rec.running FAQ, part 1 of 8


Ozzie Gontang

Archive-name: running-faq/part1
Last-modified: 10 March 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to
rec.running plus interesting & useful information for runners. If known,
author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie Gontang
<[email protected]> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper
info of sources or holder's of copyright.

Part 1 of 8
What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group
Runner or Jogger
Avoiding Dogs
Books and Magazines
Winter Running Gear
Clothes (Winter/Summer)
Rules For Winter Running
Clothing Layers
Dressing for Winter
Clothing Materials
60/40 Cloth
Breathability of Materials
Breathable options
General Information
Running Mailing Lists
Terminology ( overpronation, oversupination)
Calorie/energy count
Calories burned by running
Muscle fuels used during exercise
Part 2 of 8
Fat burning primer
Conversion chart
Fluid replacement
Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries
Second Wind
Soda Pop
Computer software
Interval training
Sore Knees
Leg Massage
Part 3 of 8
Mail Order Addresses
Increasing your mileage
Major Marathons (e.g. Boston, LA, New York)
Part 4 of 8
Miscellaneous Medical /Injuries
Achilles tendinitis (incomplete)
Shin splints
Side stitches
Lactic Acid
Loose bowels
Diabetes & running
Nutrition and Food
Part 5 of 8
Nutrition primer
Powerbar Recipe
Predicting times
Running Clubs & Organizations
Part 6 of 8
Tredmill Running
Weather (cold, hot, wind, rain, altitude)
Part 7 of 8
Pregnancy & Running
Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People
Hints for the Successful Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours)
Part 8 of 8
Running Related Internet Sites


What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group

Read news.announce.newusers and news.answers for a few weeks. Always make
sure to read a newsgroup for some time before you post to it. You'll be
amazed how often the same question can be asked in the same newsgroup.
After a month you'll have a much better sense of what the readers want to

The difference between jogging and running is in the eye of the beholder.
Partial list compiled by Phil Margolies <[email protected]>

Jogging is spelled with a j, an o, and two g's, running is spelled with
an r, a u, and two n's. Otherwise there is no important difference that
I am aware of ;-)
There is no real distinction between the two. Traditionally joggers are
considered to be more casual and slower than someone who refers to
themselves as a runner. But use which ever term you prefer.
A jogger is person who worries about the difference.
A runner just goes out and runs.
This issue has been beaten to death more than once, but ......

My gut feeling is:
if your goal/focus is to get there in minimum time; you are racing (or
race training)
if your goal/focus is on what your are doing; you are running
if your focus is to lose weight or gain fitness or whatever else
(possibly indicated by wearing headphones?); you are jogging.

Speed doesn't matter; some people race at 4:00/mile, some at 12:00/mile.
No one of these three activities is any better or nobler than any other.
When I'm tired I jog, when I'm not I run. After all, it's all relative.
Speed IMHO has nothing to do with it.
Joggers are interested in the fitness benifits of the activity.
Runners are interested in the sport of racing.
The best quote I ever read on this was: The difference between a jogger and
a runner is a bib number.
A Jogger is everyone that I can pass.
A Runner is everone who passes me.
There are many differences between a jogger & a runner, although both are
very positive activities & neither should be knocked. Here's a couple of
differences I notice:

Jogging is a hobby. Running is a way of life.
Joggers get out on a nice day. Runners get out everyday.

Avoiding Dogs (Arnie Berger [email protected])

There are varying degrees of defense against dogs.

1- Shout "NO!" as loud and authoritatively as you can. That works more than
half the time against most dogs that consider chasing you just good sport.

2- Get away from their territory as fast as you can.

3- A water bottle squirt sometimes startles them.

If they're waiting for you in the road and all you can see are teeth then
you in a heap o' trouble. In those situations, I've turned around, slowly,
not staring at the dog, and rode away.

"Halt" works pretty well, and I've used it at times. It's range is about 8

I bought a "DAZER", from Heathkit. Its a small ultrasonic sound generator
that you point at the dog. My wife and I were tandeming on a back road and
used it on a mildly aggressive German Shephard. It seemed to cause the dog
to back off.

By far, without a doubt, hands down winner, is a squirt bottle full of
reagent grade ammonia, fresh out of the jug. The kind that fumes when you
remove the cap. When I lived in Illinois I had a big, mean dog that put its
cross-hairs on my leg whenever I went by. After talking to the owner
(redneck), I bought a handlebar mount for a water bottle and loaded it with
a lab squirt bottle of the above mentioned fluid. Just as the dog came
alongside, I squirted him on his nose, eyes and mouth. The dog stopped dead
in his tracks and started to roll around in the street. Although I
continued to see that dog on my way to and from work, he never bothered me

Finally, you can usually intimidate the most aggressive dog if there are
more than one of you. Stopping, *and moving towards it will often cause it
to back off*. ( But not always ). My bottom line is to always *run* routes
that I'm not familiar with, with someone else.

E-Book John Lupton <[email protected]>

Gordon Pirie's book "Running Fast and Injury Free" which can be found via . Pirie is a proponent of fore-foot striking.
All I can say is Pirie works for me. As a novice, having a pretty
straightforward book on technique to read, one that is uncomplicated by
jargon, is very useful. For me, even before a novice puts on his/her
running shoes for the first time, it is worth reading this book (its *very*
short). Not all of it is relevant to the recreational runner, but the bits
that are are very obvious and accessible.

Books and Magazines (Phil Cannon [email protected])


1) The Lore of Running - Tim Noakes
2) The Complete Book of Running - Fixx
3) The Runner's Handbook - Bloom
4) Long Distance Runner's Guide to Training and Racing - Sperks/Bjorklund
5) The Runner's Handbook - Glover & Shepard
6) Galloway's Book on Running - Galloway
7) Jog, Run, Race - Henderson
8) The New Aerobics - Cooper
9) Training Distance Runners- Martin and Coe
10) Any book by Dr. George Sheehan
11) The Essential Runner (John Hanc)
12) The Runner's World Complete Book of Running (Amby Burfoot)

check for books available at:The Athlete's Bookstore [email protected]

RUNNING DIALOGUE David Holt RN, Santa Barbara and 31:16 10 K.

Includes winter running advice; extensive interval (three chapters) and
diet advice; marathon chapter; three chapters on injury prevention and
predicting times; plus table for paces to train for 2 mile pace for VO2
max, and 15K pace for anaerobic threshold.

Table of contents/list of contributors
or send a blank E-mail to [email protected]


Track and Field News (12/96-monthly $34.95 US per year) 2370 El Camino
Real, Ste 606 Mountain View CA 94040
415-948-8188 Fax: 1-415-948-9445 1-800-GET-TRAK (1-800-438-8725)

Self-proclaimed "Bible of the Sport", T&FN is the source for major meet
results in T&F, road racing, cross-country, and race walking from the high
school to int'l levels. Emphasis on U.S. athletes. though significant int'l
coverage provided. Compiles annual post-season rankings of the top 10
performers in world and U.S. in every major event, men and women. Publishes
list of top 50 performances in each event for the year. Also sponsors
TAFNUT tours for major championships and the Euro Circuit/GP meets. Lots of
stats, good interviews.

Track Technique (quarterly; $15 in US, $16 outside) same contact info as
Track & Field News.

The official USATF(formerly TAC) quarterly, each issue has important
articles on technique, training, and other practical information on all
events, at all levels. Intended for coaches.

California Track News ($18/yr)
4957 East Heaton
Fresno, CA 93727

Calif.'s only all track & X-county publication. Lots of attention to prep

Running Journal, P.O. Box 157, Greeneville, TN 37744. Covers southeastern
United States monthly. Founded 1984. Covers road races in 13 states, plus
ultras, multi-sports, racewalking. Annual subscription is $22.95.

Running Research News
P.O. Box 27041
Lansing, MI 48909
Credit card orders: 1-517-371-4897 MC/Visa accepted. e-mail: [email protected]

12/96 $35/year $65/2 years (10 issues per year, 12-14 pages per issue.)
76 back issues, $265 (postage US 10 outside US $30)

(Add $10 for overseas airmail, except Mexico and Canada) ALL non-US
customers please provide a credit card number or money order in U.S. funds,
or a check drawn on a U.S. bank (with American-bank computer numbers).

Running Times (monthly $24.95 US per year) P.O. Box 511
Mount Morris, IL 61054-7691

Runner's World (monthly $24 US per year) P.O. Box 7574 Red Oak, IA 51591-2574

Masters Track & Field News (5 issues/yr; $10.50) P.O. Box 16597
North Hollywood, CA 91615

Results, rankings, age-records, schedules, stories of age 40+ athletes
worldwide. "Satisfaction guaranteed"

"The Schedule" - A monthly magazine in California that has an extensive
lists of races and other info. Northern CA: 80 Mitchell Blvd, San Rafael CA
94903-2038 (415) 472-7223; 472-7233 FAX Southern CA: 549 Highland Dr, San
Luis Obispo, CA 93405-1116 (805) 541-2833

Winter Running Gear Curt Peterson <[email protected]>

13 Nov 1996 Just wear the same things for running as for cross country skiing.

Wind briefs -available in both womens and mens.
Underlayer turtleneck.
Underlayer long underwear
Tights ( thin or thicker cross country ski tights which are thicker wt.)
Wicking socks
vest or sweatshirt, but if long long run I use a Thermax sweatshirt
Shell for wind
hat and neck gator if really cold.
You can run in virtually all weather.
Our run group in Michigan runs every Monday night all year no matter
what the conditions are. I think -4 F is our record.

Clothes (Winter/Summer) (Mike Gilson [email protected])

Disclaimer What I have to say here is *my* opinion only.
Preference on amount of clothing required for winter running varies widely
among runners. A couple of runners that I see wear shorts, long sleeved T's
and gloves at 30F! Experiment with how much clothing at various temp's.

Rules for Winter Running

Rule 1: Dress in layers. Outer layers can be added/shed easily.
Rule 2: Stay dry. When clothes get wet,they don't performance - & you get cold.
Rule 3: Hydrate. You may not sweat as much, but fluid replacement still needed.

Clothing Layers
Inner layer. The layer closest to the skin should be a tight, lightweight
fabric that wicks water away from the skin. Shirts should be long-sleeved,
skin-tight (without chafing), and may be turtle-necked (my preference).
There are a variety of fabrics that are effective in wicking water; I have
had a lot of success with polypro, but it is not machine washable. These
are readily available at running specialty shops and mail order. For pants,
lycra running tights work very well.
Outer layer. The next layer should be a looser, mediumweight fabric that
wicks water. A zipper at the neck is convenient for temperature control. I
prefer a shirt that is slightly longer than waist-length so that I have the
option of tucking it into the pants. I've had more success in finding these
in cycling stores than anywhere else. Two layers of lycra tights if very

Shell. A water-proof or water resistant shell that is breathable is useful
in the coldest conditions. These are usually sold as suits, but tops are
available separately at a higher cost. Gore-tex is considered the best
fabric, but there are cheaper alternatives. You can get these suits made to
your measurements or buy them off the rack. I have a Burley jacket, which I
purchased at a cycling shop. It's chief advantage over the running suits is
the venting and extra zippers for temperature control. There are zippers
under each arm, starting at mid chest going up to the armpit and travelling
down the arm to about mid forearm.

Tights. Tights have been mentioned above as inner/outer layers. Many people
run in sweats, but sweats have two disadvantages: they're heavy and they
get heavier when wet. Lycra is lightweight and warm, but costs more and
shows off body (im)perfections more than sweats.

Gloves. Any cotton glove works. Polyproplyene or other microbfiber materials.

Hat. A lot of heat is lost through the scalp, so a hat is a must for most
people. Cotton hats get too heavy with sweat. Balaclavas are more versatile
than hats, and allow you to cover you neck/face if requires. Both hats and
balaclavas are available in wicking fabrics.

Socks. A wicking sock will seem less heavy and your feet will be drier than
a conventional sock. Coolmax socks are my preference, worn in a single
layer. You can also find other fabrics, such as capilene or polypro socks,
which are considerably more expensive.

Running shoes. Runner's World (anyone know which issue?) had some tips from
Alaskan runners on how to put (short) screws into the sole of the shoe for
better traction on the ice. I haven't tried it, but you obviously have to
be careful not to puncture the midsole, air/gel chambers, etc.

Dressing for Winter Running

Temp range Number of layers
(degrees F) Inner Outer Shell Tights Gloves Hat Socks
50-55 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
40-45 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
30-35 1 1 0 1-2 1 1 1
20-25 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
0-15 1 1 1/pants 1 1 1

Clothing Materials
compiled by Ozzie Gontang <[email protected]>

Man-made: available in acrylic, nylon, polyester and rayon.

* Washable, dry cleanable Shrink-resistant
* High strength (except Rayon) Insulates well against wind, rain, cold
Major End Uses: sportswear, activewear,swimwear, outerwear, rainwear.

Micro-fibers is not a fiber unto itself. It is a technology developed to
produce an ultra-fine fiber, and then weave it or knit it into a very high
quality fabric constructions. DuPont introduced the first microfiber in
1989, a polyester microfiber. Today in addition to polyester microfibers,
there are also nylon microfibers that have become important in the
pantyhose market, rayon microfibers, and acrylic microfibers.

An important characteristic of microfiber fabrics: they can be woven so
tightly so the fabric can't be penetrated by wind, rain, or cold. For this
reason, raincoat manufacturers have become big users of polyester
microfibers. Microfibers also have a wicking ability, which allows
perspiration to pass through. So they're comfortable to wear.

Nov. '96 RW (pp.48-52) evaluted 12 underlayer shirts for keeping you
comfortable wicking away sweat to the exterior surface of the fabric.
Polyester has been treated (hydrophillic chemical) and altered
(electrostatic evaporation process, differing inner/outer surfaces) to
enhance its wicking ability.

Some names: Capilene, BiPolar 100 polyester, BiPolar 200 polyester, Dri-F.I.T.
Dacron is the trademark name for Dupont polyester. Woven fabric made from
dacron is similar to nylon ripstop or taffeta, but not as stretchy. Many of
the better clothing insulations are made from dacron. They are usually
referred to by more specific trademark names, like quallofil, hollofil,
polarguard, and dacron-88.


* Lightweight, lightest fiber, it floats
* Strong
* Abrasion resistant, resilient
* Stain-, static-, sunlight-, and odor-resistant
* High insulation characteristics
* Resists deterioration from chemicals, mildew, sweat, rot and weather
* Fast drying
* High wickability
* Static and pilling can be a problem
* Ironing, washing/drying need to be done at low temperature
* Non-allergenic
Major End Uses: Apparel - activewear, sportswear, jeans, socks,
underwear, lining fabrics.

Of all fibers, this is probably least familiarto you. Developed in 1961,
polyolefin has been used exclusively in the home furnishings and high
performance activewear market: backpacking, canoeing, mountain climbing
apparel. In 1996 producers of olefin began to make in-roads into the
mainstream apparel market. It is being blended with cotton in the denim
market. It's being tested in the swimwear market. Asics Japan has developed
a swimsuit made of polyolefin and Lycra for the Japanese Olympic Swim Team.
Polyolefin is the least absorbent of all the man-made fibers, and the only
fiber that floats. (Swimmers will do anything to cut a milli-second off
their times!)


* Lightweight * Exceptional strength
* Good drapeability * Abrasion resistant
* Easy to wash * Resists shrinkage and wrinkling
* Fast drying, low moisture absorbency
* Resistant to damage from oil and many chemicals
* Static and pilling can be a problem
* Poor resistance to continuous sunlight
Major End Uses:
* Apparel - swimwear, activewear, foundation garments, hosiery,
blouses, dresses, sportswear, raincoats, ski and snow apparel,
windbreakers, childrenswear.
* Other-Luggage/back packets/life vests/umbrellas/sleeping bags,tents.

Nylon is one of the strongest of all fibers, and for this reason it's used
in garments that take a great deal of hard wear, like panty hose, swimwear,

Although nylon is a very strong fiber, one of it's unfavorable
characteristics is that it has poor resistance to prolonged exposure to the
sun. In addition, the Lycra (or spandex) breaks down from exposure to
chlorine in pool water. Lycra is used for its stretch.

Supplex has a feel of cotton,comfortable, breathable and water repellent/
NOT water proof). Absorbs a small amount of water if it is getting drenched.

WOOL Natural, Animal fiber

* Comfortable * Luxurious, soft hand
* Versatile * Lightweight
* Good insulator * Washable
* Wrinkle-resistant * Absorbent
Major End Uses:
* Apparel - sweaters, dresses, coats, suits, jackets, pants, skirts,
childrenswear, loungewear, blouses, shirts, hosiery, scarves.

A teflon based membrane with microscopic holes. Gortex's claim to fame is
that it will let water vapor (from perspiration) through, but not liquid
water (rain). It blocks wind fairly well too. The membrane is delicate, so
it always comes laminated between 2 layers of other material. It does not
breathe enough. There are less expensive alternatives.

Does not wick very well. Can be uncomfortable. Troublesome to care for
(e.g. can pill badly) Will keep you fairly warm if soaked. Not very wind
resistant. Shrinks under heat from dryers. Thermax is an improvement on
Polypropylene. The big advantage is that Thermax isheat resistance so you
can put it in the dryer. Balance that against the extra cost.

60/40 CLOTH
This is a cloth with nylon threads running one direction, cotton in the
other. It was the standard wind parka material before Goretex came along,
and is considerably less expensive. Good wind resistance, fairly
breathable. Somewhat water resistant, especially if you spray it with
Scotchguard, but won't hold up to a heavy rain.

Breathability of Materials
summarized from Clive Tully UK Outdoor/Travel Writer
[email protected]

Breathability in waterproof clothing is one of the most misunderstood and
misrepresented technical aspects of outdoors clothing and equipment. It's
all very well listing the technical merits of a particular fabric, coating
or membrane. Too often, the design of the finished garment either makes or
breaks the fabric manufacturer's claim. E.g., a walking jacket with a
permanently vented shoulder flap might as well be made of non-breathable
PU. It can't maintain the partial pressure which makes the fabric work. The
exception is Gore-Tex fabric. Garment manufacturers using their fabrics
have to submit sample products for Gore to check they meet their laid down
standards of manufacture. Not many fabric manufacturers do that, but then,
not many have such a tight grip on their markets.

The Breathable options

Breathable waterproof fabrics operate by one of two ways.They're
microporous, with microscopic pores which permit the passage of water
vapour but not water liquid, or they're hydrophilic, a solid barrier but
capable of absorbing moisture vapour and passing it through its structure.
Either may come as coatings applied directly to a fabric, or membranes
which are glued to the fabric which carries it. Then there are microfibre
fabrics and cotton fabrics.

The top end of the market is dominated by Gore-Tex, and like some of the
other laminates on offer, it comes in a variety of forms. The original, and
still the best for durability, is 3-layer, where the breathable waterproof
membrane is sandwiched between a facing and lining fabric. Garments made of
this tend to be good value, too, because the manufacturing processes aren't
so complex. 2-layer is softer, with the membrane glued to the underside of
the facing fabric, and a loose lining. Not so durable, but usually more
breathable, and more expensive. Other varieties, laminate the membrane to a
lining fabric with loose outer - nice for fashion garments, and sometimes
the waterproof lining has loose outer and lining on either side - again,
more complex constructions generally adding up to more expensive garments.
And the outside pockets will let in water...

A coating is a coating, or is it? Breathable PU nylon doesn't really mean
an awful lot. Individual coatings can have their chemistry tinkered with to
make them more breathable or more waterproof. Cheaper coatings may be
applied in one pass over the fabric, more expensive performance coatings
may be made up of several thinner applications.

You'd expect breathable waterproof fabric to work reasonably well in dry
conditions, provided you're not working so hard as to overload its
capability to transport moisture. The real crunch is when it's raining. How
much does it breathe after 5 hours in pouring rain? Tests showed that all
fabrics lose an element of breathability in wet conditions. The various
configurations of Gore-Tex lost between 34 and 43% of their breathability,
Sympatex 31% on a Z-liner construction, 70% in a double layer. Helly-Tech's
decline was just short of 75%, but perhaps the biggest surprise was Lowe
Alpine's Triple Point Ceramic 1200, losing just 15%.

Whatever the coating or laminate, the facing fabric and its water-repellent
surface treatment is absolutely critical. It's fair to say that the coarse
texturised facing fabrics will fare less well than smooth ones because of a
larger surface area to grab water when the water repellent treatment wears


It is a misconception that a lining is an aid to breathability. It isn't.
It won't make any improvement. As an extra layer of insulation, it will
make condensation inside the jacket MORE likely. What it does is improve
the comfort factor by putting a layer between you and any condensation
which may form on the shiny underside of your coating or membrane. 2-layer
Gore-Tex would be just too fragile without a loose lining to protect it. In
other instances, it's used to mask what's going on (or rather, not) at the
point of greatest resistance!

A mesh lining can achieve the same effect with less resistance to the
passage of water vapour - looks nice too, even if it is a bit of a pain
with Velcro - but the best functional designs will still employ a smooth
lining fabric down the arms to avoid drag over your fleece. But if the mesh
is to do the same job for a poor breathable coating or membrane as a close
weave lining fabric, it has to be made from an absorbent or wicking fibre,
otherwise, there's not much point in having the lining at all.

Whether you have an expensive membrane or an inexpensive coating lurking
behind the face fabric of your jacket, the moment the fabric "wets out",
you're in danger of anything from drastically reducing performance to
turning your jacket into something with the breathability of a bin liner.
It's easy to see when this happens. The water no longer beads up and rolls
off the surface of the fabric, and you'll see it soaking into the material
in patches. The fabric is still waterproof (apart from pressure points -
see above), but its breathability will be greatly impaired. The answer is
to keep your jacket clean, following any washing instructions to the
letter, and maintain the water repellent finish on the outside.

General Information

Running Mailing Lists

T & F Mailing List
For details send email to: (Derrick Peterman)[email protected]

The Track and Field Mailing List is a world wide network of athletes,
coaches, sports scientists, officials, and track and field enthusiasts.
Many national class athletes from several nations subscribe. The list
provides rapid dissemination of results, discussion of track and field
topics, and a source for inquiry about track and field events.

Terminology: Pronation/Supination (Tom Page [email protected])

"Over" pronation describes a minor misalignment of the leg's forward swing
that causes the footstrike to be skewed to the inside of the heel.

"Over" supination is the reverse - impact is shifted toward the outside of
the heel. (Jim Horalek)

Pronation and supination describe natural and normal motions of the foot
during the walking or running stride. In a normal stride, the outside
portion of the heal strikes the ground first. The foot pronates to absorbe
shock. That is, it rolls inward. At the end of the stride, the foot
re-supinates -- rolls outward-- on push-off.

What the previous writer (Jim Horalek [email protected]) is defining is
`over pronation', and `over supination'. These are excesses of the normal
motions. Note that over pronation is fairly common and many shoes are
designed to counteract this. Over supination is very rare. Most people who
think they over supinate probably just under pronate. Some people who think
they over pronate may in fact pronate a normal amount, but fail to
re-supinate sufficiently at the end of the stride.

Calorie/Energy Count
(Kenrick J. Mock [email protected])

Here is a little table adapted from "Beyond Diet...Exercise Your Way to
Fitness and Heart Health" by Lenore R. Zohman, M.D.

Energy Range = Approx. Calories Per Hour

Energy Range Activity Conditioning Benefits

72-84 Sitting, Conversing None

120-150 Strolling, 1 mph Not strenuous enough to produce endurance
Walking, 2 mph your exercise capacity is very low

150-240 Golf, power cart. Not sufficiently taxing or continuous to
promote endurance.

240-300 Cleaning windows Adequate for conditioning if carried out
Mopping floor continuously for vacuuming 20-30 minutes
Bowling Too intermittent for endurance
Walking, 3mph Adequate dynamic exercise if
Cycling, 6mph your capacity is low
Golf, pulling cart Useful if you walk briskly,if cart is heavy
isometrics may be involved.

300-360 Scrubbing floors Adequate if done in at least 2 minute stints
Walking, 3.5 mph Usually good dynamic aerobic exercise
Cycling, 8 mph
Ping Pong Vigorous continuous play can
Badminton have endurance benefits. May aid skill.
Tennis, doubles Not beneficial unless there is continuous play
for at least 2 minutes at a time. Aids skill.

360-420 Walking, 4mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial.
Cycling, 10mph
Skating Should be continuous

420-480 Walking, 5mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial.
Cycling, 11mph
Tennis, singles Benefit if played 30 minutes or more with an
attempt to keep moving
Water Skiing Total isometrics

480-600 Jogging, 5 mph Dynamic, aerobic, endurance
Cycling, 12mph building exercise.
Downhill skiing Usually too short to help endurance
Paddleball Not sufficiently continuous for aerobic

600-660 Running, 5.5 mph Excellent conditioner.
Cycling, 13 mph

Over 660 Running, 6+ mph Excellent conditioner
Handball, Squash Conditioning benefit if played 30 min or more.
Swimming (wide Good conditioning exercise caloric
Calories burned by running
(Rob Lingelbach [email protected])

Here is a table I clipped from Runner's World; the source listed
is "Exercise & Physiology" (Lea & Febiger, 1986). At 70% of max.

Pace (minutes per mile)
12:00 10:43 9:41 8:46 8:02 7:26 6:54 6:26 6:02
Wt(lbs) Calories burned per hour running
100 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800
119 432 486 540 594 648 702 756 810 864
128 464 522 580 638 696 754 812 870 928
137 496 558 620 682 744 806 868 930 992
146 528 594 660 726 792 858 924 990 1056
154 560 630 700 770 840 910 980 1050 1120
163 592 666 740 814 888 962 1036 1110 1184
172 624 702 780 858 936 1014 1092 1170 1248
181 656 738 820 902 984 1066 1148 1230 1312
190 688 774 860 946 1032 1118 1204 1290 1376
199 720 810 900 990 1080 1170 1260 1350 1440
207 752 846 940 1034 1128 1222 1316 1410 1504
216 784 882 980 1078 1176 1274 1372 1470 1568
225 816 918 1020 1122 1224 1326 1428 1530 1632
234 848 954 1060 1166 1272 1378 1484 1590 1696
Muscle Fuels Used During Exercise
Stuart Phillips([email protected])

There are 3 main fuels used during exercise by the contracting muscle: 1)
Protein; 2) Carbohydrate; 3) Fat.

PROTEIN: A majority of text books written will not acknowledge
protein as a major fuel, and it likely is not. It should be pointed out
that protein requirements of someone who is running/exercising on a
regular basis are GREATER than those of a sedentary population. Is this
something to worry about? Most "North American" diets contain more protein
than is needed. So the bottom
line is you get more than you need so don't worry. Vegetarians? Again the
answer is likely yes, they also get enough protein. Even when consuming a
pure protein diet there is enough protein to more than cover the needs of
a person who regularly runs/exercises. Moreover, most vegetarians are
aware of what they eat and plan their diets very well.

FUELS: Fats and carbohydrates (CHOs are then the major fuel sources
for the exercising person. The balance of the use of these fuels is
dependant upon exercise intensity and duration (the two are inversly
related). The general rule is that the lower the intensity the greater the
energy cost of exercise can be covered by fat. Hence, the greater the
exercise duration the more fat will be burned, usually because the
intensity of one's workout will decrease - FATIGUE! The flip side then, is
that during higher intensity exercise (>70% of max), one relies heavily on
Archive-name: running-faq/part4
Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days


Medical / Injuries

-------------------------------- Achilles tendonitis (sorry, forgot the

General advice:

1. Warm up before you stretch. This could be in the form of a slow jog as
you start your run. When I feel it necessary, I stop for a few minutes and
stretch during the early stages of a run.

2. Stretch after your run. This has proven the best solution for me.
Whenever I skip this part, I end up stiff the next day. The muscles are
nice and warm after a run and respond well to stretching. My flexibility
has improved as a result of this practice, too.

3. With regards to an injury, you've got to be tough and rest it in order
for it to heal. This might be a good time to concentrate on strength
training with weights.


The good news: since this seems to be your first injury, and your training
load is light, your tendinitis is probably due to the most simple cause -
leg length imbalance. Get someone to mark how far you can bend to each
side, if these are different heights then you might find a heel raiser
under the bad leg will both even out the side-bend _and_ speed up the

The bad news: achilles is notoriously slow to heal even with the correct
treatment. And the chances of recurrence are quite high. However the
condition you describe shouldn't prevent your training, as long as you
promote healing with stretching, massage (calf/inner thigh/groin), ice,

Shin splints (Harry Y Xu [email protected]) (Doug Poirier
[email protected]in (Rodney Sanders [email protected])

Excerpts from _The SprotsMedicine Book_ G. Mirkin, MD. and M. Hoffman:

``Shin splints are....condition that can result from muscle imbalance. They
are characterized by generalized pain in front of the lower leg and are
particularly comon in runners and running backs.... The most common cause
is a muscle imbalance where the calf muscles--which pull the forefoot
down--overpower the shin muscles--which pull the forefoot up. As the
athlete continues to train, the calf muscle usually becomes proportionately
much stronger than the shin muscles.

The treatment for shin splints is to strengthen the weaker muscles (shins)
and stretch the stronger muscles (calves).

To strengthen the shins, run up stairs. To stretch the calves,...(do
stretching exercises for the calves, et. the wall push-ups)'' *end of


In my experience, I have found that stretching is the real key to avoiding
shin-splints. I believe there's a book with stretches by Bob Anderson that
you may want to check. Also, back issues of running magazines sometimes
have helpful information. Basically, I do the standard "lean on the wall
stretch" and a stretch by standing flat-footed on one leg and bending at
the knee to stretch the achilles. I then top these off with a few toe
raises (no weights!) before I head out to run... If you're having trouble,
I'd recommend stretching 2-3 times a day until you get over the problem.
Start slowly!

Also, you probably should avoid hills and extremely hard surfaces until the
situation improves. I've known several people who've had shin splints and
gotten over them by stretching. (Of course, you should be careful in case
the shin splints are the result of a more severe problem...)


Help with shin splints.

1. Try picking up marbles with your toes and holding onto them for a few

1A. While recovering from shin splints, it may help to use a wedge in the
heel of your shoes. By raising the heel, you are reducing the pull on the
muscles and tendons on the front.

2. Stand on the stairs with your heels out over the edge. Lower your heels
as far as they will go without undue discomfort, and hold for 15 seconds.
Slowly raise yourself up on your toes. Repeat 5 million times. (Sherwood
Botsford [email protected])

3. If you can, rig something with either surgical tubing or a large
rubberband. For example: put the tubing around one of the back legs of your
desk in some sort of a loop. Reach under the tubing with your toes, with
your heel as a pivot pull the tubing toward you. This will work the muscle
in the front of the shins. Repeat 6 million times. It's easier than the
stair exercise

4. Run on different terrain, preferably grass. It'll absorb the shock.

5. This normally affects knees, but it might affect shins. Don't run on the
same side of the road all of the time. It is sloped left or right to let
the water run off. Running on the same slope for long periods of time will
cause adverse effects to the ankles, shins...etc.... If you are running on
a track, alternate your direction of travel, as the lean when you are going
around the corners is at least as bad as the crown slope of a road. This is
especially true of small indoor tracks.

6. Strenghening the front muscles: Make a training weight by tying a strip
of cloth to a pop bottle. Sit on the kitchen counter top, hang bottle from
toes, and raise it up and down by flexing your ankle. Weight can be
adjusted by adding water or sand to the bottle. (Sherwood Botsford
[email protected])

7. Scatter a few chunks of 2x4 around the house where you tend to stand,
say kitchen and bathroom. Now everytime you are at the stove or at the
bathroom (in front of either fixture) stand on 2x4 and rest your heels on
the floor. One in front of the TV and used during every commercial will
either stretch you, or stop you from watching TV. [email protected]

------------------------------ Side stitches (Jack Berkery
[email protected])

The Latest Word on Stitches

In the May-June 1992 issue of Running Research News there is an article by
Dr. Gordon Quick about the causes of and cures for stitches. To summarize:

1) Stitches are a muscle spasm of the diaphragm. The cause of the spasm is
that the organs below it are jouncing up and down and pulling down as it
wants to pull up. The liver being the largest organ is the biggest culprit
which is why most stitches are on the right side. A stomach full of food
may also contribute to the problem for the same reason. Stitches also occur
more often when running downhill or in cold weather.

2) The cure seems almost too simple. Breathe out when your left foot
strikes the ground instead of when the right foot strikes so that the
organs on the right side of the abdomen are jouncing up when the diaphragm
is going up. The organs attached to the bottom of the diaphragm on the left
aren't as big, so exert less downward pulling strain. If this is not enough
to get rid of it, stop and raise you arms above your head until the pain
goes away and when you resume, be a left foot breather. (Conversely, if
your stitch occurs on the left side, switch your breathing to exhale on the
right foot.)

3) Do not eat anything for an hour before running if you are prone to
stitches, BUT PLEASE DO DRINK WATER. Water empties from the stomach faster
than solids and the risk of complications from dehydration far exceed the
problems one may have with a stitch.

4) In the long term, exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles will
help prevent stitches because tighter abs will allow less movement of those
internal organs. Practice belly breathing instead of chest breathing as
recommended by Noakes. For the most part, stitches diminish over time.
While they are not strictly a novice runner's problem (about 1/3 of all
runners get them from time to time) they usually will go away after a few
weeks of conditioning.


By Tim Noakes Oxford Uni. Press, 1985. Quoted from "Lore of Running"

Proper breathing prevents the development of the `stitch'. The stitch is a
condition that occurs only during exercise and which causes severe pain
usually on the right side of the abdomen, immediately below the rib margin.
Frequently the pain is also perceived in the right shoulder joint, where it
feels as if an ice-pick were being driven into the joint. The pain is
exacerbated by down-hill running and by fast, sustained running as in a
short road race or time trial. For various complex anatomical reasons, the
fact that the stitch causes pain to be felt in the shoulder joint suggests
that the diaphragm is the source of the pain.

It has been suggested that when breathing with the chest too much air is
drawn into the lungs, and not all is exhaled. This causes a gradual and
progressive accumulation of air in the lungs, causing them to expand which
in turn causes the diaphragm to be stretched and to encroach on the
abdominal contents below it. During running, the over-stretched diaphragm
becomes sandwiched between an over-expanded chest above, and a jolting
intestine pounding it from below. It revolts by going into spasm, and the
pain of this spasm is recognized as the stitch.

Although there is really not a shred of scientific evidence for this
belief, I have found that diaphragm spasm is almost certainly involved in
the stitch and that belly-breathing can frequently relieve the pain.

The runner who wishes to learn how to belly-breath should lie on the floor
and place one or more large books on his stomach. He should concentrate on
making the books rise when he breathes in and fall when he exhales. As it
takes about two months to learn to do the movement whilst running fast, it
is important to start practicing well before an important race.

A change in breathing pattern may help relieve the stitch. Within a short
period of starting running, breathing becomes synchronized with footfall.
Thus one automatically breaths in on one leg and out when landing either on
the same leg - that is 2, 3 or 4 full strides later - or on the opposite
leg - that is 1 1/2, 2 1/2, or 3 1/2 strides later. Thus the ratio of
stride to breathing may be 2:1, 3:1, 4:1; or 1.5:1, 2.5:1, 3.5:1.

This phenomenon was first reported by Bramble and Carrier (1983). Of
particular interest was their finding that most runners are `footed', that
is the beginning and end of a respiratory cycle occurs on the same foot,
usually in a stride to breathing ratio of either 4:1 whilst jogging or 2:1
whilst running faster. Runners then become habituated to breathing out on
the same let, day after day. This produces asymmetrical stresses on the
body and could be a factor in both the stitch and in certain running
injuries. I am `left-footed' and have also suffered my major running
injuries only on my left side. If changes in breathing patterns do not
prevent the stitch then the last step is to increase abdominal muscle
strength. The correct way to strengthen the abdominal muscles is to do
bent-knee sit ups with the feet unsupported.


EDITORS NOTE: Readers response to "Belly Breathing" definition above.
"Belly Breathing" (Lamont Granquist [email protected])

While I wasn't breathing with my chest, I wasn't really "Belly Breathing".
When I exhaled, what I was doing was pulling my stomach muscles in. I found
out that this is *not* the way to "Belly Breathe". The idea is to throw
your gut out as much as possible -- try and look as fat & ugly as you can
when you run. For the suggestion in the FAQ of lying on your back and
lifting a book, it should probably be noted that when exhaling you want to
try to keep the book lifted up (of course naturally, you don't want to try
to do this all so hard that it becomes difficult to exhale -- the idea is
that breathing this way should be comfortable).

Stitches continued (Sunil Dixit [email protected])

1. Since it is a cramp, I try not to drink or eat too soon before my runs,
and I try to limit my intake during runs.

2. I stretch my abs extensively before a run. Putting my arm over my head
and leaning to the opposite side until I'm pulling on the side of my
abdominals works well.

3. I regulate my breathing by breathing in through my nose, and out through
my mouth. This sounds like zen-****, but believe me, it works amazingly
well in eliminating all types of cramping. When you first do it, it'll feel
like you're not getting enough oxygen, but if you persist the technique
will become very comfortable.

4. I run with my back fairly straight, even up hills. This keeps the lungs
from bending over in my body, and makes it much easier to breathe.

5. If none of these work, I keep going anyway. After about 3 miles, it
usually goes away . . . if you're lucky.

------------------ Lactic Acid (Rob Loszewski
[email protected])

"Lactic acid buildup (technically called acidosis) can cause burning pain,
especially in untrained muscles. Lactic acid accumulation can lead to
muscle exhaustion withing seconds if the blood cannot clear it away. A
strategy for dealing with lactic acid buildup is to relax the muscles at
every opportunity, so that the circulating blood can carry the lactic acid
away and bring oxygen to support aerobic metabolism. ...much of the lactic
acid is routed to the liver, where it is converted to glucose. A little
lactic acid remains in muscle tissue, where it is completely oxidized when
the oxygen supply is once again sufficient." Understanding Nutrition, 5th
ed., Whitney, Hamilton, Rolfes., West Pub. Comp. 1990, pg402- 403.

------------------ Loose Bowels (Rodney Sanders [email protected])

Some general advice to take care of loose bowels.

(1) Look for offending foods in your diet. For example, many people have a
lactose intolerance which can cause all sorts of fun if you had a triple
cheese pizza the night before the run...

(2) If you run in the morning, eat lightly and early the night before... I
try to make sure I eat the least problematic foods close to my workouts...
I've personally found baked chicken/fish, baked potatoes, and pasta with
light sauces (no alfredo!), to be pretty good...

(3) I read that Bill Rodgers drinks a cup of coffee in the morning before
heading out...The caffeine stimulates one to take care of things completely
before getting out...This has helped me when I run in the morning....

(4) Carry a wad of toilet paper with you!

I suspect that if you monitor your diet closely, you'll probably find
something that makes the problem worse than at other times and you can
avoid that food...

Some other advice: (Sanjay Manandhar [email protected]) 1.
Less fiber in the diet 2. Run repeats on small loops.
3. Note all the washrooms along the route. 4. Time of day. For me, mornings
are bad. In the evening runs the problem is infrequent. 5. A primer run. If
I have to run in the mornings, I run 1 mile of primer run so that the
bowels can be taken care of. Then I start my real run.

----- Diabetes & Running (Timothy Law Snyder [email protected])

Oops, here is what makes virutually every person with diabetes bristle:
MYTHS of diabetes!

Not to flame Jay, but diabetics can (and do) eat as much sugar, drink as
much booze, and run as many marathons as anybody else. The challenge is
that they must manage the delicate balance between insulin (which lowers
blood sugar), food (which raises it), and exercise (which, because it
stokes up the metabolism and makes the insulin "rage") lowers blood sugar.
Timing is important, and sometimes, due to the millions of factors that are
at play (and _not_ due to negligence), the blood sugar will go too high or
too low.

Before a run, a person with diabetes (nobody in the know calls them
"diabetics" any more) must make sure that the blood sugar is somewhat
higher than normal. This gives a "pad" so that exercise does not result in
a low-sugar crisis. Often the runner will take less insulin the day of the
run. Before (and for long runs, during) the run some food must be eaten.
For short runs, carbos will do, but proteins and fats are also necessary
for the longer hauls.

For a marathon, one must take some sort of food during the run. A high-
carbo source like a soda works well, for the sugar is taken up immediately
and, since the beverage is concentrated, it is easily digested (relative
to, say, the caloric equivalent in whole wheat : ).

Sugar does absolutely _no_ harm to the person with diabetes (provided, they
do not ignore insulin requirements). That's right: The person could knock
off twelve sodas, an entire chocolate cake, and a bag of M&Ms, and be as
"fine" as anybody else (quotes intended---yuk!).

While I am at it, here are a couple of other myth corrections: There is no
clear evidence that diabetes is hereditary. Diabetes has _nothing_ to do
with how much sugar the person ate before acquiring the condition. People
with diabetes can (and do) drink as much alcohol as anybody else. (Alcohol
lowers the blood sugar a tiny bit, so one must be careful to not forget to
eat [and too many cocktails tend to...].)

Hope this helps. Oh, by the way, NO, the taste of something sweet does not
cause the release of insulin (save a possible [and rare] placebo effect).


Nutrition and Food (Bruce Hildenbrand [email protected]) [Ed.
note: Originally appeared in rec.bicycles]

Oh well, I have been promising to do this for a while and given the present
discussions on nutrition, it is about the right time. This article was
written in 1980 for Bicycling Magazine. It has been reprinted in over 30
publications, been the basis for a chapter in a book and cited numerous
other times. I guess somebody besides me thinks its OK. If you disagree
with any points, that's fine, I just don't want to see people take
exception based on their own personal experiences because everyone is
different and psychological factors play a big role(much bigger than you
would think) on how one perceives his/her own nutritional requirements.
Remember that good nutrition is a LONG TERM process that is not really
affected by short term events(drinking poison would be an exception). If it
works for you then do it!!! Don't preach!!!!
Archive-name: running-faq/part5
Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days


Nutrition in athletics is a very controversial topic. However, for an
athlete to have confidence that his/her diet is beneficial he/she must
understand the role each food component plays in the body's overall makeup.
Conversely, it is important to identify and understand the nutritional
demands on the physiological processes of the body that occur as a result
of racing and training so that these needs can be satisfied in the
athlete's diet.

For the above reasons, a basic nutrition primer should help the athlete
determine the right ingredients of his/her diet which fit training and
racing schedules and existing eating habits. The body requires three basic
components from foods: 1) water; 2) energy; and 3)nutrients.


Water is essential for life and without a doubt the most important
component in our diet. Proper hydrations not only allows the body to
maintain structural and biochemical integrity, but it also prevents
overheating, through sensible heat loss(perspiration). Many *runners* have
experienced the affects of acute fluid deficiency on a hot day, better
known as heat exhaustion. Dehydration can be a long term problem,
especially at altitude, but this does not seem to be a widespread problem
among *runners* and is only mentioned here as a reminder (but an important


Energy is required for metabolic processes, growth and to support physical
activity. The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences
has procrastinated in establishing a Recommended Daily Allowance(RDA) for
energy the reasoning being that such a daily requirement could lead to
overeating. A moderately active 70kg(155lb) man burns about 2700 kcal/day
and a moderately active 58kg(128lb) woman burns about 2500 kcal/day.

It is estimated that runners burn XXXX kcal/min or about ***-*** kcal/hr
while *running* (this is obviously dependent on the level of exertion).
Thus a three hour training *run* can add up to XXXX kcals(the public knows
these as calories) to the daily energy demand of the *runner*. Nutritional
studies indicate that there is no significant increase in the vitamin
requirement of the athlete as a result of this energy expenditure.

In order to meet this extra demand, the *runner* must increase his/her
intake of food. This may come before, during or after a *run* but most
likely it will be a combination of all of the above. If for some reason
extra nutrients are required because of this extra energy demand, they will
most likely be replenished through the increased food intake. Carbohydrates
and fats are the body's energy sources and will be discussed shortly.


This is a broad term and refers to vitamins, minerals, proteins,
carbohydrates, fats, fiber and a host of other substances. The body is a
very complex product of evolution. It can manufacture many of the resources
it needs to survive. However, vitamins, minerals and essential amino
acids(the building blocks of proteins) and fatty acids cannot be
manufactured, hence they must be supplied in our food to support proper

Vitamins and Minerals

No explanation needed here except that there are established RDA's for most
vitamins and minerals and that a well balanced diet, especially when
supplemented by a daily multivitamin and mineral tablet should meet all the
requirements of the cyclist.

Proper electrolyte replacement(sodium and potassium salts) should be
emphasized, especially during and after long, hot rides. Commercially
available preparations such as Exceed, Body Fuel and Isostar help replenish
electrolytes lost while *running*.


Food proteins are necessary for the synthesis of the body's
skeletal(muscle, skin, etc.) and biochemical(enzymes, hormones,
etc.)proteins. Contrary to popular belief, proteins are not a good source
of energy in fact they produce many toxic substances when they are
converted to the simple sugars needed for the body's energy demand.

Americans traditionally eat enough proteins to satisfy their body's
requirement. All indications are that increased levels of exercise do not
cause a significant increase in the body's daily protein requirement which
has been estimated to be 0.8gm protein/kg body weight.


Carbohydrates are divided into two groups, simple and complex, and serve as
one of the body's two main sources of energy.

Simple carbohydrates are better known as sugars, examples being fructose,
glucose(also called dextrose), sucrose(table sugar) and lactose(milk

The complex carbohydrates include starches and pectins which are
multi-linked chains of glucose. Breads and pastas are rich sources of
complex carbohydrates.

The brain requires glucose for proper functioning which necessitates a
carbohydrate source. The simple sugars are quite easily broken down to help
satisfy energy and brain demands and for this reason they are an ideal food
during racing and training. The complex sugars require a substantially
longer time for breakdown into their glucose sub units and are more suited
before and after riding to help meet the body's energy requirements.


Fats represent the body's other major energy source. Fats are twice as
dense in calories as carbohydrates(9 kcal/gm vs 4 kcal/gm) but they are
more slowly retrieved from their storage units(triglycerides) than
carbohydrates(glycogen). Recent studies indicate that caffeine may help
speed up the retrieval of fats which would be of benefit on long rides.

Fats are either saturated or unsaturated and most nutritional experts agree
that unsaturated, plant-based varieties are healthier. Animal fats are
saturated(and may contain cholesterol), while plant based fats such as corn
and soybean oils are unsaturated. Unsaturated fats are necessary to supply
essential fatty acids and should be included in the diet to represent about
25% of the total caloric intake. Most of this amount we don't really
realize we ingest, so it is not necessary to heap on the margarine as a
balanced diet provides adequate amounts.


Now that we have somewhat of an understanding of the role each food
component plays in the body's processes let's relate the nutritional
demands that occur during *running* in an attempt to develop an adequate
diet. Basically our bodies need to function in three separate areas which
require somewhat different nutritional considerations. These areas are: 1)
building; 2) recovery; and 3) performance.


Building refers to increasing the body's ability to perform physiological
processes, one example being the gearing up of enzyme systems necessary for
protein synthesis, which results in an increase in muscle mass, oxygen
transport, etc. These systems require amino acids, the building blocks of
proteins. Hence, it is important to eat a diet that contains quality
proteins (expressed as a balance of the essential amino acid sub units
present)fish, red meat, milk and eggs being excellent sources.

As always, the RDA's for vitamins and minerals must also be met but, as
with the protein requirement, they are satisfied in a well balanced diet.


This phase may overlap the building process and the nutritional
requirements are complimentary. Training and racing depletes the body of
its energy reserves as well as loss of electrolytes through sweat.
Replacing the energy reserves is accomplished through an increased intake
of complex carbohydrates(60-70% of total calories) and to a lesser extent
fat(25%). Replenishing lost electrolytes is easily accomplished through the
use of the commercial preparations already mentioned.


Because the performance phase(which includes both training *runs* and
racing)spans at most 5-7 hours whereas the building and recovery phases are
ongoing processes, its requirements are totally different from the other
two. Good nutrition is a long term proposition meaning the effects of a
vitamin or mineral deficiency take weeks to manifest themselves. This is
evidenced by the fact that it took many months for scurvy to show in
sailors on a vitamin C deficient diet. What this means is that during the
performance phase, the primary concern is energy replacement (fighting off
the dreaded "bonk") while the vitamin and mineral demands can be

Simple sugars such a sucrose, glucose and fructose are the quickest sources
of energy and in moderate quantities of about 100gm/hr(too much can delay
fluid absorption in the stomach) are helpful in providing fuel for the body
and the brain. Proteins and fats are not recommended because of their slow
and energy intensive digestion mechanism.

Short, *runs* or races of up to one hour in length usually require no
special nutritional considerations provided the body's short term energy
stores (glycogen) are not depleted which may be the case during *long*

Because psychological as well as physiological factors determine
performance most *runners* tend to eat and drink whatever makes them feel
"good" during a *run*. This is all right as long as energy considerations
are being met and the stomach is not overloaded trying to digest any fatty
or protein containing foods. If the vitamin and mineral requirements are
being satisfied during the building and recovery phases no additional
intake during the performance phase is necessary.


