during pregnancy. o Try water-running sessions: they
are specific to running but have far less impact, and water helps to avert hyperthermia."

As I said, I found this article very interesting, and the parts that I have included are verbatim,
unless in parentheses. Hope you find this interesting and of some use to all those expectant mom's
who don't want to give up their running.

A Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People from Ozzie Gontang

THE EMPTY BOAT from The Way of Chuang Tzu by Thomas Merton, 1965 New Direction Publishing

If a man is crossing a river And an empty boat collides with his own skiff, Even though he be a bad-
tempered man He will not become very angry.

But if he sees a man in the boat, He will shout at him to steer clear.

If the shout is not heard, he will shout again, And yet again, and begin cursing. And all because
there is somebody in the boat. Yet if the boat were empty, He would not be shouting and not angry.

If you can empty your own boat Crossing the river of the world, No one will oppose you, No one will
seek to harm you....

When I confronted by reckless drivers, speeding skaters or bikers, I simply avoid them and say to
myself, "Empty boat."

Over the years, those two words have saved me from feeding anger, aggression and violence-both mine
and theirs.

Hints for the Success of the Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours)

These Hints are from a brochure for Super-Fours, i.e. those running over 4 hours in the Marathon. It
was subtitled: "A Short Guide to the Care and Support of Four-Hour Marathoners, The Physically
Distressed and Mentally Distracted Sub-Fours and The First Time Marathoner-Who Only Wants To finish"
It was originally published by the International Association of Marathoners (IAM and pronounced "I
AM") in 1988.

The last 6 to 8 miles of the Marathon will test an individual physically but most of all mentally.
No matter how well prepared on may be, the unknown of how one will be or how the weather conditions
will be leaves one with some sense of discovery or travelling unfamiliar territoroes of mind/body.
It is often for the righteous and well-trained that the fall from grace is the hardest.

IAM Aware:

Know that you will tell others your verbal time: "About 4 hours."

Know that you will harbor a desired time: "I THINK I can do it, if all goes perfect, 15 to 30
minutes faster."

Know that you will have an ideal or fantasized time: "Wouldn't it be great to break
3:30 in my first marathon."

Acknowledge your desired time and Fantasy Time verbally to yourself, otherwise they will influence
you finish time for the worse.

Super-Four Success One:

Set your time with a standard deviation (SD) of 15 minutes. The SD+/- (Verbal Time + 5 minutes).
The mind/body message goes from a single second in time to a window of 30 minutes and respects
the mind, the body and the conditions of the day.

Super-Four Success Two:

Starting a marathon 30 seconds to 60 seconds per mile faster than your race plan for the first 3
to 5 miles can slow your finish time from 20 minutes to 90 minutes. That speed will burn off
several times more glycogen in the first 3 to 5 miles than needed. You are fueled with energy
from minimal running the 6 days before the marathon. You have also stored extra energy from
eating and hydrating well the last three days before the marathon. Know your game plan and stick
to it for the first 3 to 5 miles when you are so full of energy. That energy can easily give you
the power to run those first few miles at that 30 second to 60 second per mile faster...and not
even realize it. It will remember somewhere between miles 18 and 26.

Super-Four Success Three:

The jitteriness you feel the morning of the race and the day before are from your body being
fueled and needing to expend energy. You can identify it as fear, or nervousness, or worry. Just
remember you haven't run more than 2 to 4 miles in 3 days. You body is ready to do something-Run
A Marathon. You now feel what it's like not to run a few days...or the feelings 3 days after
injuring yourself. To walk and sightsee 5 to 10 miles the day before the marathon is 500 to 1000
calories of energy plus the water to store the glycogen. You may not be able to replenish it by
race time.

Super-Four Success Four:

In the past 6 months if you have moved, bought a house, changed jobs, started or ended a
relationship, had a child (or fathered a child), have trouble at work or home that costs you
mental energby, there is a good likelihood you will finish 30 to 60 minutes slower than you
had planned.

Super-Four Success Five:

When you feel tired or unable to go on, should your mind go to the finish line, bring it back to
the present. If your mind is at the finish, so is your body...even though it has 1 to 6 more
miles jto go. Bring the mind to the present by saying, "I am at Mile ___ and am being drawn by a
magnet to the finish. I hold my body up and erect and I am being pulled steadily to the finish."

Super-Four Success Six:

The last 10 miles push the crown of your head up and look to the horizon. By holding the head
erect you save your shoulder muscles and balance not only the weight of your 12 to 14 pound head
but also your breathing.

Super-Four Success Seven:

The last 6 miles run out from the pack and away from the curbside. You are in a trance state by
mile 18. You will be open to and picking up visual and non-verbal cues of runners around you. If
you are away from the curb and can see 200 to 300 yards in front of you, you will be running
your own race. Should someone stop dead in f ront of you, do not give them any of your energy by
getting angry or upset. Simply say as you pass them, "Don't lose your form. Even if you walk
keep your good running form."

Super-Four Success Eight:

When someone running with you starts to speed up or to fall behind, or you start to pick up your
pace or fall behind; in your mind, picture a pair of scissors in your hand cutting the cord
between you and the other runner. Otherwise, you will be carrying that person in your mind...and
it will only slow you down...or wear you out if they are in front of you. You can only be in one
place physically, and that is directly above the space upon which you feet are running. Cutting
that cord allows you to cut loose from a slower runner or free your mind from attempting to keep
up with a faster runner.

Super-Four Success Nine:

When you run with someone, run shoulder to shoulder. If you run slightly behind, the mind often
feels like it is having to catch up. If your image is that of being pulled or towed by the
runner in front of you, then running behind is okay...unless the runner complains.

Super-Four Success Ten:

In a marathon to catch someone, wind them in over a mile to three miles. that way you waste no
energy required to finish the last 1 to 6 miles.

If you want to share your thoughts, suggestions, ideas, mantras, anecdotes, and your own Super-Four
Success hints, please send e-mail them or send them to:

International Association of Marathoners (IAM) Attn. Ozzie Gontang 2903 29th Street San
Diego, CA 92104

e-mail: Ozzie Gontang <[email protected]> ph. 619-281-7447 fax 619-281-9468 Mindful Running: