Re: Whole Wheat Question

Discussion in 'Food and nutrition' started by Juhana Harju, Jun 15, 2005.

  1. Juhana Harju

    Juhana Harju Guest

    [email protected] wrote:
    :: I had asked you for a source comparing a hindu and muslim village in
    :: india and some implied differences in carb intake as to the "indian
    :: paradox" you made. In place of it you provided some articles about
    :: the paradox. I'm well aware of the paradox and it cann't be
    :: explained by the amount of carb intake. The carb intake between
    :: rural and urban indians is similar but the urban has the greater
    :: risk factors for cvd and diabetes. Rural folk use whole grains and
    :: urban more refined but carb amounts are similar. It is clear that
    :: the urban people eat more fat, have lower exercise and eat more.
    :: Using the butter ghee is shown in the below to be higher in a higher
    :: overall fat intake in urban folk and it also suggests a difference
    :: in fats as explaining the "paradox"
    ::
    ::
    :: Effects of an Indo-Mediterranean Diet on the Omega­6/Omega­3 Ratio in
    :: Patients at High Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: The Indian Paradox
    :: Daniel Pella [...]
    :: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has become a major
    :: health problem in the Western world, and is rapidly increasing in the
    :: developing countries, accompanied by rapid changes in diet and
    :: lifestyle [1­3]. The prevalence of CAD is 2­3% in rural areas and
    :: 9­14% in urban populations of India [2, 3]. This finding is
    :: associated with a lower total fat intake in rural areas compared to
    :: urban ones (10­15 vs. 15­27 en %/day, respectively) [2­4]. The
    :: paradox
    :: is that despite low fat intake relative to Western countries, the
    :: urban population has a high prevalence of CAD. The rural population
    :: in north and east India consumes more mustard oil and grains, which
    :: are considered a poor man's food. In urban areas, Indian ghee
    :: (clarified butter rich in cholesterol oxide [5]), vegetable ghee,
    :: butter,
    :: cream, refined oils and refined bread and flour are substituted for
    :: mustard oils and whole grains, resulting in marked changes in the
    :: omega­6/ omega­3 ratio of urban diets [2­4]. The cause of the Indian
    :: paradox can be explained by the increased ratio of omega­6/omega­3
    :: fatty acids in the urban diets. The dietary changes described are
    :: more pronounced in patients with high risk of CAD [4, 6­11]. It is
    :: possible that decreased consumption of omega­3 fatty acids may
    :: increase the coronary risk among urban subjects and in patients with
    :: CAD.

    That was interesting. There are likely to be several reasons contributing to
    this higher risk in urban population, not only this ratio of omega-6/omega-3
    fatty acids. Overweight, lack of exercise, refined grains, saturated fat,
    oxidized cholesterol, decreased omega-3 fatty acid intake are all factors
    contributing to higher risk of coronary artery disease.

    Below is an abstract confirming that ghee is a source of oxysterols.

    Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Oct;226(1-2):39-47.

    Effect of dietary ghee--the anhydrous milk fat on lymphocytes in rats.
    Niranjan TG, Krishnakantha TP.

    Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological
    Research Institute, Mysore, India.

    Lymphocytes are important components of the immune system. Dietary lipids
    affect the functioning of the immune system. Changes in the lipid
    composition of the lymphocyte membrane is a case in point. Membrane
    structural changes are reflected in the altered function of the cell.
    Lymphocyte proliferation and lymphocyte rosetting are membrane associated
    phenomena. Ghee, is a clarified butter product, commonly used in the Indian
    diet. It is rich in saturated fatty acids and also contain oxysterols which
    are generated on prolonged heating of ghee. Male weanling rats were fed 2.5%
    (of the total fat levels) of fresh or thermally oxidized ghee for a period
    of 8 weeks. The control rats were fed groundnut oil. Lipid composition of
    lymphocytes in ghee fed rats showed changes. In vitro lipid peroxidation of
    lymphocyte membranes increased by 26% in oxidized ghee fed rats. Na+K+
    ATPase activity was decreased in oxidized ghee fed rats (18%). Lymphocyte
    proliferation was reduced in ghee fed rats (32%), compared to the controls,
    irrespective of the mitogens used (Con-A or PHA), or the tissue (splenocytes
    or peripheral blood lymphocytes). Oxysterols present in oxidized ghee are
    the likely agents inhibiting lymphoproliferation. Rosetting of lymphocytes
    decreased in the fresh ghee fed rats by 16% and in oxidized ghee fed rats by
    25%. Membrane fluidity declined in the oxidized ghee fed rats. It is
    concluded that feeding ghee results in decreased proliferation of
    lymphocytes. Also, feeding oxidised ghee results in decreased proliferation
    of lymphocytes through alterations in the structure of the lymphocyte
    membranes in the rat. PMID: 11768237

    --
    Juhana
     
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