Basically, what all this means is that good nutrition for the *runner* is
not hard to come by once we understand our body's nutrient and energy
requirements. If a balanced diet meets the RDA's for protein, vitamins and
minerals as well as carbohydrate and fat intake for energy then everything
should be OK nutritionally. It should be remembered that the problems
associated with nutrient deficiencies take a long time to occur. Because of
this it is not necessary to eat "right" at every meal which explains why
weekend racing junkets can be quite successful on a diet of tortilla chips
and soft drinks. However, bear in mind that over time, the body's
nutritional demands must be satisfied. To play it safe many *runners* take
a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement tablet which has no adverse
affects and something I personally recommend. Mega vitamin doses(levels
five times or more of the RDA) have not been proven to be beneficial and
may cause some toxicity problems.


"Good" nutrition is not black and white. As we have seen, the body's
requirements are different depending on the phase it is in. While the
building and recovery phases occur somewhat simultaneously the performance
phase stands by itself. For this reason, some foods are beneficial during
one phase but not during another. A good example is the much maligned
twinkie. In the performance phase it is a very quick source of energy and
quite helpful. However, during the building phase it is not necessary and
could be converted to unwanted fat stores. To complicate matters, the
twinkie may help replenish energy stores during the recovery phase however,
complex carbohydrates are probably more beneficial. So, "one man's meat may
be another man's poison."


This term refers to the quantity of nutrients in a food for its
accompanying caloric(energy) value. A twinkie contains much energy but few
vitamins and minerals so has a low nutrient density. Liver, on the other
hand, has a moderate amount of calories but is rich in vitamins and
minerals and is considered a high nutrient density food.

Basically, one must meet his/her nutrient requirements within the
constraints of his/her energy demands. Persons with a low daily activity
level have a low energy demand and in order to maintain their body weight
must eat high nutrient density foods. As already mentioned, a *runner* has
an increased energy demand but no significant increase in nutrient
requirements. Because of this he/she can eat foods with a lower nutrient
density than the average person. This means that a *runner* can be less
choosy about the foods that are eaten provided he/she realizes his/her
specific nutrient and energy requirements that must be met.


Now, the definition of that nebulous phrase, "a balanced diet". Taking into
consideration all of the above, a diet emphasizing fruits and vegetables
(fresh if possible), whole grain breads, pasta, cereals, milk, eggs, fish
and red meat(if so desired) will satisfy long term nutritional demands.
These foods need to be combined in such a way that during the building and
recovery phase, about 60-70% of the total calories are coming from
carbohydrate sources, 25% from fats and the remainder(about 15%) from

It is not necessary to get 100% of the RDA for all vitamins and minerals at
every meal. It may be helpful to determine which nutritional requirements
you wish to satisfy at each meal. Personally, I use breakfast to satisfy
part of my energy requirement by eating toast and cereal. During lunch I
meet some of the energy, protein and to a lesser extent vitamin and mineral
requirements with such foods as yogurt, fruit, and peanut butter and jelly
sandwiches. Dinner is a big meal satisfying energy, protein, vitamin and
mineral requirements with salads, vegetables, pasta, meat and milk. Between
meal snacking is useful to help meet the body's energy requirement.


All this jiberish may not seem to be telling you anything you couldn't
figure out for yourself. The point is that "good" nutrition is not hard to
achieve once one understands the reasons behind his/her dietary habits.
Such habits can easily be modified to accommodate the nutritional demands
of *running* without placing any strict demands on one's lifestyle.

------------------------ Powerbars (John McClintic [email protected])

I submit "power bar" recipe originated by Bill Paterson from Portland Oregon.

The odd ingredient in the bar, paraffin, is widely used in chocolate
manufacture to improve smoothness and flowability, raise the melting point,
and retard deterioration of texture and flavor. Butter can be used instead,
but a butter-chocolate mixture doesn't cover as thinly or smoothly.


1 cup regular rolled oats
1/2 cup sesame seed
1 1/2 cups dried apricots, finely chopped 1 1/2 cups raisins 1 cup
shredded unsweetened dry coconut
1 cup blanched almonds, chopped
1/2 cup nonfat dry milk
1/2 cup toasted wheat germ
2 teaspoons butter or margarine
1 cup light corn syrup
3/4 cup sugar
1 1/4 cups chunk-style peanut butter
1 teaspoon orange extract
2 teaspoons grated orange peel
1 package (12 oz.) or 2 cups semisweet chocolate
baking chips
4 ounces paraffin or 3/4 cup (3/4 lb.) butter or

Spread oats in a 10- by 15-inch baking pan. Bake in a 300 degree oven until
oats are toasted, about 25 minutes. Stir frequently to prevent scorching.

Meanwhile, place sesame seed in a 10- to 12-inch frying pan over medium
heat. Shake often or stir until seeds are golden, about 7 minutes.

Pour into a large bowl. Add apricots, raisins, coconut, almonds, dry milk,
and wheat germ; mix well. Mix hot oats into dried fruit mixture.

Butter the hot backing pan; set aside.

In the frying pan, combine corn syrup and sugar; bring to a rolling boil
over medium high heat and quickly stir in the peanut butter, orange
extract, and orange peel.

At once, pour over the oatmeal mixture and mix well. Quickly spread in
buttered pan an press into an even layer. Then cover and chill until firm,
at least 4 hours or until next day.

Cut into bars about 1 1/4 by 2 1/2 inches.

Combine chocolate chips and paraffin in to top of a double boiler. Place
over simmering water until melted; stir often. Turn heat to low.

Using tongs, dip 1 bar at a time into chocolate, hold over pan until it
stops dripping (with paraffin, the coating firms very quickly), then place
on wire racks set above waxed paper.

When firm and cool (bars with butter in the chocolate coating may need to
be chilled), serve bars, or wrap individually in foil. Store in the
refrigerator up to 4 weeks; freeze to store longer. Makes about 4 dozen
bars, about 1 ounce each.

Per piece: 188 cal.; 4.4 g protein; 29 g carbo.; 9.8 g fat; 0.6 mg chol.;
40 mg sodium.


Orienteering (Matt Mahoney [email protected]) updated

Orienteering is called the "thinking sport" because it involves two skills
-- running and map reading. The object is to run to a series of markers in
the woods, along any route you want. The hard part is finding the markers
with the aid of a map and a compass.

There are 6 courses to choose from, called White, Yellow, Orange, Green,
Red and Blue. This has nothing to do with the colors of the markers (which
are orange and white and look like lanterns hanging from trees). It has to
do with level of difficulty, like belts in karate. The white course is the
easiest, about a mile, with the markers clearly visible from roads or
trails. Blue is the hardest, about 4-5 miles, and involves mostly
cross-country running with emphasis on successful navigation using terrain
features. Each marker has a 2-letter code (to distinguish it from markers
on other trails) which you match up with a code sheet that you carry with
your map. There, you stamp your card in the appropriate numbered spot. Each
stamp produced a distinct pattern of holes in the card.

Orienteering now has its very own news group, The
BAOC newsletter is run by Wyatt Riley out of Stanford (wriley@leland. Subscription requests should be sent to:
[email protected]
with the following line in the text:
subscribe baoc your name e.g. subscribe baoc Bill Clinton
BAOC home pg:
============================================================= Predicting
times (10k-marathon) (Tim [email protected])

In `Training Distance Runners' Coe and Martin come up with three sets of
formulas for determining equivalent race performances over several
distances when the performance for one distance is known. They have three
tables to counter problems of athlete specificity.

For long distance specialists (i.e 10k/15km) : Marathon = 4.76Y : 10k = Y
: 5k = 0.48Y
: 3k = 0.28Y
: 1.5k = 0.13Y

For 3k/5k runners : 10k = 2.1Y
: 5k = Y
: 3k = 0.58Y
: 1.5k = 0.27Y
: 800m = 0.13Y
: 400m = 0.06Y

For `real' middle distance: 5k = 3.63Y
: 3k = 2.15Y
: 1.5k = Y
: 800m = 0.48Y
: 400m = 0.22Y


Running Clubs & Organizations (John Berkery [email protected])

ARFA - American Running and Fitness Association 9310 Old Georgetown Rd
Bathesda MD 20814

ARRA - Association of Road Racing Athletes (professionals) 807 Paulsen Bldg
Spokane WA 99201

Clydesdale Runners Association (heavyweights) 1809 Gold Mine Rd
Brookville Md 20833

NWAA - National Wheel Chair Athletic Association 3617 Betty Dr, suite S
Colorado Springs CO 80907

RRCA - Road Runners Clubs of America
629 S. Washington St
Alexandria VA 22314

Special Olympics (handicapped)
1350 New York Ave, NW, suite 500
Washington DC 20005

TAC - The Athletics Congress of the USA (IAAF member) 1 Hoosier Dome, suite 140
Indianapolis IN 46225

USABA - U.S. Association for Blind Athletes 33 N. Institute St
Brown Hall, suite 015
Colorado Springs CO 80903

USCAA - U.S. Corporate Athletics Association (company teams)
401 North Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL, 60611-4267
(312) 644-6610, fax (312) 527-6658
WWW site -

BACAA - Bay Area Corporate Athletics Assn.
northern California affiliate of the USCAA
Brian Schonfeld, Sun Microsystems, (415) 786-7801, [email protected]
Mal Murphy, Rocje Bioscience, (415) 960-5583, [email protected]
WWW site -

USCPAA - U.S. Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association 34518 Warren Rd, suite 264
Westland MI 48185

USOC - U.S. Olympic Committee
1750 E. Boulder St
Colorado Springs CO 80909-5760

Achilles Track Club (handicapped)
c/o New York RRC
9 East 89th St
New York NY 10128

Other running organizations
Many road runners clubs are not affiliated with RRCA. Information about
these independent clubs may be found at local sporting goods stores or at
athletic shoe stores. Local YMCA/YWCA organizations may also be able to
supply a contact address or phone number.
Archive-name: running-faq/part7
Last-modified: 10 March 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days


Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to
rec.running plus interesting & useful information for runners. If known,
author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie Gontang
<[email protected]> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper
info of sources or holder's of copyright.

Running and Pregnancy. Paula Vanzant-Hardick <[email protected]>

I have been running for oh, about 11 or 12 years now and have run all the
way through all of my pregnancies. I feel like it has made them healthier
for both of us. I have never had any kind of a problem with low iron, high
blood pressure or any real pregnancy related maladies.

I also believe that had I not run, my recovery time after each baby was
born would have been significantly longer than they were. Even after my
second one (the C section, I could walk a couple of miles within about 10
days after delivery).

Running is a FABULOUS form of stress management.

Now to my diet, I just really maintained my normal diet, the only thing is
I may have been a little heavier on the fresh fruits (trying to avoid that
refined sugar you know) and I usually drink at least 10 8oz glasses of
water a day (you notice I say at least). The water I think also helps to
keep the yuckies away.

I am planning to continue my training regime as usual with this pregnancy
as I have with the others. I guess the only thing that I may do a bit
differently during pregnancy is if I really feel like I need to walk during
any of my runs, I will, it may only be a few feet or it may be 1/2 mile
but if I have a feeling that I don't think should be there I don't hesitate
to walk it off.

Any of these other women who have run while pregnant may have other
suggestions but I guess my biggest thing is to just really do what feels
best for the person.

And one last note, there were times during each of my pregnancies that I
would have rather had a nap, but instead would drag myself out for a run, I
would not only feel better after I had run, I would have TONS more energy
(and the second, third and now fourth time that is VERY important.)

Thanks for asking and giving me the opportunity to share my thoughts!
Paula (and the thundering herd--Tom, Shaun, Alexa, Erin and #4)

excerpted by Paula from UK version of Runner's World May 1995

"Running for Two" (subtitle Good News- running during pregnancy can make
you and your baby healthier!) By Joe Dunbar

"There are two main issued: how will training affect the baby, and how will
pregnancy affect running performance?....In General, the running you do
when pregnant should be aimed at maintaining rather than developing

The main danger to the fetus (that British spelling), according to Dr.
Richard Budgett 0f the British Olympic Medical Centre, is from an increase
in body temperature. The main effect of too great an increase in body
temperature is damage to the fetus's central nervous system. The danger is
especially great in the first three months, but you should be careful
throughout the pregnancy. Budgett recommends that you limit the increase
in body temperature to 38.9 Degree C (102 F).

