not if you want to ride them on the road - tyres for the track are different beasties and I know nothing about them .
tyre pressures are a whole world unto themselves and more to do with weight
ie if you are small and light then between 95 - 100 psi
- normal then between 100psi and 110 psi
- heavy ---------------- 110 and 120 psi
but that´s just rule of thumb , for example mavic say not less than 7 bar but no more than 81/2 - 9 bar : 100 psi min , 130 psi max .
low pressure : more grip , more resistance but better in the cold and wet .
high pressure :less grip , less resistance and a skating rink on a cold wet day
low pressure : more risk of pinch flats and , some claim , more punctures
high pressure : no pinch flats but a hard ride and the rear wheel skids easy
basic rule ? if no recomended pressure then max rec less 7 - 14 psi
mostly it´s suck and see - see how it feels and experiment , like seat hight it´s a very personal thing .
Sheldon says there's no decrease in rolling resistance of the tire above 120psi.
For road tires, the best traction is with zero tread. Racing tires are built for speed, not longevity, same for the lighter tubes. butyl and natural latex tubes will bleed air faster, too, so check your pressure daily. Not a bad idea to check tire pressure every day just in case. Mine usually need topping off every other day.
You can get tires with puncture resistance and/or buy a liner to protect the tube. These work for most people but add weight. I've had good luck with Michelin Carbons(knock on wood) and haven't tried anything else.
If you get a tear in your tire you can patch it with rubber patches, paper, plastic, dollar bill, etc. At least it'll get you home, sometimes the homemade patch from scrap paper lasts quite a long time.
Too low a pressure is definitely worse than too high. You get pinch flats and the tire flexes to absorb debris(and get a puncture) instead of flicking it away. Too high a pressure means a hard, bouncy ride and less traction; the tire is bouncing off the road.
Bicycle tires do not hydroplane, you are going too slow for this to happen. Thus, no need for a tread. Wet roads can be slick, though, due to the water on a thin film of oil from cars.
A foldup or folding tire is a clincher that has a bead made of kevlar instead of steel. This allows it to be folded. Useful for taking on long trips.
A presta valve is thinner and has a tiny nut keeping the little air valve spring shut. You have to unscrew that before adding air. A Shrader valve is larger, same as the ones on cars.