You are also generally recommended not to exceed a rate of 140-150bpm, but
individuals vary enormously in their resting , maximum and training heart
rates. Remember too that one effect of endurance training is that your body
can control temperature rises more effectively ,so a runner who is highly
trained before pregnancy should be in a slightly better position. Drinking
plenty of fluids is essential to avoid dehydration and hyperthermia. This
will also help to limit the temperature increase, so get into the habit of
drinking regularly during training it's equally important to avoid
hypoglycemia during and after exercise carbo drinks will help to replace
[carbohydrates] both during and after exercise, provided that they aren't
too concentrated. One recent project that followed two groups of 462
suburban women through their pregnancies found that women who had burned
more calories per week (as a result of greater exercise levels) tend to
give birth to slightly heavier babies than women who had exercised less.

....the bottom line? Although each individual will differ, you should bear
in mind the following guidelines on pregnancy and running:

o It is safe to continue moderate training throughout your pregnancy,
although individual complications may cause limitations.
o Listen to your body and run as you feel.
o There is no need to switch to other forms of exercise unless you
have specific problems.
o Use your heart rate and check your temperature during training.
Stick to sensible levels to avoid hyperthermia.
o Take plenty of fluids to limit the risk of dehydration and assist
o You can reduce lower back pain by strengthening the abdominal & hip
flexor muscles, & stretching the muscles around the pelvis and spine.
o Try to avoid explosive exercise during pregnancy.
o Try water-running sessions: they are specific to running but have
far less impact, and water helps to avert hyperthermia."

As I said, I found this article very interesting, and the parts that I have
included are verbatim, unless in parentheses. Hope you find this
interesting and of some use to all those expectant mom's who don't want to
give up their running.

A Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People from Ozzie Gontang

from The Way of Chuang Tzu by Thomas Merton, 1965
New Direction Publishing Corporation

If a man is crossing a river
And an empty boat collides with his own skiff,
Even though he be a bad-tempered man
He will not become very angry.

But if he sees a man in the boat,
He will shout at him to steer clear.

If the shout is not heard, he will shout again,
And yet again, and begin cursing.
And all because there is somebody in the boat.
Yet if the boat were empty,
He would not be shouting and not angry.

If you can empty your own boat
Crossing the river of the world,
No one will oppose you,
No one will seek to harm you....

When I confronted by reckless drivers, speeding skaters or bikers,
I simply avoid them and say to myself,
"Empty boat."

Over the years, those two words have saved me from feeding
anger, aggression and violence-both mine and theirs.

Hints for the Success of the Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours)

These Hints are from a brochure for Super-Fours, i.e. those running over 4
hours in the Marathon. It was subtitled: "A Short Guide to the Care and
Support of Four-Hour Marathoners, The Physically Distressed and Mentally
Distracted Sub-Fours and The First Time Marathoner-Who Only Wants To
It was originally published by the International Association of
Marathoners (IAM and pronounced "I AM") in 1988.

The last 6 to 8 miles of the Marathon will test an individual physically
but most of all mentally. No matter how well prepared on may be, the
unknown of how one will be or how the weather conditions will be leaves
one with some sense of discovery or travelling unfamiliar territoroes of
mind/body. It is often for the righteous and well-trained that the fall
from grace is the hardest.

IAM Aware:

Know that you will tell others your verbal time: "About 4 hours."

Know that you will harbor a desired time: "I THINK I can do it,
if all goes perfect,
15 to 30 minutes faster."

Know that you will have an ideal or fantasized time:
"Wouldn't it be great to break
3:30 in my first marathon."

Acknowledge your desired time and Fantasy Time verbally to yourself, otherwise
they will influence you finish time for the worse.

Super-Four Success One:

Set your time with a standard deviation (SD) of 15 minutes. The SD+/-
(Verbal Time + 5 minutes). The mind/body message goes from a single
second in time to a window of 30 minutes and respects the mind, the body
and the conditions of the day.

Super-Four Success Two:

Starting a marathon 30 seconds to 60 seconds per mile faster than your
race plan for the first 3 to 5 miles can slow your finish time from 20
minutes to 90 minutes. That speed will burn off several times more
glycogen in the first 3 to 5 miles than needed. You are fueled with
energy from minimal running the 6 days before the marathon. You have also
stored extra energy from eating and hydrating well the last three days
before the marathon. Know your game plan and stick to it for the first 3
to 5 miles when you are so full of energy. That energy can easily give
you the power to run those first few miles at that 30 second to 60 second
per mile faster...and not even realize it. It will remember somewhere
between miles 18 and 26.

Super-Four Success Three:

The jitteriness you feel the morning of the race and the day before are
from your body being fueled and needing to expend energy. You can
identify it as fear, or nervousness, or worry. Just remember you haven't
run more than 2 to 4 miles in 3 days. You body is ready to do
something-Run A Marathon. You now feel what it's like not to run a few
days...or the feelings 3 days after injuring yourself. To walk and
sightsee 5 to 10 miles the day before the marathon is 500 to 1000 calories
of energy plus the water to store the glycogen. You may not be able to
replenish it by race time.

Super-Four Success Four:

In the past 6 months if you have moved, bought a house, changed jobs,
started or ended a relationship, had a child (or fathered a child), have
trouble at work or home that costs you mental energby, there is a good
likelihood you will finish 30 to 60 minutes slower than you had planned.

Super-Four Success Five:

When you feel tired or unable to go on, should your mind go to the
finish line, bring it back to the present. If your mind is at the finish,
so is your body...even though it has 1 to 6 more miles jto go. Bring the
mind to the present by saying, "I am at Mile ___ and am being drawn by a
magnet to the finish. I hold my body up and erect and I am being pulled
steadily to the finish."

Super-Four Success Six:

The last 10 miles push the crown of your head up and look to the
horizon. By holding the head erect you save your shoulder muscles and
balance not only the weight of your 12 to 14 pound head but also your

Super-Four Success Seven:

The last 6 miles run out from the pack and away from the curbside. You
are in a trance state by mile 18. You will be open to and picking up
visual and non-verbal cues of runners around you. If you are away from the
curb and can see 200 to 300 yards in front of you, you will be running
your own race. Should someone stop dead in f ront of you, do not give them
any of your energy by getting angry or upset. Simply say as you pass them,
"Don't lose your form. Even if you walk keep your good running form."

Super-Four Success Eight:

When someone running with you starts to speed up or to fall behind, or
you start to pick up your pace or fall behind; in your mind, picture a pair
of scissors in your hand cutting the cord between you and the other runner.
Otherwise, you will be carrying that person in your mind...and it will
only slow you down...or wear you out if they are in front of you. You can
only be in one place physically, and that is directly above the space upon
which you feet are running. Cutting that cord allows you to cut loose from
a slower runner or free your mind from attempting to keep up with a faster

Super-Four Success Nine:

When you run with someone, run shoulder to shoulder. If you run
slightly behind, the mind often feels like it is having to catch up. If
your image is that of being pulled or towed by the runner in front of you,
then running behind is okay...unless the runner complains.

Super-Four Success Ten:

In a marathon to catch someone, wind them in over a mile to three miles.
that way you waste no energy required to finish the last 1 to 6 miles.

If you want to share your thoughts, suggestions, ideas, mantras, anecdotes,
and your own Super-Four Success hints, please send e-mail them or send them

International Association of Marathoners (IAM)
Attn. Ozzie Gontang
2903 29th Street
San Diego, CA 92104

e-mail: Ozzie Gontang <[email protected]>
ph. 619-281-7447
fax 619-281-9468
Mindful Running:
Archive-name: running-faq/part6
Last-modified: 10 Mar 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

Shoes (Thomas Page [email protected])

Here is a summary of shoe reviews gleaned from various places including
manufacturers' adds, Road Runner Sports catalog, Runner`s World, Running
Times, rec.running postings, and my own experience. I will post and update

Guide to Categories
BASICS: A good quality shoe for a beginning through mid-mileage runner.

LIGHTWEIGHT TRAINER/RACER: Typically under 10 ounces. Very light, very
fast, biomechanically gifted runners can wear these shoes as daily
trainers. Other runners may get away with using these as a second pair for
racing in or for track workouts. These shoes usually have blown rubber
soles for light weight so they wear out too quickly for an everyday
training shoe for most of us.

MC: (Motion Control) Made for over-pronators and heavier runners.

STABILITY: For neutral runners and mild over-pronators. Offers some
resistance to pronation and supination.

RACING FLAT: Most people should race in their regular trainers or
lightweight trainers. For people who can get away with it, racing flats
might buy them a few seconds in a 10k. If that is the difference between
1st and 2nd, it is probably worth it. If it is the difference between 38:04
and 38:14 it is probably not worth the risk of injury. These shoes have
very little stability, cushioning, or durability, but they tend to weigh
2-4 oz. less than a lightweight trainer.

If you remove the insole, you can tell the type of construction. Slip
Lasted shoes have a sewn seam running the length of the shoe. Board lasted
shoes have a cardboard board running the length of the shoe. Combination
lasted shoes have cardboard in the rear half, and a seam up the front half.
Slip lasted shoes are the most flexible. Board lasted shoes are the most
stable and least flexible. Combination lasted shoes attempt to compromise
giving a flexible forefoot and a stable rear. Orthotics wearers should
stick to board or combination lasted shoes. True over-supinators (these are
rare) should use flexible slip lasted shoes. Another way to look at it: if
you have a rigid foot (tends to be high arched feet), favor flexible (slip
laste) shoes. If you have a floppy foot (tends to have flatter feet and
overpronate), favor combination or board construction.

The last is the form the shoe is made on. Lasts vary from curved, to
semi-curved, to straight. Straight lasts are generally the most stable
shoes, while curved lasted shoes tend to be the most flexible. You just
have to see what last from what manufacturer fits your foot.

A good running shoe store is essential. The sales people at the sporting
goods chain stores and the mall shoe stores just don't know their products
or how to fit runners, despite advertising to the contrary. A real runner's
store should allow you to run in the shoe on the sidewalk outside the
store, or at least on a tread mill in the store and watch you run. They
should be able to tell you if you over-pronate in a particular shoe. The
advice you get in a good store is worth the price (full retail) you pay.

Don't be a jerk and pick the brains of a good running shoe store salesman
and then buy at a discount place. If you value their advice, buy a pair of
shoes from the specialty running store so they will still be in business
the next time you need them. Then, if you liked the pair you bought, go
ahead and buy it from a discount store or mail order place in the future;
you don't owe the store your business forever. Remember though, that models
change, and you will want to go back to the good store every few years.

Weight is typically listed for mens' size 9 as quoted by manufacturer and
found either in Runners World, Running Times, or Road Runner Sports
catalog. Different sources differ in the weight they report, often by as
much as an ounce. I have not been consistent about which source I use here
so you may find a discrepancy with a source you consult.

M.C. stands for Motion Control (i.e. a shoe for over-pronators).

************** SHOE REVIEWS *************

Check out: Runner's World Online!

Active Isolated Stretching

Aaron Mattes' book Active Isolated Stretching. See RW, Feb/94
The book is $30 (+ Postage/handling). You can reach Aaron at:

2932 Lexington St
Sarasota, FL 34231-6118

Aaron has video tapes of the stretches. The father/son team which has
marketed themselves very well, were trained by Aaron Mattes in Active
Isolated Stretching. They videoed their tape at Aaron's. Anyway, go to the
source and support those people who often aren't the marketing wizs yet
share so much great information.

Two great little books which would be of great help to you are from a
fellow who has shared a lot of his wisdom on rec.running.

You can reach Paul Blakey at [email protected]

His books are:
The Muscle Book $10.99
Stretching Without Pain $14.99

I have used them over the past several years and know that you'll find them
very helpful in learning what you need to know about your "thinking body."

Tell them Ozzie sent you. I don't receive any financial compensation, just
want to support people who, I believe, care about helping people learn to
take care of themselves plus get some good info out to the world.


Stretching (Shane P Esau [email protected]) (Rocky Essex
[email protected])

STRETCHING EXERCISES by Shane Esau, Edited by Rocky Essex


When stretching, stretch the muscle until your feel a slight tightness,
then hold for 20-30 seconds. Repeat, this time stretching the muscle a
little more. Thus it should take 1-1.5 minutes/stretch (a total of 15-20


Place your hand on the wall, with the front of your elbow as well on the
wall Now turn so that you can feel a stretch in your chest - try to keep
your elbow on the wall - your hand should be shoulder height or higheer.


Stretch your hamstrings by lying on your back, with 1 knee bent. Then bring
your other leg up to vertical, keeping your knee straight and your back
against the floor. This is a much better stretch for your hamstrings than
is the bent over stretch.


Stand erect, grab one leg and pull your foot towards your but. Remember to
keep your stomach tight - don't let your stomach relax - do this for both

Another quad stretch is to sit on your feet and bend (lean your upper
torso) backwards, keeping your knees on the ground.


Stand erect with your feet shoulder width apart. Now take your left leg and
put it behind your right leg and put your left foot about 12" to the right
of your right foot. Now lean your torso so that is upright again (take your
right hand and run it down your right leg until your feel the stretch).
Repeat with the other leg.


Try to stretch 1/2 - 1 hour/day - this includes pre-training stretching,
but at least 1 stretching session/day that is outside of training.


Take your left hand, and put it behind your head, palm facing the same way
as your face. Now, slide your hand down your spine, until you feel a
stretch. Now take your right hand and grab your left elbow, and pull your
left elbow towards your right hip (over and down). This should stretch the


First, sit on your feet, with your arms outstretched in front of you. Now,
place your left hand on top of your right hand. Now, lean back and twist
your body towards your right side (you want to try to put your right armpit
on the ground). If this is not stretching, move your hands further out in
front of you.


This is for your upper back and is easy to do - take your left elbow in
your right hand, and pull it across the front of your chest - try pulling
your left elbow all the way over to your right pec muscle - it may be
easier if your put your left forearm in your right armpit.


Lie on your back, and put your legs in the crunch position (90 deg bend in
your legs and your hips) Now, pedal your legs from bent to almost straight,
and at the same time bend at the waist bringing your elbows to your knees.
It is a killer (mainly because of the co-ordination that it takes)

It is like a leg lift on the starting part, then changes to a crunch situp
from that point on. Fingers interlaced behind head and pedal while you are


Sit down with your legs out in front of you. Now bend your left leg and put
your left foot on the outside of your right leg, between your right cheek
and your right knee- pull your left foot as close to your right cheek as
possible. Now, pull your left knee in towards your chest. If you don't feel
much, grab your left shin, and give your left leg a little twist (ie pull
your shin closer to your chest). Your should feel this. Another one is to
lie on your back, put both feet in the air, then bend your left leg again,
but this time bring your left shin in front of your roght quad. Now pull
your right leg towards your chest - you should feel this in your buttocks.
If you don't, push your left knee away from your chest, while maintaining
the distance between your right leg and your chest.

ANKLES (Mike Dotseth [email protected])

Stand with feet in normal standing position. Place a hand on a wall or a
railing for a little balance. Now, 'roll' your feet around on their 'outer
edges'. Repeat 50 times. ('Rolling on the outer edges' means to tilt your
feet as far outward and inward (supination and pronationtween rock forward
on your the balls of your feet and back on your heels.) The major benefit
is the stretching and strengthening on the muscles and tendons which keep
your foot stable as you run.

A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about stretching and flexibility by
Brad Appleton can be found on:


========================================== Sweat (Sam Henry
[email protected])

Question: I sweat more than I can replace during a long run, ride, or
triathlon. What can I do about it?

It's hard to say what to do without knowing what you do now. None of us can
replace as much as we lose while we are losing it. The trick is to keep
from going into deficit.

Do you hydrate yourself every day, all day long? Min 2 qts/day.

Do you hydrate yourself extra before the ride (like a qt an hour for 2 hrs
or so before the start).

Do you use sports drinks to help with trace element losses? I use Exceed at
25% solution for the 1st half of long rides, orange juice at 25% for med
rides, and plain water for short rides.

What is your consumption rate during rides? I start drinking 30 mins into
the ride and drink a qt an hour whether I am thirsty or not. If you are
thirsty, it is probably getting pretty close to too late.

Do you eat while you ride? Things like bananas, oranges, and pears provide
fuel *and* coolant, along with some nifty minerals and such that your body
needs to make the cooling system work right. I eat fig newtons and such
right as I start and eat every 20-30 mins after the first hour. Pears,
particularly, are an easy-to-eat thirst slacker.

What kind of hydration regimen do you use *afterwards*? I immediately start
drinking at the end of a ride, starting with a quart of water followed by a
quart of full-strength sports drink (Exceed for me). I also find something
to eat that is high in complex carbohydrates. All this within the *first
hour* after the workout. The eating and drinking are intertwined. Then I
drink another quart of something that sounds appealing. Then I go back to
my drinking all day long to get my "normal" two quarts.

I might have thought I would slosh, but I never have. And most of my riding
is done at temps above 80 degs and in high humidity. If you are urinating
infrequently and the urine is a dark color, you are underhydrated, whether
you have exercised or not. No matter how much you sweat.

Treadmills--(contributed by Steve Pachuta, [email protected])

The January, 1996 _Consumer Reports_ has a treadmill review which
features both motorized and nonmotorized models, together with some
useful criteria for evaluation.

Why use a treadmill?

There are many advantages to treadmills, including (1) The most
obvious--weather is not a factor in your training schedule. (2) Training
is possible any time of day--darkness is not a factor. (3) No danger of
getting hit by a car or tripping on a curb. (4) No stoplights, no rabid
dogs (presumably), no hecklers (presumably)! (5) Controlled hill workouts
are possible with adjustable incline. (6) Precise interval training is
possible. This is a big advantage; you just need to set your speed and
stay on the treadmill to run your goal pace exactly.

Is treadmill running the same as outdoor running?

I think the consensus in the various posts in rec.running is that
treadmill running is very similar to outdoor running. The physiological
effects of a person moving relative to the ground vs. the ground moving
relative to a person are not greatly different. Certainly there are some
biomechanical issues involved, notably the tendency for the treadmill belt
to slow down momentarily during each footstrike. Many treadmills have
compensatory schemes to minimize this effect, including large flywheels and
microsensors which constantly adjust the belt speed.
Some differences between treadmill running and outdoor running are the
absence of wind and visual motion cues on a treadmill. The lack of wind
makes sweat generation a serious issue, and a strong fan blowing directly
into your face is almost a necessity for serious training. The absence of
a headwind also gives a slight speed advantage to treadmills, and it is
often suggested that an incline of 1 to 2% on the treadmill will compensate
for the lack of headwind. The lack of visual motion cues on a treadmill
can be disconcerting initially, but this is something you get used to. It
may contribute to the feeling that you are working harder at a given pace
than you would outdoors.

What features are important in a treadmill? Here are some things to

(1) Motorized vs. nonmotorized. If your goal is to bring your outdoor
running indoors, then a motorized treadmill is what you want. Nonmotorized
treadmills will certainly give you a workout, but they do not simulate true
outdoor running since you are driving a belt as well as your body. Many
nonmotorized treadmills only work at an incline, and pace is not constant
as on a motorized treadmill (although in this respect they are similar to
outdoor running).
(2) Ruggedness. If you are really going to run on your treadmill, you
need something more than the $299 specials you see at various discounters.
Some things to look for: welded frame, large rollers (consider that some
club models have rollers on the order of 8 inches in diameter), large motor
(1.5 horsepower minimum, with 2.0 or up preferable). THE HEAVIER AND
THINGS BECOME. Most treadmills are not built for people weighing more
than 250 pounds.
wouldn't settle for anything less than a full 1-year warranty. Treadmills
are like cars; they will almost certainly need some work at some point.
(4) Maximum speed of 10 mph or more. This is 6:00 mile pace, which
will do for most people. There are treadmills which can achieve 12 mph (5:00
pace); I haven't heard of any which go faster, but they probably exist.
Personally, the consequences of a misstep while running indoors at 5:00
pace scare the hell out of me!
(5) Method of belt lubrication. Running belts can get quite warm and
wear faster if not properly lubricated. Some models are self-lubricating;
others require periodic lubrication/waxing.
(6) Ability to simulate actual running. Various mechanisms have been
developed to make treadmill running feel more natural. Without putting
in a plug for any particular manufacturer, I would recommend trying out
several different makes. It is surprising how a treadmill that feels so
natural can suddenly feel terrible after you try a different one.
(7) Manual vs. motorized height adjustment. I've used both, and I
strongly recommend motorized. If you want to run courses that simulate
real outdoor runs you don't want to be cranking a handle all the time,
especially if you're running fast.
(8) Noise level. This can vary considerably, but note that "quiet"
does not necessarily mean "better."
(9) Programmability. It should be a given that speed and incline are
adjustable during a workout. It is also very desirable to be able to
PROGRAM both speed and incline to create your own custom courses. Many
manufacturers include their own preprogrammed courses in their electronics,
but it is less common for them to give the user the ability to do this.
(10) Low price? Realistically treadmills for serious runners are going
to cost more than $1000, and they can be a lot more than this.
(11) Incline range. Most treadmills have inclines ranging from 0 to
10%. There are some which can produce a decline (-2% for example). See
below for conversion between % incline and degrees.
(12) Board and belt type. Some treadmills have shock-absorbing boards
and/or soft belts to provide a more forgiving workout than can be obtained
on hard pavement.

Any disadvantages or other considerations?

The lack of wind is definitely a problem, and as mentioned above a fan
is a necessity. Another problem with treadmills is boredom. I am always
amazed at how much faster an hour passes when running outside than when
running inside. I don't think you can expect to read while running on a
treadmill, but you can watch television or listen to music. I generally
prefer loud music over television, but this is obviously a matter of
personal preference.
Another thing to be aware of is the tendency to set the treadmill at a
fixed speed and incline and run an entire workout at these settings. I
would recommend varying both speed and incline to give your muscles some
variety and minimize the possibility of injury.
Some treadmills interfere with heart rate monitors and prevent their
use, though there are treadmills which come with built-in heart rate
Safety is of some concern, and many treadmills come with protective
devices which stop the belt in case you slip or fall off. Treadmill
manufacturers always recommend plenty of clearance between the treadmill
and the walls of a room. Treadmills can draw a lot of electrical current,
and 30-amp circuits are recommended for some heavy duty models.

How do I convert between % incline and degrees?

Remember your trigonometry. Grade (or incline) = rise/run, opposite/
adjacent, height/length, or whatever you want to call it. For percent
grade, multiply this by 100.

degrees = arctan((percent grade)/100)
percent grade = tan(degrees) * 100

Thus, 1% incline is a mere .57 degrees, 5% incline is 2.9 degrees, 10%
incline is 5.7 degrees, and 15% incline is 8.5 degrees.

Where can I get more information on treadmills?

Start with back issues of _Runner's World_, _Running Times_, etc. They
usually have articles on treadmills as winter approaches. The December,
1993 _Runner's World_ contains a list of manufacturers, a chart to convert
between treadmill running at various inclines and outdoor running, and some
sample workouts. The January, 1996 _Runner's World_ contains brief
evaluations of many different treadmills (mainly high-end models).

Weather ("The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer Guide)


Cold weather does not present any serious problems for you, especially if
you are in reasonably good condition. If you have heart problems, consult a
doctor first. High wind-chill factors are the greatest threats to you in
cold weather, since you can suffer frostbite if you are not adequately
protected from the wind. You must remember that when you run, your own
motion against the wind increases the windchill factor and increases the
risk of frostbite. Be sure all normally exposed areas of skin are covered:
head, face, ears, and hands. The important thing to remember is that you
must dress in layers in order to create your own insulation.

When you run in cold weather, beware of ice on the road, and remember to
taper off your run slowly so you will not catch a chill. When you arrive
home, change out of your damp, sweaty clothes right away.


When you run in hot weather, your blood pressure can drop dangerously or
you could suffer heat exhaustion. If you start feeling dizzy and dehydrated
while jogging and your pulse and breathing grow very rpid, you could very
well be on your way to heat exhaustion. Stop exercising immediately. Get
out of the sun, drink fluids (tepid, not cold), and rest.

Running in heat also slows down the blood circulation, placing a greater
burden on your heart. And of course, you will sweat a lot more so your body
loses more water that usual. To replace it, drink a full glass of water
before you start and one every 15 or 20 minutes during your run. A few
pinches of salt dissolved in the water will help. But if your stomach is
empty, omit the salt or it will probably cause stomach cramps.

An important thing to remember about heat is that it takes your body about
two weeks to adjust.


If you run in a strong wind, you are going to be expending six percent more
oxygen that you would under ordinary condtitions. So, if you are running in
a stiff breeze slow down and you will get the same benefits as you would
from a faster run. When you set out on a windy day, start with the wind in
front of you at the beginning of your workout; then at the end, when you
are more tired, you will have it at your back, helping to push you along.


Rain need not be a deterrent unless you're afraid of melting, but you will
need some protection. Wear waterproof outer clothes, of course, and as many
layers as you need to keep warm. Don't linger in them after the run but get
into dry things as soon as you get home.


High altitudes are a source of special problems. When you get to 5000 feet
above sea level and beyond, it takes a lot more time for oxygen to be
absorbed into your blood and travel throughout your body. So your heart has
to work a lot harder at its job. Plan on taking at least four to six weeks
to get adjusted to a new high altitude, and adapt your jogging routine
accordingly. Most runners recommend cutting your program by about 50% at
the beginning.

Running on cold, rainy days (Brendan Leitch [email protected])

1) Dress in layers
2) Keep DRY, this is done by putting the wicking layers closest to the SKIN.

What works for us: (us = the running club I belong to)

Top: 1st LIFA or some similar 'wicking' material against skin 2nd turtle
neck or long sleeve t-shirt(repeat if needed) 3rd Shell jacket, Goretex is
best, but any layered Nylon one will do the job

Bottom: 1st LIFA or some similar 'wicking' material against skin 2nd long
3rd wind pants(preferably goretex again, but nylon will do)

Head: 1st Bella Clava(a thin hat that goes around head like old fashioned
ski mask)
2nd Your shell jacket hat over the Bella-Clava

Hands: 1st light thin wicking material gloves 2nd heavier glove

Feet: your normal socks/shoes - just make sure your bottom clothes cover
ankles etc.



(1) Is it better to run in the morning or evening? "The Running Book" By
the Editors of Consumer Guide

It's' important to establish a routine for yourself, geared to your own
disposition and living habits. Some runners prefer to run early in the
morning, some even before daybreak. They seem to like the solitude
available at that hour, when the streets are still empty of traffic and

Some runners are shrewd, enough to kill two birds with one stone. They get
their exercise in while "commuting" to work. Issues to consider: Are
showers available at work? How far is it to work? What kind of work do you
do? Do you work outside or inside?

People who do their running in the morning say that it sets them up for the
day. They are more alert and less likely to become upset by the pressures
and frustrations of their work, and at the end of the day they fell less

Other runners wait to run after work, put their jobs behind them, and
headed home. A run at this time provides a nice transition for them, a time
to work off some of the tensions that may have built during the day so that
they don't carry them into family life. should end your run at least
an hour before you retire. Otherwise you may find it difficult to fall

(2) Should I run when I have a cold/fever? "The Running Book" By the
Editors of Consumer Guide

Recommended schedules should be followed as faithfully as possible, but not
blindly. There are certain times when you have no business running. If, for
example, you have the flu, a cold, or some other ailment, don't overexert
yourself and possibly harm your body by trying to run. If you feel a cold
coming on, however, running may help you get rid of it. But if you try this
cure, follow Dr. Kostrubala's recommendations. He suggests that you dress
warmly, take two aspirin in a glass of milk, and then go out for a run. Jog
slowly and see how you feel. Continue jogging until your body grows warm,
even hot, Then try to keep your temperature at that level.

(3) How often should I run? "The Running Book" By the Editors of Consumer

Most running programs, ask you to run three times a week as a minimum
requirement. This helps reinforce the habit of running, but its main
purpose is to develop cardiovascular conditioning through frequent running.
But more is not necessarily better. Experts in physical fitness tend to
agree that running days should alternate with days of rest, since rest for
the body is as much a part of developing fitness as exercise.

(4) Which of the 8 lanes on a US track is actually the '1/4 mile' one?

(Lori Moffitt [email protected]) writes: The long and short of it, pun
intended, is that US 1/4 mile tracks are typically 400 meter tracks, and
the runner needs to compensate for the difference by running a few yards
extra, about 10 yards. The 400 meter distance seemed to be measured 12''
from the inside curb of the track. Opinions vary about this and the
compensation distance.

(Art Overholser [email protected]) A perfect 400-m track,
measured 12" from the inside curb as specified by TAC, is 437.4 US yards
long, or 7'8'' shy of 440 yards. So you only need to run 8 feet (not 10
yards) extra to get the 1/4 mi. To get one mile out of 4 laps you have to
add about 10 yards.

If his figures are correct, to change this lap to a quarter mile, move out
an additional 15 inches when going around the bends. (Sherwood Botsford
[email protected])

(5) I have started running after having my baby and I am curious to know if
any one has some stomach exercises?

If you had your baby less than 6 weeks ago, it is likely that your uterus
hasn't returned to its normal size, and this could cause the cramps.
Remember, too, that your stomach muscles separated during pregnancy and it
takes time for them to meld together again.

The important thing to remember when returning to running after a layoff is
to ease back into running, paying scrupulous attention to how it feels. The
old adage, "listen to your body," applies here. If your stomach is
cramping, slow down, ease up.

STRETCHES (Paulette Leeper [email protected]) To stretch
your abdominals, lay on your back with your knees bent and the soles of
your feet on the floor. Let your knees drop to one side, as you lay your
arms toward the other...hold for about 30 seconds and gently switch sides.
>From this same position, you can begin to strengthen your abdominals by

pressing your lower back toward the floor...holding it for increasing
increments of time. Your ability to hold your lower back to the floor will
give you a good sense of what kind of shape your abdominals are in at this

Many of the abdominal exercises recommended during pregnancy are good to
begin with post-partum. One of my favorites is to sit up with knees bent
and do a sort of "reverse sit-up." Instead of coming up from the floor,
move your torso toward the floor with your arms stretched out in front of

Archive-name: running-faq/part8
Last-modified: 21 March 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

(Sites are being rechecked and new ones added by Arthur Bamps
<[email protected]> . He continues to update the info. Ozzie)
Part 8 of the FAQ had been subdivided into 3 areas
Part 1 deals with the WWW pages
Part 2 deals with mail-based discussion lists
Part 3 deals with Usenet discussion groups

Part I

The Internet Guide to Becoming an Athlete
Run Down Running Portal - Dan Kaplan (+10000 links)
Serves runners/walkers/multi-sport athletes-Denny Brooks
Women's Multisport Online
Runners Web UK
Cool Running
Lets Run
Jeff Galloway
Team Oregon
Remko's T&F Page
Sportscreen - Athletics online
The World of Running and Track & Field
Athletics (Track & Field) Links
Running Online
Running ( (UK)
Trail Running links on DMOZ
CCRR Running Weblinks was Joe's Running Links
Tips for Blind and Partially Sighted Runners
Running with your Dog
Backward running
Barefoot running
Nude Running Events

Organizations & Associations

IAAF International Amateur Athletic Federation
International Olympic Committee
Association of International Marathons and Road Races
World Association of Veteran Athletes
American Running Association
USA Track & Field
USA TF New Jersey
Road Runners Club of America
American UltraRunning Association
Athletics Canada
Athletics Australia
Australian Sports Commission
New Zealand
Athletics New Zealand
European Athletic Association
UK Athletics
Scottish Athletics Federation
Athletics Association of Wales
Northern Ireland Athletic Federation
Asian Amateur Athletic Association
Hong Kong
Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association

Running Clubs

50 States Marathon Club

Running events

Links to different Competition Calendars
Marathon Calendar (over 650 worldwide)
South Africa
Reunion-Grand Raid
South African Augrabies
Sand Marathon-Marathon des Sables

Athletics Statistics
Global and Local Athletic Records

Medical corner
Anatomy - Lower Extremity
Muscles and Joints
Virtual Sports Injury Clinic
Iliotibial Band Causes and Solutions
Dr. Pribut Sports Page
The SportsMed Web
Foot & Ankle Web Index
Masters Physiology & Performance
Sport and Exercise Psychology
Zunis Foundation

Coaching & Training
Brian Mackenzie on all aspects of it
Marathon Training
Hal Higdon
Do It Sports Virtual Training
Coaching Science Abstracts
Abdominal Training

Ultra running
Matt Mahoney
Stan Jensen
David Blaikie
Kevin Sayers Resource

The press
The Running Network
Athlete's Bookstore
Southern California Running/Tri/Bike Calendar
Runner's World
for marathoners/ultradistance runners
42 times per year newsletter
Peak Performance
Running Research Newsletter
David Holt - Running Dialogue
Running Books at

Running gear - all brands
Shoes and sports gear

Lin-Mark timing systems
PC Coach Training Software
Stevens Creek Software
Athlete's Diary
Science Sportsware

Road Running Race Course Measurement
Obtaining a Course Measurement Certificate
The Jones Counter


E-mail lists are the easiest way to obtain information on running. However,
the mail volume can become increasingly large and your mail-box becomes
clogged when you are subscribed to a number of these toys. The tone is
sometimes informal to more scientifically oriented in other lists.

E-mail lists normally have two addresses, one to subscribe and one to send
contributions to

You can find a LISTSERV user's guide on

Running related E-mail lists
UK Running e-mail list
Join over 200 participants in a discussion of all aspects of running in the
UK. Send a blank email to :
[email protected]
And there are more at

Dead Runners Society
The Dead Runners Society is a discussion group for people who like to talk
about running. The group is informal and social and all members try to
encourage each other in their running programs. Traffic is heavy.
Write to [email protected] and, in the text of your message
(not the subject line), write:
subscribe drs firstname lastname
list-owner: Christopher Mark Conn <[email protected]>
To obtain the FAQ via e-mail, send the message :
send drs faq
to : [email protected]
Archives :
Webpage :

Dead Runners Mind
Offshoot of DRS discusses the philosophical/psychological aspects of
Send : subscribe drm firstname lastname in the text of your message(not the
subject line)
To: [email protected]

DRS Sublists
There also exist many regional mailing lists (in Cleveland, for example,
they have the DRNEO - Dead Runners of NorthEast Ohio list, and DRS-Nl for
Dutch-deads) which cover local running scenes. These regional groups, or
mini-lists, are generally used to contact dead runners in a specific area of
the world. Check the DRS FAQ on these groups.

Clydesdale Virtual Racing Team
CVRT is a mailing list for 'heavy' runners. It is for men over 195 pounds
and women over 140 pounds.
To subscribe to cvrt, compose a message addressed to
[email protected] with the text subscribe clydesdale as the only
message in the body.
List'owner': Tim Bergstresser <[email protected]>

This mailing list discusses the sport of orienteering.
send a message
to: [email protected]

This list covers the hashing scene.
To: [email protected]
Send: subscribe hash-l FirstName LastName

Don't Stop Moving
Don't Stop Moving is a newsletter written for runners by a runner with 24
years of competitive and recreational running experience. The newsletter
comes out monthly or thereabouts, with back issues periodically sent to the
list. To receive Don't Stop Moving, send a message:
To: [email protected]
Message:subscribe ds-moving (your address here)
Listowner: Mike Van Meter <[email protected]>

This mailing list discusses the sport of ultramarathoning.
Send: subscribe ultra FirstName LastName
To : [email protected]
List-owner : Joe Jurzcyk ([email protected])

Training-Nutrition mailing list.
The focus is on bodybuilding and sports nutrition, athletic physiology and
biochemistry, overall diet planning, and recipes. Low fat, high protein
recipes preferred. Supplement discussion is discouraged. If the list sounds
interesting to you, you can request the FAQs by sending
mail to: [email protected]

This list discusses aspects of biomechanics.
Address to (un)subscribe : [email protected]
Message to subscribe: sub biomch-l firstname lastname
Address for list messages : [email protected]

Part III

Usenet was THE net. You only need a newsreader and server and you can
subscribe to thousands of lists and read a zillion contributions each day.
Most of the discussions are informal, especially the sports oriented ones.
The newsgroups you can access depends also on the Usenet server which
supports your ISP, e.g. not all nl.* groups can be read in Japan (I
doubt if any). The idea is that if you find an interesting newsgroup, via
DejaNews for instance, you ask your ISP to put it on the server.

Usenet Discussion Groups
rec.running FAQ
Maintainer FAQ Ozzie Gontang <[email protected]>
2(?) discussion groups dedicated to athletics in the UK.
Related newsgroups

23.05.96 Site created by:Wouter Gerritsma
10.08.01 Site updated and checked by:
Arthur Bamps <[email protected]>
Visit Arthur's Marathon Page at .